Language policy and planning

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Planning language teaching : an argument for the place of pedagogy in language policy and planning

Planning language teaching : an argument for the place of pedagogy in language policy and planning

The second most important theme that emerges from the contributions is the need for the macro- level to articulate clear, coherent and systematic policies on pedagogy. Pedagogy is central to language-in-education and a successful language education largely depends on the ways issues of pedagogy are addressed in policies and implemented in classrooms. The contributions show that in many contexts (e.g. Japan; Indonesia, Vietnam and Ukraine) policy documents elaborated to implement particular pedagogical policy changes may be vague, incoherent and incongruent with other aspects of national education policies. This lack of clarity in policy documents that seek to implement a particular pedagogy is explicit in many contributions such as those by Liddicoat, Glasgow, Hawanti, Goodman and Nguyen. For these contributors the lack of clarity in framing and articulating policies on pedagogy at the macro-level means that implementation agents at the micro- level are required to interpret policies for themselves, but may not have the backgrounded needed to do this successfully. The inevitable consequences of this situation can be tensions among teachers, conflicts in the interpretation of policies and poor implementation of pedagogical activities. Theme 3: Language planning to effectively communicate policy pedagogy
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A network model of language policy and planning: The United Nations as a case study

A network model of language policy and planning: The United Nations as a case study

This paper proposes to map this ‘unchartered territory’ drawing on the case study of LPP and language practice in the multilateral organisation of the United Nations. Through the deconstruction and critical analysis of its most recent Joint Inspection Report (JIU/REP/2011/4), the paper identifies language problems in different domains of activity and discusses the recommendations made by inspectors for reform. It becomes clear that a complex relational participatory network, involving multiple interacting agents and polycentric ‘focal nodes’ within and outside of the organisation across international contexts (e.g. departments within the Organisation; external agencies such as academia, international non-Governmental organisations) is required for the LPP objectives to be achieved. Though space will not permit a detailed account, this is also supported from findings derived from previous desk and ethnographic research within the Organisation (Author 2008, 2010, 2014, in print). From this critical analysis an LPP Network Model is presented .The latter, it is proposed, offers a reconceptualization of LPP, moving it away from a essentialist, linear or binary modelling of top-down versus bottom-up influences, to one which identifies and maps a complex web of influence and design, incorporating diverse agents/experts from various ‘spaces’ (social; occupational; political; geographic etc.), within and outside of the ecology. The latter represents a social constructionist perspective – viewing LPP as a dynamic process, rather than product, of overt and covert negotiation and performativity amongst multiple actors.
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Pendulum swings in Australian language policy and planning since the 1990s

Pendulum swings in Australian language policy and planning since the 1990s

Language Center, Director of the Second Language Studies Ph.D. program, Co-Director of the Center for Language Education and Research, and Co-Director of the Center for the Advancement of Language Teaching. She received her BA from the University of California at Berkeley, an M.A. from U.C.L.A. and a Ph.D. from Indiana

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Language planning

Language planning

This linkage of language planning with development and modernization – essential for the early emergence of the field – was influenced by modernization theory (e.g., Rostow, 1960); consequently, early research focused primarily on the role of language planning in developing societies. Consideration of the question of exactly who the planners were and what impact their views might have on the goals set to solve language problems has been raised only much more recently (by, among others, Baldauf 1982; Baldauf & Kaplan, 2003; Zhao, 2011). By the 1970s, it had become apparent that language problems were not unique only to developing nations, but that they also occurred as “macro” (i.e., state- level) language problems and situations in polities worldwide. Despite the early optimism, in less than twenty years, by the mid 1980s, disillusionment with language planning – due to several factors – was widespread (Blommaert, 1996; Williams, 1992). Since the late 1990s, language policy and planning principles have also been increasingly applied in “micro” situations (for example, in relation to language problems in communities, schools, organizations and companies; see, for instance, Canagarajah, 2005; Chua & Baldauf, 2011).
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The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

