colleagues (1998) recommended ways to promote quality reading instruction such as:“…using reading to obtain meaning from print, having frequent and intensive opportunities to read, frequent exposure to regular spelling-sound relationships, learning about the nature of the alphabetic writing system, and understanding the structure of spoken words” (p. 422). However, the report did not satisfy Congress for two reasons: 1) the NRC did not specify how reading skills should be taught and 2) the NRC report was criticized for producing a document that was based on the judgments of a diverse group of experts in reading research and reading instruction only (Edmondson, 2004). In response, Congress commissioned the National Reading Panel (NRP), which consisted of a diverse group of educators, psychologists, neurologists and others Their responsibility was to: 1) to conduct a thorough study of research and knowledge relating to early reading development and instruction in early reading, 2) to determine what research and knowledge are available in classrooms around the country, and 3) to determine how to
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some parents were not aware of their role and were not involved in the development of their children reading skills at the foundation Phase. According to (Weigel,D. & Martin, 2008), (Martini, 2004) parents’ roles include providing children with a stimulating literate home environment and opportunities for shared reading, reading aloud, telling stories, using print to find out meaning of things and assisting in language development. The study findings concur with Nutbrown & Hannon, (2011) who concluded that the parents’ roles in children’s literacy development include providing children with opportunities, recognition, interaction and models of literacy at home. Weigel,. & Martin( 2008)&Switzer, (2015) noted that parents who valued their role in Early Literacy Development organized the home to support literacy and language development and engaged children in literacy and language enhancing activities., acted as literacy models and partnered with their childcare provider, created a literacy rich home environment, made regular library visits with their children, assisted the child with homework, read and wrote with the child at home and participated in the child ‘s classroom activities and suggested that parents’ roles in early literacy development included providing children with a stimulating literate home environment and opportunities for shared reading, reading aloud, telling stories, using print to find out meaning of things and assisting in language development.
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Parents should involve and take part in their child‘s life. They should respond to their needs and support their emotional health. Interaction at home between parents and children has positive effects on their success and goals (Adams, Frampton, Gilmore, & Morris, 2010). An early parent intervention project known as Raising Early Achievement in Literacy, or REAL, takes effect in the United Kingdom. Its two-phased goal was to help parents in reinforcing children's literacy skills when starting preschool (Weinberger, Hannon, & Nutbrown, 1990). The first phase of its goal was to get involved with working parents to enhance early literacy development by implementing strategies that met the children's needs. The second phase was an attempt to distribute information on parent involvement and its effectiveness with practitioners and policymakers. It provided four tips for parents to enhance their child's literacy development: (1) provide children the opportunity to learn, (2) appreciate their early reading accomplishments, (3) involve in early reading activities with children, and (4) offer literacy materials or models in print (Evangelou & Sylva, 2007).
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Various aspects of the proximal home environment are associated with distal contextual variables such as family socioeconomic status (SES), often indexed by parental education level and/or occupational status. Several studies have reported that the HLE mediates the relationship between family SES and children’s literacy development (Chazan-Cohen et al., 2009; Foster, Lambert, Abbott- Shim, McCarty, & Franze, 2005). However, home-based literacy practices also vary within groups of similar socioeconomic standing (Payne, Whitehurst, & Angell, 1994; Van Steensel, 2006). Christian, Morrison, and Bryant (1998) compared performance on a range of academic tasks between kinder- garten children divided into groups along two dimensions (high/low maternal education level and HLE). Children whose mothers had lower levels of education but who experienced a rich HLE outperformed “high maternal education–low HLE” children on measures of oral language, emergent literacy, and general knowledge. Moreover, in a 28-year longitudinal study, the amount of time spent reading to young children was found to be an independent predictor of later reading achievement and motivation, which in turn predicted educational attainment, when maternal education was controlled (Gottfried, Schlackman, Gottfried, & Boutin-Martinez, 2015). Taken together, these findings suggest that HLE experienced by young children predicts growth in academic skills independently of parents’ educational background.
