Left Periphery

Top PDF Left Periphery:

CRITERIAL POSITIONS AND LEFT PERIPHERY IN ITALIAN: EVIDENCE FOR THE SYNTACTIC ENCODING OF CONTRASTIVE FOCUS * Giuliano Bocci University of Siena

CRITERIAL POSITIONS AND LEFT PERIPHERY IN ITALIAN: EVIDENCE FOR THE SYNTACTIC ENCODING OF CONTRASTIVE FOCUS * Giuliano Bocci University of Siena

Regarding syntax, prosody and interpretation, Italian consistently distinguishes between the Focus-Presupposition articulation, on the one hand, and the Topic-Comment articulation, on the other (Benincà 1988, Cinque 1990, Rizzi 1997). However, Benincà (1988) and Benincà & Poletto (2004) point out a singular construction (see (18c)), which I name Contrastively Focalized Left Dislocation (CLFD). Apparently, CFLD seems to be an exception to the sharp and systematic distinction between Focus and Topic in Italian, since it seems to pair the syntactic property characterizing Clitic Left Dislocated Topics (see Cinque 1990) with the prosody and interpretation of Contrastive Focus (see Benincà & Poletto 2004). If so, CLFD could be conceived of as a counterexample to the idea that different discourse- scope properties are encoded in distinct projections. However, I will show that the distribution of CFLD strictly depends on the local availability of the syntactic focus projection in the left periphery of the clause. The empirical data strongly suggest that the Contrastive Focus prosody and interpretation cannot be assigned without the mediation of the
Show more

36 Read more

A Note on Targets of A -movement in the Left Periphery of German Sentences

A Note on Targets of A -movement in the Left Periphery of German Sentences

Given the evidence for two distinct landing sites for A’-movement in the left periphery of the German clause, it would not be very surprising to see dialects which allow also for a tripartite structure as in (16). Detailed investigations of speakers’ intuitions would be necessary, how- ever, to ground such a conclusion on a serious data base. Whichever answer can be given, the landing site for the pied-piped CP must match that emphatic interpretation that is yielded by e-topicalization. Thus, the pied-piped CP cannot land in SpecFinP but either in SpecKontrP or in an even higher position which is reserved for emphatic material.
Show more

10 Read more

WH-questions, V2, and the Left Periphery of Three Norwegian Dialect Types

WH-questions, V2, and the Left Periphery of Three Norwegian Dialect Types

Notice that this account explains why V2 is not an alternative in cases with WH- subjects in NOR-2 and NOR-3. Since som is merged in AgrS° for independent reasons it will always block verb movement to the Left Periphery, or, alternatively, movement of som to C heads will take place instead since som is closer than the finite verb. In cases with oblique WH-constituents on the other hand som cannot be merged (again for independent reasons) and verb movement can therefore apply. This means that we should expect focus to be possible also in the subject cases, with som moving to Foc°, which indeed seems to be the case, cf. the following example.
Show more

33 Read more

Word order change at the left periphery of the Hungarian noun phrase

Word order change at the left periphery of the Hungarian noun phrase

The literature on the Hungarian noun phrase is rather rich: a detailed analysis in a generative framework can be found in Szabolcsi (), which has been modified to some extent by É. Kiss () and Bartos (, ). Of course, not all aspects of the noun phrase structure will be discussed here; several features, such as the inner agreement properties, or the derivation of attributes and quantifiers, will be ignored. The focus of this study primarily falls on possessive constructions and demonstra- tives, and their interaction at the left periphery of nominal constructions.
Show more

17 Read more

IATL 18 June 24/25, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan Decomposing the Left Periphery Dialectal and Cross-linguistic Evidence

IATL 18 June 24/25, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan Decomposing the Left Periphery Dialectal and Cross-linguistic Evidence

If this account is correct, its corollary is that in standard Dutch, of and wh- are specified as <C,disj> and <C,disj,wh> respectively. Thus, these items fulfill simultaneously what the sub- standard variety achieves by extra steps of merge. Insertion of these items in the left periphery is driven by the familiar processes. Of is merged with IP because it is a complementizer and as such incorporates <C>; it has selectional features which requite IP to be +finite. Movement of a wh-phrase achieves various things simultaneously. Since wh- incorporates <C,disj>, wh- movement activates these features in the derivation. Although neither C nor disj materialize at the PF-side of the derivation, these elements lead to an LF-representation as in (33). Of course, the feature <disj> will not be checked off in this case because there is no of- complementizer. This leads to the desired result because <disj> is an interpretable feature whose single occurrence must not be lost.
Show more