Prator (in Cooper, 1989: 31) has this to say: "language policy making involves decisions about the teaching and use of language, and their careful formulation of those empowered to do so, for the guidance of others." Thus, planning for English involves both the planning acquisition and its status. It is seemingly apparent that there is an urgent need for a strategic plan for a language policy of English principally spurred by ideological and political considerations. The low linguistic capital value of English in Iraq deemed unable to draw stronger social elements is due to the perceived low instrumentality of the language and its linkage to supposed hostile elements. Malice to its speakers must not evoke a sense of hatred to the language learning. A strategic plan for English sees that the macro goals of learning English and the weak recognition of the consumers (users) are arranged. At the national level, a rise in the demand for English would inexorably raise its linguistic major value. From the sociological viewpoint, the promotion of English in Iraq is fundamentally a function of several factors: national necessity, scientific education media, ideological and political considerations. A strategic plan must stress on implementing the motivation for the betterment of English learning. The acquisition of English as a strategic plan should then be started. It must be introduced with a set of definitions, parameters and positions, concluded after extensive studies, establishing a vision of the status of English and how it will be in Iraq. A strategic plan for English then might be called strategic preparation, because it constitutes a preparation for successful treatment of future linguistic and extra linguistic challenges and opportunities. Hence, a strategic plan of Bilingualism for English in Iraq.
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Language planning in universities : teaching, research and administration

Language planning in universities : teaching, research and administration

The next three contributions examine the ways that universities in English- speaking societies plan for students who may need to develop their English language abilities further to undertake higher education courses. Finn and Avni focus on the work of instructors and examine a universities academic literacy program as a language planning context by investigating how language policy interacts with daily classroom decisions at a community college in the United States. They investigate a situation in which students’ success is based on the results of a summative, high- stakes assessment of their writing that functions as the de facto policy. This assessment as policy perspective is one in which a monolingual view of academic literacy prevails as notions of what counts as literacy knowledge are determined solely through English proficiency policies, thereby devaluing the role of
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Balancing language planning and language rights: Catalonia's uneasy juggling act

Balancing language planning and language rights: Catalonia's uneasy juggling act

On the linguistic side, EU membership has given Spanish more prominence within Europe. At the same time, the Catalans have become active members of a number of European institutions concerned with the promotion of minority languages and the protection of linguistic rights while also trying to achieve greater prominence for Catalan in certain forums. However, the Catalan language did not gain the enhanced official status within European institutions that they had hoped to achieve. The satisfaction of having Catalan as the one of three official languages at a major international event such as the Olympic Games in 1992 appears to have been a one-off affair, much to the indignation of many a Catalanist who would argue that Catalan is now on a par with other minor EU languages and that therefore more recognition is merited. “Linguistic representation may buy cost-effective symbols at local level; it may stop politics becoming violent; it may help oil the wheels of decentralisation and provide engaging public debate. But to gain greater status and actually compete, it seems our languages still need a State” (Pym 1999:82). Pym is making a general sociolinguistic observation here, perhaps with a hint of lament about it. In view of the EU’s already quite complex language policy, it is easy to understand why this institution is not keen to assign special status to Catalan, as it might mean opening a Pandora’s box.
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Language Planning and Policies: Language Practices in Rwandan Primary Schools

Language Planning and Policies: Language Practices in Rwandan Primary Schools

school. The biggest problem however, still seems to be the teacher-pupil ratio. It is already hard enough that the pupils have to be taught in a language they barely understand, leading to exclusion (Alidou 2003; Diarra 2003). Yet being in such a large group seems to diminish the effects of core subject reduction, as they still do not receive enough attention. This creates even larger exclusion and a low motivation for the children as their parents and teachers already lack in giving the right support for the benefit of the pupils’ education. A possible solution would be to work towards reducing the teacher-pupil ratio. Another solution would be to focus less on acquisition and status planning, but look at possibilities of corpus planning (see section 2.2.1). The majority of the Rwandans are not exposed to English, and the country seems to be so concerned implementing the English of the western world as it is a form that already exists. However, if more time was invested in studying the internal structure of Kinyarwanda and how this relates to English, a new English could be created: Rwandan English. It would be good if more focus is put on the role of language in a new language policy, rather than the socio-economic and political factors which are generally prioritised when introducing a new language to a country (Baldauf & Kaplan 2004).
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The ecology of language planning in Timor-Leste