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find ways to comply with the mandated literacy instruction, all three teachers rarely used the mandated Journal Writing professional development and were not comfortable with its use in their classrooms. Annette claimed that it didn’t work well with math content. Deborah explained that she never really understood it and felt uncomfortable asking for clarity. Kelly used it only when it fit well with her content. This minimal use of the Journal Writing strategies did not mean, however, that the participants were resistant to literacy strategies in their classrooms at all. When I asked about their hopes and concerns as an early step in the action research process, collaborated with them in regards to their expertise, and gave them choices to integrate literacy strategies into the curriculum as they saw best, all three teachers placed enormous value on the use of these strategies in their classroom. They also saw even deeper connections and relevance for students’ access to content through reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing. All three teachers come from different content areas each cited that because the project was not intimidating, provided relevant choices that were easy to integrate in their lessons, and gave ongoing support, she benefitted from participating in this study. This conclusion shows that action research is a necessary component of professional development. The teacher should play a more prominent role as researcher in schools other than at the university level.
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Previous studies measuring vocabulary development have revealed that standardised tests may not be sufficiently sensitive to vocabulary changes to be used as dependent measures (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000). Researchers measuring vocabulary development often create their own vocabulary assessment instruments (Pollard- Durodola et al., 2011; Whitehurst et al., 1994), because experimenter-generated instruments are more sensitive to vocabulary growth. It was thus decided that a researcher-created assessment instrument would form at least one component of the assessment process for the present study. The researcher developed the McNab Picture Vocabulary Tests (MPVT: McNab, 2012) as a measure of receptive vocabulary contained in the children’s books employed during the pilot study (MPVT Form 1) and phase three shared digital reading intervention (MPVT Form 2). The MPVT tested the child’s ability to not only learn and recall a word but their ability to generalise the word to a new context (see Sénéchal & Cornell, 1993 for an example of another study employing a similar test). The MPVT instruments were modeled on the style of the PPVT. Ten words were chosen from each of the books given to the families for the shared book reading interventions. The words were deemed to be either novel or difficult for the children participating in the study when analysed against the Oxford Word List (Lo Bianco, Scull, & Ives, 2008). The Oxford Wordlist is the result of an extensive and rigorous Australian research study that investigated high frequency words in young children’s writing and reading development. The Oxford Wordlist was “prepared from a database far larger and more representative than any Australian and most international predecessors” (Lo Bianco et al., 2008, p. 16) and can be tailored to the demographic of the students using the selection criteria in the online interactive tool. The selection criteria for generating demographically sensitive word lists included words such as: gender; school year; language; school setting; location; and text type. Words from the MPVT tests included words such as: marsupial; bureau; ravenous; cellar; frond; whirled; and well. These were words that appeared in the children’s stories.
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development . Parental support of children’s literacy development involves not only learning opportunities such as shared book reading but also the three critical parenting dimensions: (1) home literacy and language environment, (2) warmth and responsiveness, and (3) control and discipline. Studies show that these dimensions directly or indirectly affect the child’s cognitive growth. Home literacy and parenting practices strongly predicted children’s academic achievement even beyond the ﬁrst grade . Research suggests a positive correlation between mothers’ warmth and sensitivity, which refers to how a mother emotionally responds to her children, and cognitive and language skills for children in preschool, kindergarten, and the ﬁrst grade. In fact, researchers argue that these three dimensions apply to both parents, not just to mothers. The following effective parent-child interactions inﬂuence a child’s cognitive development: parents’ participation in problem-solving tasks with their child, regulation of information shared between adults and children, and encouragement of a child’s exploratory tendencies . In addition, while parents’ control/disciplinary behaviors did not directly predict literacy outcomes, these actions were signiﬁcantly related to a child’s social interaction (e.g., cooperation, independence, and responsibility), which was then linked to academic performance . For instance, authoritative parenting is often associated with the endorsement and upkeep of higher levels of academic competency and school adjustment in children, whereas non-authoritative parenting styles are associated with the accumulation over time of adverse effects such as poorer classroom engagement and inconsistent homework completion . These ﬁndings show how inﬂuential parenting can be on children’s literacy skills, particularly in the younger years. In this study, we examine the effect of home literacy environment: What are the effects of orient-organize in a child’s classroom and home literacy environment on his or her early reading performance? We anticipate that organized classrooms and strong home literacy environments will predict stronger reading outcomes in ﬁrst graders’ early reading levels.
