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On my own: The accommodation needs of young people leaving care in England. June 2014

On my own: The accommodation needs of young people leaving care in England. June 2014

When young people leave care, they should have somewhere to live that suits their needs, that is in a safe location and is properly habitable, and that supports them to reach their educational or employment goals. For many, getting their ‘own place’ is an important part of leaving care and of starting a new phase of their lives. Care leavers say that independent tenancies provide the greatest stability, followed by supported accommodation, living with family and finally ‘other’ types of accommodation such as staying with friends or acquaintances, in B&Bs or in custody (Dixon, 2006).
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MY VOICE HAS TO BE HEARD. Research on outcomes for young people leaving care in North Dublin. empowering people in care

MY VOICE HAS TO BE HEARD. Research on outcomes for young people leaving care in North Dublin. empowering people in care

A common issue that young people raise is the expectation on them to become adults much earlier than their peers. As Stein (2006: 274) puts it, young people’s transition to adulthood is both ‘accelerated’ and ‘compressed’. In the third phase of the Midwest study, two out of every three young people (aged 21) thought that they had taken on adult responsibilities sooner than their peers (Courtney et al, 2007). Young people’s readiness to leave care and live independently at 18 was also raised by several young people who took part in a consultation by the Health Service Executive Aftercare Implementation Group in the North Dublin area, which involved 15 young people aged 18-25 (HSE, nd). Five young people spoke about having to move to an aftercare residential placement after breaking their tenancy agreements, typically because they were not able to manage their bills and pay the rent. After initially looking forward to the freedom of living independently, the reality of taking on adult responsibilities soon sank in. One of the main concerns expressed by the young people in this consultation was the isolation and loneliness experienced after leaving care, which was a theme that came up in other research.
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Quality Protects Research Briefing No 7 Leaving Care

Quality Protects Research Briefing No 7 Leaving Care

Leaving care has been an arena for continuing innovation and change. A recent review of local authority Management Action Plans (MAPs) in the leaving care field points to significant developments that have taken place in the areas of policy, inter- agency links and partnerships, widening the range of accommodation resources and highlights initiatives in the fields of education, employment and health (13). However, consistent with earlier findings, it also stresses the low service base from which many local authorities are starting and points to serious regional and local iniquities in the services that are provided (3) (7) (12). It is this pattern of uneven development that the Quality Protects programme and the Children (Leaving Care) Act are designed to address.
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young people on race, school exclusion and leaving care

young people on race, school exclusion and leaving care

experience homelessness and unemployment, have low basic skills and become parents early. On top of the psychological effects of being ‘looked after’ by the local authority, young people leaving care have troubled family lives and inconsistent support structures to help them get by independently.

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Resilience and Young People Leaving Care: Overcoming the odds

Resilience and Young People Leaving Care: Overcoming the odds

The new legal framework provides an opportunity for improving services and thus the level of resourcing for young people leaving care – for example, in terms of housing, finance and personal support. This is very important in promoting their resilience. But what is important as well as the quantity is the quality of resource relationships. The principal finding from the only study to explore this dimension, carried out during the 1980s, was that young people who had successful transitions out of care not only displayed a higher level of total resource relationship but also had a lot more interactive relationships. They were, for example, able to negotiate decent housing, derive meaningful employment or work, participate in community and leisure activities, and engage in education. This study found that these young people’s social networks became richer and more amenable to expansion or contraction at will, and their personal states became more relaxed, stable and fulfilled. They were less lonely and isolated (Hart, 1984).
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Supporting Care Leavers: A Training and Resource Pack for Young People Leaving Care

Supporting Care Leavers: A Training and Resource Pack for Young People Leaving Care