24 Read more

The Italian left periphery: A view from locality

The Italian left periphery: A view from locality

Notice that the discussion here leaves an apparently irreducible templatic residue. The complementizers ‘che’ – that and ‘di’ – of do not have the freedom of positioning expected under a pure locality approach. As far as I can see, their relative position to the moving elements discussed in this paper must be stipulated in some kind of template. Similarly, while the relative positions of the elements discussed here fall out from locality, the fact that there is a left periphery of the clause where relative operators, topics, foci, wh-phrases, and modifiers move remains templatic. 12
Show more

27 Read more

THE LEFT PERIPHERY OF MEDIEVAL ROMANCE

THE LEFT PERIPHERY OF MEDIEVAL ROMANCE

I will argue that the whole of medieval Romance languages share important features of sentence structure and properties of the lexical constituents and functional elements, so that they can be considered a set of variants of an abstract ‘Medieval Romance’; on the basis of these common characteristics, we can at least try to exploit what is clear and evident in one variety in order to enlighten what is more obscure or elusive in another. The paper has the following structure: I first briefly sum up the general frame sketched in Rizzi’s (1997) work on the left periphery (CP fine structure) together with the specifications that have been suggested in Benincà (2001) and further developed in Benincà & Poletto (2002), mainly on the basis of modern Italian and Italian dialects.
Show more

55 Read more

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ STRUCTURAL MARKEDNESS AND SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE: A STUDY OF WORD ORDER AND THE LEFT PERIPHERY IN MEXICAN SPANISH

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ STRUCTURAL MARKEDNESS AND SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE: A STUDY OF WORD ORDER AND THE LEFT PERIPHERY IN MEXICAN SPANISH

The case of preposed locative XPs in (44) and (45a) is somewhat clearer. In this case there is considerable evidence that these preposed locative XPs are topics, and that, contra Ferná[r]

318 Read more

Information Structure as a Processing Guide: The Left Periphery of German Verb-Second Sentences and Its Interpretation in Context.

Information Structure as a Processing Guide: The Left Periphery of German Verb-Second Sentences and Its Interpretation in Context.

The problem here is that both elaborate answers, (c) and (d), are equally felicitous: though (c) violates the canonical word order of German verb- second sentences, this disadvantage is in a way compensated for by the fact that the information asked for is presented first, which is supposedly more hearer-friendly than having the hearer wait until the end of the sentence. Although some informants I asked reported to have a slight preference for (2.14.c) over (d) for the reason mentioned, they were nevertheless not willing to judge one of the sentences as more appropriate in the given question con- text. This raises the question in which respect these two variants differ, i.e. which possibly different functions they may serve. Since one difference be- tween the two variants is the placement of the focussed constituent, which in turn results in the two differing word orders, we might ask ourselves whether the position of the focus in the syntactic string might play a role, and if so, how that can be accounted for. Focus-Background structure does not tell us anything about that; even if we take into account that normally, focal elements are realized on the right periphery of the sentence (due to the re- alisation of focus on the most deeply embedded constituent, cf. e.g. Cinque (1993)), it is still unclear why the focussed constituent should be realized on a different, in fact left-peripheral position in (2.14.c).
Show more

155 Read more

How Much Structure Does the Left Periphery Need?

How Much Structure Does the Left Periphery Need?