The ecology of language planning in Timor-Leste

If the East Timorese language ecology is to be sustained, then language planning should provide genuine space for all languages in the system. By creating this kind of space, some of the concerns about Portuguese may be overcome; there will be room for Tetum and the national languages and there will be less threat from English and Indonesian. Creating space may mean, for example, that vernacular languages are officially recognised in district courts and in hearings where the defendant does not speak the language of the court. A key factor in the maintenance of languages is their use in intellectual domains, so documents should continue to be written in Tetum as well as Portuguese. NGOs and aid projects can contribute by respecting language policy and making serious efforts to use the official languages. The media has a responsibility to disseminate information and mobilise popular support for official and national language development.
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Language Shifts in Case of Language Policy of Kazakhstan

Language Shifts in Case of Language Policy of Kazakhstan

The present day we confidently may say that the process of the language policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan is successful. In Soviet times the language planning in Kazakhstan did not exist. There was the official Soviet language policy aimed at reducing the communicative Kazakh-speaking world and steady growth of Kazakh-Russian bilingualism. At present time there is a dramatic expansion of the functioning spheres and the structure modernization of the Kazakh language. Russian-Kazakh bilingualism is being formed. The main reasons of such positive process are political and economical stability in the society, improvement of social and economic situation in the country, the right strategy of the tools in language policy, education and others. According to the research in 1990-91, 32.35% of students were taught in Kazakh while more than 65% of students in Russian. Nowadays the situation is opposite: 62.5 percent of students in Kazakh and 33.5 percent in Russian. Herewith the number of schools with the languages of national groups (Eastern Turkic, Tadjik, Turkish, Ukrainian) have increased. There are six English schools in the country. 46.8 % of the students are taught in Russian, 51.6% in Kazakh which is four times more than in the first year of the country independence. (Altynbekova, 2011)
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Language Education Policy Planning in Sri Lanka: Concern for unity, reality and rationality

Language Education Policy Planning in Sri Lanka: Concern for unity, reality and rationality

Human rights are being ensured in every democratic country. The rights of the minority and the human rights are being protected by a lot of legal policies. According to the International Human Right Act (2003), the various acts in Sri Lanka are, The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Fundamental Rights and Racial Discrimination, The United Nations Minorities Declaration (1992), Universal Declaration of Human rights, International Human Rights Act (2003), The Durban Declaration (2001). Basically, every democratic state is supposed to protect the rights and identities of the multicultural and multiracial groups in their state. With respect to the multiracialism, every political organization of a country like federal and unitary has imposed policies. The minorities and their existence based on the ethnic or national, linguistic, religious and cultural identity and states are to be protected (Mickan, 2006). Of the various functions of a country, the critical ones which are regarded generally to justify the policy decisions are education, justice and administration. It is stated by Creed and Koul(1993), that, one of the highly vexing issues that exist in the world’s minority or ethnic conflicts is the problem of language used in a country and by its citizens. Cases of persecution, widespread and systematic atrocities, violence, and genocide perpetrated acts and sexual violence are seen against the minorities. Thus the government of a nation plans the policies for language and the language planning in the government level is called as the language policy. The Constitution of Sri Lanka has laid down the basic foundation for the language policy in the country (Haarmann, 2002). But, it is stated by Nahir (2003), that there is a lack of successful exploitation of the language policies in spite of the government having implied a lot of language policy programs and curricular to ensure the national integrity and language rights. Equity for all groups of people using different languages should be aimed and ensured by the language policy of a country.
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Youth Bilingualism, Identity And Quechua Language Planning And Policy In The Urban Peruvian Andes

Youth Bilingualism, Identity And Quechua Language Planning And Policy In The Urban Peruvian Andes