The Children (Leaving Care) Act 2000 is based on the Government consultation document, Me, Survive, Out There? – New Arrangements for Young People Living In and Leaving Care (July 1999). It enacts commitments made within the White Paper, Modernising Social Services (1998), and The Government’s Response to the Children’s Safeguards Review (1998). The Act realises two fundamental policy objectives: young people should not leave care until they are ready to do so, and leaving care should not mean the withdrawal of personal support. The Act recognises that different approaches have been developed to the delivery of services to young people leaving care. Many local authorities have developed specialist services for care leavers. There are various models, including those where the local authority provides the service “in house” and others where the services are bought in from the voluntary sector. The principle that preparation for leaving care is to be regarded as an integral part of any care placements from the outset should underpin the development of specialist services. The Children (Leaving Care) Act exists in a wider policy context of work to secure a better future for both care leavers and other young people. It is part of the Government’s wider programme to modernise public services, improve inter-agency working, strengthen family life, reduce social exclusion, tackle youth crime, and reform the welfare state.
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Research review: young people leaving care

Research review: young people leaving care

In European social policy discourse, social exclusion has come to mean both material disadvantage and marginalization (Hill et al. 2004). In this context, international research has shown the high risk of social exclusion for young people leaving care. They are more likely than young people who have not been in care to have poorer educational qualifications, lower levels of participation in post-16 education, be young parents, be homeless, and have higher levels of unemployment, offending behaviour and mental-health problems (Festinger 1983; Stein & Carey 1986; Biehal et al. 1995; Smit 1995; Cashmore & Paxman 1996; Broad 1999; Pinkerton & McCrea 1999; Bilson et al. 2000; Kelleher et al. 2000; Stein et al. 2000; Courtney et al. 2001, 2005; Dixon & Stein 2005).
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Pathway planning with unaccompanied young people leaving care : Biographical narratives of past, present and future

Pathway planning with unaccompanied young people leaving care : Biographical narratives of past, present and future

Pathway planning with Unaccompanied Young People Leaving Care: Biographical narratives of past, present and future..  .[r]

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Assessing outcomes : a social psychological interpretation of life course trajectories for young people leaving care

Assessing outcomes : a social psychological interpretation of life course trajectories for young people leaving care

DX216127 1 0001 tif University of Huddersfield Repository Horrocks, Christine Assessing outcomes a social psychological interpretation of life course trajectories for young people leaving care Origina[.]

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Making a home, finding a job: investigating early housing and employment outcomes for young people leaving care

Making a home, finding a job: investigating early housing and employment outcomes for young people leaving care

What can be achieved at the leaving care stage is influenced by what has gone before. Cumulative research evidence has demonstrated the inter-connectedness between care and aftercare. How young people fare after they leave is, at least in part, shaped by previous experiences in placements, in schools and in their family and social lives. Improvements in these experiences while young people are looked after - especially by providing more stable environments in which young people can develop appropriate attachments to home, carers and school - are likely to make the adjustments necessary on leaving easier to achieve. Stability – both while in-care and after leaving – allied to sound support for career planning were factors that helped young people to launch successful early careers. In addition, delaying young people’s transitions from care beyond the age of majority may also offer them greater opportunity to make up for past educational deficits and to establish a foothold in education or employment before leaving.
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Audit and Assessment of Leaving Care Services in London.

Audit and Assessment of Leaving Care Services in London.

The evidence of this project is that there is currently much experimentation in this respect. For the most part, however, departments are continuing to operate what has been described as a dual system, with specialists (usual not trained social workers) working directly with young people while a social worker continues to hold case responsibility. Many are taking steps to introduce leaving care specialists at an earlier stage. In the ongoing monitoring of arrangements, managers of all SSD children and young people’s services may therefore wish to bear in mind the following questions: To what degree is our leaving care service providing a seamless service of continuity of care experience and preparation for independence? What services are available for vulnerable ‘young people in need’ and how are these delivered? A second issue arises over the appropriateness of the professional background of the staff employed to deliver leaving and after care services. To what degree, is it necessary for the major staff complement to be professionally qualified social workers? What might be the role of those with youth work qualifications and those with specialist backgrounds in, for example, teaching and the careers service? What additional, in-service, child care/youth work training do these staff require? What checks need to be made on the background of these and other staff appointed to work with young people in semi- and independent accommodation? What types of staff are best suited to managing such mixed groups of staff, whilst simultaneously making the appropriate links and partnerships with other related agencies? Implications for local authorities
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Resilience and young people leaving care