B . the general approach: the closer the identity between the default world of evaluation (the speaker’s epistemic model of the actual world, cf. Quer 2001) and the world of evaluation of the subordinate clause, the greater the range of left peripheral operations allowed

9 Read more

How the Right-Periphery Shapes the Left-Periphery Lessons from Italian

How the Right-Periphery Shapes the Left-Periphery Lessons from Italian

- Leftward focus movement is an illusion created by the Right Dislocation (RD) of discourse-given phrases.. The highly productive process of RD gives the illusion of leftward focus movem[r]

6 Read more

The peripatetic periphery or Joyce’s Impossible «Borderation»

The peripatetic periphery or Joyce’s Impossible «Borderation»

L’articolo discute la relazione di James Joyce con la nozione di «periphery». Nella poetica di Joyce, questa nozione si riferisce a una posizione geografica specifica (Du- blino), a una tipologia di marginalizzazione intellettuale e culturale e a una peculiare forma narrativa. Dallo Stephen Dedalus del Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man e dell’Ulysses, ai tre bambini della famiglia Porter in Finnegans Wake, Joyce combina le coordinate, geograficamente e culturalmente periferiche, di Dublino – che per lui è al tempo stesso «the centre of the paralysis» e «the Hybernian metropolis» – con il modo in cui questi personaggi intessono le loro relazioni reciproche e cercano di posizionarsi nel contesto familiare, sociale e professionale. La sezione night studies (II.2) in Finnegans Wake, in particolare, restituisce una meta-riflessione sulla periferia in connessione con l’atto stesso di scrivere e con lo spazio che occupa sulla pagina. Segmenti testuali, differenti e apparentemente indipendenti, sono quindi collocati al centro e ai margini della pagina, dando luogo a una narrazione a una contro-narrazio- ne che modificano in modo significativo l’esperienza di lettura.
Show more

14 Read more

Austerity in the European Periphery : the Irish Experience

Austerity in the European Periphery : the Irish Experience

We have noted that Ireland’s experiences of austerity cannot be fully understood without recognizing that Ireland, along with the other periphery states in the Eurozone, is embedded in a broader European economy, and that the economic fortunes of the periphery are not independent of what happens elsewhere. Ireland’s budgetary policy continued to be shaped by newly tightened European fiscal rules, but Ireland began to escape the pervasive stagnation of the southern periphery because its productive activities were more closely integrated into the Anglo-European economy. Nonetheless, its recovery depended on the congruence of favourable conditions whose continuation were beyond the control of national government, such as the appreciation of the dollar and sterling relative to the Euro, low interest rates on still very high sovereign debt and private debt, low oil prices, and stability in the wider international economy, including China.
Show more

24 Read more

Euro periphery: our favorite for now

Euro periphery: our favorite for now

We are asked a lot whether the current rally in peripheral debt is sustainable. Our clear answer is yes, at least for the time being. Economic activity is coming back into the region, albeit slowly. Competitiveness is regained in countries like Spain and Portugal as shown in strong export growth. Current account deficits in the periphery have been closed (see picture below). The austerity drag is fading. The rating cycle has turned. Moody’s raised Ireland’s rating back to investment grade. Spain’s government bond rating was upgraded to Baa2 from Baa3. Portugal is heading for a bailout exit in June. Capital market access has been restored. Chances are growing that the country will opt for an Irish-style “clean exit” rather than go for a precautionary credit line. Even Greece is considering its return to the capital market, nearly two years after private investors agreed to write off 85% of the countries private debt representing the biggest debt restructuring in history. Capital flooding into the euro area seeking higher yields or safety from the turbulence in emerging markets is also supportive. Valuation wise it is striking that in many peripheral countries yields on corporate bonds still trade through their sovereign bonds. Even more so in the light of the ECB’s Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT) program which resembles a credible backstop facility for the sovereign debt market. Is all fine then in the euro area? Surely not. Further improvements to the institutional framework are inevitable. In many countries more labor and product market reforms are needed to bring structural growth to a higher level. Stronger growth, fiscal discipline and a return of inflation are prerequisites to bring public debt on a sustainable trajectory in the peripheral countries.
Show more

7 Read more

Finance and Centre Periphery Dynamics: A Model

Finance and Centre Periphery Dynamics: A Model

a The graph shows the combinations of wA and wB which may or may not imply, for given values of the parameters shown in the bottom of the figure, a growth of wages and profits in areas A[r]

14 Read more

Allenylporphyrins: a new motif on the porphyrin periphery

Allenylporphyrins: a new motif on the porphyrin periphery

In conclusion, for the first time, unsubstituted allenes and propargyl substituents have been attached to the porphyrin periphery by Suzuki coupling and trapping of an alkyne anion with MeI. The phenomenon of allene rearrangement on the porphyrin periphery is still being investigated. However, as allenes are particularly reactive functional groups, especially toward metal catalysis, 7c,17,18 we have