Additionally, other youth described walking away from family interactions where Quechua was spoken. Lesly explained how her mom and grandmother often spoke in Quechua when they did not want her to find out about something. Though she tried to understand, it was difficult as they spoke it too fast. On one occasion, as Lesly and her cousin overheard one of these conversations, she described how her grandmother and mom “empiezan a hablar rapidito y ya nos confundimos, ‘¡Hay que irnos!’” (‘they begin to talk really fast and so we get confused, ‘Let’s go!’’) (I, 2016.08.27), leading the girls to disengage and walk away from this family speech event. The experiences of Milagros and Lesly exemplify instances of othering experienced by youth in rural spaces and in interactions with Quechua-speaking adults. In contrast to altura youth who were otherized because of the fact they spoke, and were perceived as speaking outside of their rural hometowns, Quechua, the girls feel left out for not speaking and not understanding the language. The lack of Quechua within their repertoires limits their ability to participate in interactions with adults in community and home spaces where Quechua proficiency is expected and valued, leading to feelings of social and linguistic incompetence. What is more, these examples also point to how spaces, be them urban or rural spaces, do uphold sociolinguistic norms and language regimes, yet individuals don’t orient nor experience these norms in similar ways.
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Second Homes and the Need for Policy Planning

Second Homes and the Need for Policy Planning

For years second home tourism has been an issue of discussion between tourist experts, real estate agents and politicians in both Mediterranean countries and Alpine destinations, however it has not raised much concern in academic circles. The aim of this paper is to analyze the second home phenomenon in order to acquire a better understanding of the overall situation and give an insight into the aspects and needs for policy planning. For this purpose South Tyrol has been taken as a case study, and a comprehensive overview of the situation has been determined through both quantitative and qualitative investigation on opinions and attitudes of second home owners, local residents, politicians, real estate agents. The outcome of this paper is a holistic picture of the phenomenon, which examines the positive and negative impacts and shows the need for public regulation through land use planning.
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Planning for equality? : decentralisation in cultural policy

Planning for equality? : decentralisation in cultural policy

Literature in economics has not so far shed light on the above value, or on the question of how the provision in the arts and culture should be distributed. Cultural economics has argued rationale for public expenditure in cultural policy primarily on ‘efficiency’ grounds. For economists, efficiency is defined as “making the best use of limited resources given people’s taste” (Barr 1993, p72), or conceptualised as the question of how much service and benefits should be produced with limited resources (Le Grand et al 1992). The State’s intervention is necessary because arts and culture are ‘semi-public goods’ which the market will produce inefficiently, if at all. They are public in that they produce national prestige and identity, have externalities such as the spill-over effect from direct consumers (audience) to wider society and provide option demand (even though one does not go to a theatre, its existence promises an opportunity). Goods with such attributes cannot be efficiently (that is, to a desirable extent with given resources) provided in the market, hence they are in need of state subvention (Towse 1994).
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Essays in planning policy and urban economics

Essays in planning policy and urban economics

of local investment in UHAs (Bonfantini 2012) (For a larger discussion, see Pietrostefani (2019)). Interviewees remarked that some regional governments have worked much more than others with regard to their historical urban environments. Clearly, there is a lack of geographical consistency within the system (MIBAC and UNESCO/ANCSA Interviews). In some regions, the Italian case presents an over estimation of intrinsic values of heritage which results in a very limited usage of its use values. While in others, lack of enforcement as well as residents and developers disrespecting regulation results in illegal amendments and modifications to historic properties and built environments. This trend introduces a theme that will surface further in the Global South section of this paper. The opportunities and constraints linked to planning will not only depend on how regulations are set up, but in what context and to what degree they are implemented. The formality of policy and value are not immediately tied, the difficult reality of political activity and governance intervenes between them. When regulation is not enforced, conservation is in many ways a political decision, tied to the value of actors within cities with regulation enforced or ignored based on the values of these actors (Tunbridge, 1984). As Bevir, Rhodes, and Weller (2003, 193) argue ‘we cannot properly understand a political practice solely by its legal character’, and so we must attempt to consider how it actually plays out. In analysing how conservation planning compares between northern and southern cities, we must attempt to unpick the element of governance that follows regulation in the hierarchy of political will. As suggested by Balbo (2014, 282), we need to be aware in our reflection, of the reassessment of the government versus urban governance; in cases where state governance is lacking, it may have been taken over by independent entities.
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Journal of Public Health policy and planning