Optimizing the social, emotional, moral and cognitive development of children will support prosocial behavior and peaceful societies. To accomplish these goals, efforts need to start from birth with authoritative parenting to achieve secure attuned attachment between caregiver and child. Such parenting should eliminate the toxic stress associated with the authoritarian approach and the lack of direction seen with permissive or uninvolved parenting. Early literacy is the key to building character using the vehicles of modeled behaviors, reading stories with a moral and that teach a lesson and Human Relations Programs for Children. Benevolent mindfulness characterized by emotional empathy, compassion and helping behaviors will result from proper parenting and successful character education. The resultant ability to think in a complex fashion where virtues are pursued and vices avoided should facilitate resistance to false narratives and non-violent conflict resolution. Avoiding Adverse Child Experiences has been shown to minimize depression, violence perpetration and other problem behaviors and disorders. When there are educational and professional resources in play to support the development of children in communities, a responsible, caring citizenry can be anticipated.
The ORIM Framework (Hannon and Nutbrown, 1997) was central to the KE project discussed in this paper. ORIM identifies four key roles for parents whereby they can provide Opportunities, Recognition, Interaction and a Model of literacy and distinguishes four key strands of early literacy: environmental print, made popular mainly by US research during the 1980s (Payton, 1984; Baghban, 1984; Schickedanz, 1990; Bissex 1980; Goodman et al., 1978; Hiebert, 1981); books and early reading (Weinberger 1997; Lonigan et al., 2000; Mol et al., 2008; van Steensel et al., 2011); early writing again studied by US researchers during the 1980s and taking the form of “ emergent ” writing (Goodman, 1980; Harste et al., 1984; Ross and Brondy, 1987; Ferrerio and Teberosky, 1989) and particularly supported by the seminal studies of Sulzby and Teale (1988) with a small number of studies continuing to develop work in the field (Rowe and Neitzel, 2010) and finally, key aspects of oral language found to support the development of others aspects of literacy (Goswami and Bryant, 1990; Maclean et al.,1987; Wells, 1987; Muter et al., 2004; Justice et al., 2005). Each of these four strands also incorporates digital, technological and multi-media practices that are now part of many young children ’ s literacy experiences (Marsh et al., 2015; Yamada-Rice, 2014; Stephen and Plowman, 2014). Such experiences should support children ’ s literacy achievements in school and group settings throughout the Early Years Foundation Stage (DfE, 2012) and beyond. Schools and pre-school centres have used the ORIM Framework systematically to plan practical work with parents, which supports and extends their literacy role with their children (Nutbrown et al., 2005). The ESRC funded KE project reported here focused on practitioners adapting and adopting the ORIM Framework to develop work with families that they were working within a diverse range of communities around England. The project focused on how practitioners in early years settings could make meaningful use of the ORIM Framework to support their work with parents to promote early literacy experiences.