Resilience and young people leaving care

The new legal framework provides an opportunity for improving services and thus the level of resourcing for young people leaving care – for example, in terms of housing, finance and personal support. This is very important in promoting their resilience. But what is important as well as the quantity is the quality of resource relationships. The principal finding from the only study to explore this dimension, carried out during the 1980s, was that young people who had successful transitions out of care not only displayed a higher level of total resource relationship but also had a lot more interactive relationships. They were, for example, able to negotiate decent housing, derive meaningful employment or work, participate in community and leisure activities, and engage in education. This study found that these young people’s social networks became richer and more amenable to expansion or contraction at will, and their personal states became more relaxed, stable and fulfilled. They were less lonely and isolated (Hart, 1984).
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Young people leaving care and protection

Young people leaving care and protection

Being a supporting mother can give young women a sense of commitment and purpose, though motherhood responsibilities restrict freedom and increase responsibility and financial commitments. The welfare system tends to be more supportive; benefits and housing are a little easier to come by because of the needs of the child involved. It may not be politically acceptable to some people for young women to use motherhood as a way of achieving social citizenship. However, there is little evidence from these case studies that motherhood is a carefully thought out plan to access support. In all of these cases the issue of pregnancy does not stand alone. While becoming pregnant does attract a certain special consideration of support, including benefits from the welfare system, the difficulties for a young mother should not be underestimated, in particular, by limiting options for entering the labour force. One respondent believed that her pregnancy adversely affected her life after placement. Another suggested that sex education during placement might have helped her avoid pregnancy soon after leaving care. Young women leaving care are generally more vulnerable because their support networks are usually less adequate. Young women leaving care are more likely to become pregnant than other young women of the same age. Pregnancy is thus an outcome, rather than a cause of incomplete transition to independence. It is related to the vulnerability of young women leaving care.
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Leaving care and mental health: outcomes for children in out-of-home care during the transition to adulthood

Leaving care and mental health: outcomes for children in out-of-home care during the transition to adulthood

Children entering care in adolescence appear less respon- sive to changes in parenting style. Possibly the relational difficulties of late-placed children are more resistant to therapeutic change in spite of a positive environment. Cashmore and Paxman [[25]; Australia, n = 47] found that retrospectively measured perceived security was associated with positive outcomes for young adults after they left care. The perceived or 'felt' security is a non- standardised scale adapted from Schofields' framework of a sense of belonging and felt security [[26]; also see Table S1; additional file 1]. Most studies of the mental health problems amongst children in care are cross sectional, but Tarren-Sweeney [[27]; n = 347] reports on a retro- spective and concurrent study which identifies age of reception into care and also the perceived or actual sense of security in their placements as predictive for positive outcomes. Tarren-Sweeney[3] argues that given their exceptional vulnerability and the complex problems of this population that they require an assessment of their mental health at the time of entry into care, together with comprehensive assessments of the children's develop- ment, social relationships and wellbeing. There is also, we suggest, a case for measuring cognitive performance and educational attainment/neglect on entry into care as this is an outcome indicator that is frequently commented on when children leave care and may be predictive of suc- cessful transitions to adult independence. Without evi- dence of educational engagement on entry to care we cannot gain any real understanding of effectiveness of the care experience on the child's educational progress.
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Leaving Local Authority Care: The Experiences of Separated Young People Seeking Asylum in the UK

Leaving Local Authority Care: The Experiences of Separated Young People Seeking Asylum in the UK