Journal of Public Health policy and planning

there are benefits to the research and broader community in greater understanding of economic evaluation, especially with respect to their conduct alongside implementation trials. There is a clear absence of research evidence of the effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness and budget impact of implementation strategies to improve antenatal care that addresses maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy [33]. The application of economic evaluation to health promoting, implementation interventions is limited [12] while the application of budget impact assessment at the local health service level is completely novel. This will be the first economic evaluation and budget impact assessment of an implementation strategy in this field [22]. It is expected that the practice change intervention will increase the extent to which women are assessed for alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given evidence-based advice and where appropriate, referral to ongoing support services to avoid the consumption of alcohol for the remainder of their pregnancy. The outcomes of these analyses will then inform the state-wide scale up of this implementation intervention and the next step in the research-translation pathway. The outcomes of this economic evaluation will provide insight into the cost, cost- consequence and cost-effectiveness of implementation strategies designed to improve antenatal care addressing the recognised risk of alcohol consumption to the health and wellbeing of both the mother and child [33], and inform future health care policy, investment allocation and research.
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Journal of Public Health policy and planning

Journal of Public Health policy and planning

In the world of labour, job satisfaction plays a very important role in one's career [8,9]. Job satisfaction can be defined as a pleasing or positive emotional state proceeding one's work experience or job evaluation [10]. Satisfaction in many aspects including responsibilities, daily tasks and other duties engender high return to an organization while maintaining a proficient and conducive work environment. In addition, it is shown that job satisfaction direct effecting job performance, commitment and intention to leave [11]. The complexity in maintaining the level of job satisfaction requires heedful planning, effective human resources, clear organizational direction as well as excellent financing. A study was conducted in 2014 and found that 40% of medical personnel in Malaysia were dissatisfied with their job. Job satisfaction is a complex combination of many variables. For instance, an employee satisfaction with work to some extent, but dissatisfied with other aspects such as salary and environment [12].
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Written Language Curriculum Planning Manual 3LIT3390

Written Language Curriculum Planning Manual 3LIT3390

The A+LS ™ Language Usage curriculum is a comprehensive, integrated grammar curriculum for grade levels 1-12. This program directs students beginning with early grades in the proper use of the spoken and written English language using the Four-Step Approach in each title series. Language Usage I, II, and III have extensive tutorial and instructional voice support. A sequence of nine titles provides an extensive, e-learning solution ideal for schools that want to use technology to improve their instructional process. The A+LS program consists of an Internet-based instructional management system with student assessment tools built in and educators can test students on national, state, district, or local objectives because any set of standards can be added to the system.
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Challenges of Language Planning and Education in Multilingual Societies

Challenges of Language Planning and Education in Multilingual Societies

Please cite this article as: Simon Timothy, Maikudi Garson Molta , Challenges of Language Planning and Education in Multilingual Societies , International Journal of Research Publication[r]

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Automated Planning for Situated Natural Language Generation

Automated Planning for Situated Natural Language Generation

SCRISP is capable of deliberately generat- ing such context-changing navigation instructions. The key idea of our approach is to extend the CRISP planning operators with preconditions and effects that describe the (simulated) physical envi- ronment: A “turn left” action, for example, mod- ifies the IF’s orientation in space and changes the set of visible objects; a “push” operator can then pick up this changed set and restrict the distractors of the forthcoming RE it introduces (i.e. “the but- ton”) to only objects that are visible in the changed context. We also extend CRISP to generate imper- ative rather than declarative sentences.
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