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Literacy is inarguably vital for the social and economic welfare of individuals and society (Canadian Language and Literacy Network [CLLRNet], 2009; Pur- cell-Gates & Tierney, 2009; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). This reality is par- ticularly relevant today in an increasingly globalized world where political, economic, and social exchanges challenge individuals and nations to be ever more competitive. In response, governments and agencies have promoted progressively more policies and practices to advance students’ literacy skills. For example, we have witnessed the No Child Left Behind Act (Public Law, 2001) and the Reading First initiative in the United States based on the National Reading Panel report (2000), the Ontario Ministry of Education (2003) Early Reading Strategy: The Report of the Expert Panel on Early Reading in Ontario, and more recently, the National Strategy for Early Literacy (CLLRNet) to address an apparent literacy crisis in North America. Underpinning these reports and initiatives is a predominantly cognitive view of literacy development; lacking is an explicit attempt to address the needs of an increasingly pluralistic popu- lation. Such a narrow cognitive perspective of literacy development risks per- petuating social inequalities that stem from social and cultural diversity, which characterize this population. Alternatively, a sociocultural view of literacy
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The early school-leaving Indigenous and Anglo-Australian mothers spoke more about the difficulties in learning to read. They were perhaps less confi- dent of their own literacy skills and were more conscious of the central role played by school. Teachers were seen as specialists to turn to when their children were having problems. They emphasized learning strategies such as memory and repetition. Their beliefs were more consistent with a skills-based approach, according to which children acquired a set of skills by seeing and hearing, rather than engaging with literacy materials. As Lynch et al. (2006) point out, parents act on their beliefs in terms of the literacy experiences they provide. This is of concern, as these children may come to see reading as a school-based task rather than a leisure activity, with consequences for later achievement. As McGee and Richgels (2003) poignantly point out “Older child- ren bring home fewer books and may view literacy as copying or completing worksheets rather than thinking deeply about texts that are interesting” (p. 9).
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Parents are involved in their children’s education and are aware their involvement affects their children’s performances in school. Parental involvement is important young children’s overall development, motivation and success in learning to read. Early literacy experiences within natural settings including the home provide motivating learning opportunities and encourage parents and care givers to become even more active partners of early childhood educators in their child’s literacy development (Denney, Moore, & Snyder, 2010). Those beliefs and activities coincide with Clark (2007) who states that parents and caregivers must be aware of their significant contribution they can to their children’s learning by providing a stimulating environment around them, teaching them language, reading and writing as well as supporting at home the schools literacy agenda both during the early years as well as the primary and secondary schooling of the children. In addition, literacy development begins in the very early stages of life with home and socio-cultural environment pointed as the major influencing factors (Shanahan, 2008). Prior to matriculating into primary school children need to acquire cognitive and basic fundamentals which make more advanced achievement skills possible.
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Juel (1988) noted that children with low literacy skills are not only less prepared for school but also perform poorly in later elementary grades and high school (Cunningham and Stanovich, 1993). Children are inquisitive, active, playful, curious, exploratory, and experimental. Children need to be instilled the love for reading since young. As Morrow (1995) stated that parents are the first teachers their children have, and they are the teachers that children have for the longest time. Therefore, parents are potentially the most important people in the education of their children. Thus, parents need to create the enabling environment to fulfill their children’s needs through communication and scaffolding the children in their early literacy and language development. Parents need to be the model for their children and prepare sufficient educational resources.
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Although it has been argued that there is insufficient summative evaluation attached to the schooling improvement initiatives to be certain about what was happening with all the students’ learning (Annan, 2007), some research evidence suggests that programmes of school improvement, such as those outlined above, have been effective in implementing changes in beginning instruction in groups of schools (Lai, McNaughton, Amituanai-Toloa, Turner, & Hsiao, 2009). Lai et al. acknowledge that there has been little, if any, impact on reading comprehension from Year 4 onwards and in fact the gaps may have increased nationally. Further findings from the Literacy Professional Development Project: Evidence of Improved Student Outcomes (Learning Media, March 2008) suggest that there were generally positive outcomes, but despite these, close analysis reveals ongoing worries, puzzles, and inconsistencies. An example cited from this project came from the second cohort of schools involved in the reading professional development. In this cohort 85% of the students who began in stanine one were still within the “at risk” band of stanines one to three after two years. More concerning was that over one third of the students who began in stanine one remained there.
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Davis et al. (2010) also investigated vocabulary along with emergent literacy and phonological awareness skills among students with MoID who participated in the sight- word instructional sequence of the comprehensive Integrated Literacy reading program (Alberto & Fredrick, 2007). Hierarchical linear growth modeling (HLGM) was used to explore cognitive predictors other than IQ in student sight-word acquisition. All students' IQs were in the moderate range (40-55) and all students mastered sight-word acquisition individually. As a collective group the students demonstrated, on average, statistically significant growth in reading per instructional session. An examination of possible predictor variables showed that pretest scores on receptive vocabulary predicted the variance found among students' initial baseline scores, indicating that students with higher vocabularies knew more sight words before instruction began.