6 Read more

The center and the periphery: The globalization of financial turmoil

The center and the periphery: The globalization of financial turmoil

Table 12 summarizes our findings about the news that rocked financial markets. But first, the top panel shows the proportion of days of rallies and days of crashes during episodes of high regional and world globalization (at least 50 percent of countries affected by turmoil). Note that 85 percent of the episodes of high world globalization involve stock market crashes. Episodes of high regional globalization are more balanced. With the exception of the Asian region, in which days of joint rallies outnumber days of simultaneous crashes, about 60 percent of the days of high regional globalization consist of crashes. The middle panel classifies the days of high globalization, both at a regional level and worldwide, according to the type of news that seems to have triggered the spillover. Financial concerns from bankruptcies of large banks or adverse shocks in one or more asset market in a center country seem to be at the core of high worldwide globalization (40 percent of the episodes). Only 20 percent of the days of high spillovers seem to be driven by economic, political, and monetary news at the center. Another important source of instability is concerns about financial fragility in the periphery (25 percent of the episodes). In contrast, financial worries in center countries only account for 26 percent of the episodes of high regional globalization. Financial fragility in the periphery seems to be at the heart of regional turbulences (31 percent of the episodes). Finally, international agreements also contribute to regional turbulences.
Show more

45 Read more

Design history on the periphery of design practice

Design history on the periphery of design practice

The QAA Art & Design subject benchmark statements, published in 2002, discuss the role of historical study in supporting the study practice-based vocational design courses in the context[r]

16 Read more

Innovation Systems and the Periphery FINAL REPORT

Innovation Systems and the Periphery FINAL REPORT

firms and people through their careers are combining different skills and forms of knowledge (science based, tacit and sticky). In terms of innovation activity the industry is serving a highly innovative customer. Norwegian fish-farming faces both technological and market challenges. The pressure for new innovations is hard. The innovation conditions in manufacturing are characterized by competing interests and conflicting strategies in the national innovation system. Within this context, the Lofilab strategy, which represents radical innovation related to development and manufacture of cod fry, is marginalized. The sector has clear innovation system features locally/regionally, and the system is linked to the national system. While the local/regional system learns from interactive learning between codified and practical knowledge, this type of learning seems to have worse conditions nationally. There is a need for stronger emphasis on interactive learning in national level innovation policy (the linear science-driven model has failed). There exists a formalized network organized at the national and regional level (ARENA), which has members in Lofoten among emerging cod producers. The network is promoting codified – codified relations, mostly between industrialists and the regional university in Bodø. There are also networks in Lofoten on an informal basis, where practitioners exchange information and experiences with cod production. The Lofilab national and international networks on cod fry production include national cod producers, financiers, and the national innovation system. This case provides us with an example of radical innovation in the periphery of Lofoten, supported by locally based key knowledge and competence components. The supporting innovation system is strongest in the national context. The configuration of the system is more directed towards traditional salmon breeding and salmon aquaculture than being supportive towards the radical innovation of cod fry.
Show more

441 Read more

Multiplex core-periphery organization of the human connectome

Multiplex core-periphery organization of the human connectome

Figure 2: Core-periphery structure in synthetic multiplex networks with different core sim- ilarity. In panel (a) we sketch multiplex networks with M = 2 layers, N = 250 nodes and different levels of core similarity, namely S c = 0 (left column), S c = 1/2 (central column) and S c = 1 (right column). In panel (b) the nodes are placed in a two dimensional plane according to their degree at each layer. The size of each dot is proportional to the multiplex richness µ i of the node (with c [1] = 1, c [2] = 0). Nodes belonging to the multiplex cores are usually placed in the right-top corner of the plots and are colored orange, while the multiplex periphery is in blue. In panel (c) we report results obtained for two cases with c [1] 6= c [2] , namely: (c [1] = 0.75, c [2] = 0.25) where the core is biased towards the important nodes of the first layer (left), and (c [1] = 1, c [2] = 0), where the core corresponds to the core of the first layer (right).
Show more

32 Read more

Show all 3418 documents...