Putting Children First into UK law. Key to the act was its aim to improve support for looked after children, with an emphasis on those leaving care. Under Section 3 of the act, provisions were made to extend local authority support to all care leavers until the age of 25, removing the distinction between care leavers who are in education and training and those who are not. It required that all local authorities provide Personal Advisers to care leavers up until the age of 25. Personal Advisers were designed to act as focal points of contact to ensure the correct level of support is provided and should be aware of the specific needs of the young person so that this is reflected in their local offer and support offered / provided. The act also legislates for the completion of needs assessments and preparation of pathway planning to again ensure the correct provision of support upon leaving care. The new act also stipulated that all care leavers will be able to return for help from their local authority at any time up until they reach 25 years of age.
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Care leaving strategies

Care leaving strategies

The Care Leavers Association (CLA) is a members-based organisation that aims to represent care leavers of all ages across the UK. All of the CLA’s staff, management and trustees are care leavers. It works with government departments, local authorities and voluntary organisations on policy and legislation and facilitates consultation with care leavers to ensure that local authorities develop appropriate services. The organisation provides forums through which care leavers can feed into decision making processes and contribute to service planning and delivery. The forums also function as social outlets and can encourage care leavers to develop networks of peer support. One example of the CLA’s work with care leavers is the joint working with Barking and Dagenham’s Quality Protects and Leaving Care Teams. The CLA helped to establish a leaving care group to consult on services that affected them and how they could be improved. The CLA is now working with this group to consult children in care about the services they access and how they feel about them.
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EXAMS Leaving Certificate English

EXAMS Leaving Certificate English

SECTIO I – The Single Text. The questions use the word text to refer to all the different kinds of texts available for study on this course, i.e. novel, play, short story, autobiogr[r]

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‘Leaving no one behind’: a scoping review on the provision of sexual and reproductive health care to nomadic populations

‘Leaving no one behind’: a scoping review on the provision of sexual and reproductive health care to nomadic populations

There is a huge potential to reach young people in no- madic communities. Changing the perceptions of repro- ductive healthcare among youths can have long-term impact on the way health services will be utilized. How- ever, in some nomadic communities, young women are less likely than older women to use reproductive health services [29]. The Nomadic Youth Reproductive Health Project (NYRHP), conducted by AMREF in East Africa focused on nomadic youth’s knowledge about RH ser- vices. The results of the programme similarly showed that young people have the lowest uptake of RH services. The study concluded that programmes and services di- rected specifically at youths should be prioritized [6, 34, 35]. One report, which focused on the health needs of Maasai girls, showed that creating safe environments where young women can share their concerns and ask questions about reproductive health is an effective strat- egy to improve perceptions about the services [34]. There has also been a demonstrated desire for more mHealth resources by pastoralist women in Kenya [27]. Though the study did not specifically survey nomadic youth, the increasing uptake of mobile devices among young people around the globe could open up opportun- ities to distribute reproductive health information, and link these populations to health care systems.
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From Leaving Certificate to Leaving School: A Longitudinal Study of Sixth Year Students

From Leaving Certificate to Leaving School: A Longitudinal Study of Sixth Year Students

Choices and Challenges (Smyth and Calvert, 2011) followed the co- hort of students upon entry to senior cycle education, a transition that is often neglected in existing research. Entry to senior cycle involved a se- ries of choices on the part of young people about what programme to take, which subjects to select and which subject levels to choose. The degree of choice open to students was found to vary across schools as was the provision of guidance to support these choices. The study pointed to very different learning experiences for those taking the Leav- ing Certificate Applied (LCA) programme, with greater use of more ac- tive teaching methods, which helped to re-engage many students with schoolwork. In contrast, students taking the Leaving Certificate Estab- lished (LCE) or Leaving Certificate Vocational (LCVP) programmes reported a significant gap in the standards expected of them over the transition to senior cycle, finding the course materials and modes of as- sessment much more complex than previously. Many students reported particular difficulties with higher level subjects, with some dropping down from higher to ordinary level because of course demands.
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Leaving a Mark, Making a Difference

Leaving a Mark, Making a Difference

Extraordinary Learning Experiences While the guided imagery sessions focused on achieving personal insights, a higher degree of consciousness and reflection in order to help the students[r]

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