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Freire and Macedo’s text provides a perfect example of some of the ways these same preconceived notions have spread to todays’ education in the form of a pedagogy of literacy. In order to fully understand language, Freire and Macedo stress the importance of “knowing the world” before being fully able to succeed in a traditional system of learning. Just as Percy pushes humans to resist the preconceived notions of understanding, Freire and Macedo search to find a new way to discover language. These temptations appear today not only in everyday life, but also in the classroom where everyone is expected to read material in one specific approach. Percy, Freire, and Macedo all work to show certain ways to recognize this barrier that the society sets up against humans. In an attempt to help us see the world through a more genuine
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Josi reﬂects on her feelings of inappropriateness regarding schooling, as she had not done well in school during the past. Her schooling life involved grade retention and dropping out in third grade. She also displays the incorporation of societal expectations that reading and writing are skills to be acquired in childhood. In Josi’s perspective the program in place is incorporating problem- posing, dialogue, and problem-solving. It is motivating her to go to school and it is granting agency to women, as conveyed by her narrative about Maria. She indeed portrays herself as an agentic subject as she helps Maria solve her problem. The concept of a learning community is mentioned throughout. Ac- cording to Josi’s perspective, this program seems to be working well; literacy skills are embedded in real life situations. The participants are articulating change from their position in the margins, and engaging in social inclusion.
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Supporting at-risk parents who have low literacy skills and little confidence begins by engaging them in fun activities, for example, using arts or crafts. Group work provides opportunities for vulnerable parents to develop relationships and individual support networks. A parenting or family learning programme that has clear literacy aims and focus, delivered by trained staff, is more likely to have positive literacy outcomes for children and parents. A deliberate strategy is needed to involve fathers since family learning programmes mostly attract mothers.
Perhaps one of the more interesting examples of intergenerational reading and learning is that which takes place between the young and the elderly. One example is the ‘Care for indigenous children’ workshops in Canada, where older people shared cultural values and explain cultural and social identity to younger people. A second example involved young German children in Hamburg talking to former Jewish residents who left the city during the Nazi period of the Second World War. A venue was provided for both groups to meet and talk, and the researchers found that the educational and spiritual value to both parties could not be over-emphasized. UNESCO recommends, ‘Historical healing through intergenerational learning in Germany can be replicated in other parts of the world’(UNESCO, 2001).
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At present only limited data are available on ICT competences amongst adults at European level. Thus, the current way of measuring adults' ICT skills refer more to actual use than to competences. In terms of monitoring tools, EUROSTAT’s Information Society Statistics (ISS) use two main surveys on “ICT usage in enterprises” and “ICT usage in households and by individuals”. When individuals are asked to judge their own computer skills one third of the average in the EU respond that their skills are sufficient if they were to look for a job or change jobs within a year. The most confident users are found in the Nordic countries and in Luxembourg. In these counties about half of the population rate their computer skills to be sufficient. At the same time one in four responds that their skills are not sufficient if changing job. In Lithuania, Bulgaria, Latvia and Portugal at least 40% report on insufficient computer skills. (see Table Ann III.7) In terms of trends, the percentage of people using the internet and computers has increased in the last three years in the EU. However, the usage gap between low and highly educated individuals has not narrowed in the EU. In 2008, 85% of people with high education used the internet on average once a week. The similar figure for individuals with low or no education was 35%. The development in EU countries is relatively stable and only a few countries have narrowed the gap the last years. For frequency of computer use, low educated individuals are catching up in a majority of EU countries. Gender differences are being reduced in almost all Member States, but the gap in terms of age is growing. The current measures of ICT skills and use do not explain how ICT are used for complex problem solving, creativity and innovation. Even if further improvements to ICT measurement should be encouraged Eurostat will include data collection on eSkills on a bilateral basis in their Household survey from 2010 and a special module with a focus on e-
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