Millennium Development Goals (MDG)

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Can Nigeria Achieve Millennium Development Goals?

Can Nigeria Achieve Millennium Development Goals?

Slay et al. (2013) surveyed the performance of Millennium Development Goals in the emerging economies of Europe and Central Asia, and observed that the experiences from these parts of the globe are of utmost important for policy implication for both pre-2015 Millennium Development Goals and post-2015 days for developing economies. They explained that this argument may seem somewhat counterintuitive because these regions have not been in the vanguard of global MDGs efforts as expected. Likewise, the success of efforts to push the MDGs closer to the center of development discourse in this region has been moderate at best. However, it is precisely the difficulties encountered in the application of the ‗MDG agenda‘ to this region and the responses to these difficulties that have emerged that are germane for discussions on how to make global development goals more universally relevant— both thematically and geographically—after 2015 (see also Giuman et al. (2013), Hulme (2008); Olayode (2006); MDG (2014); Keeley and Scoones (2003); Stone (2006); Agbu (2006), Hussan et al. (2005); Aribigbola (2009); Ajayi (2008)).
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Millennium development goals (MDGs): A road map to sustainable development in Nigeria

Millennium development goals (MDGs): A road map to sustainable development in Nigeria

The restive situation in the Niger Delta continues unabated. Kidnapping, armed robbery and organized crime are the order of the day and the police are not well equipped to combat these crime. Sports/youth development is stunted. Nigeria could not grab the chanced of featuring in the first ever world cup to be played in African soil yet we claim to be the giant of Africa. In the area of transportation, only road transportation appears to be viable in Nigeria. Our railway lines are dead, air transportation is epileptic and only for the rich and our water transportation is grossly underdeveloped. The education sector is not left out. Incessant strike action and facilities below human standard exist in our schools. Otive (2006) lamented that in all indices of development, Nigeria fares poorly. It is therefore necessary that Nigeria as a matter of urgency should pay serious attention to the issue of sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to establish the fact that sustainable development could be achieved in Nigeria through the proper implementation of the Millennium Development Goals.
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Strategic Communication and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals

Strategic Communication and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals

This study has analyzed strategic United Nations documents United Nations Development Assistance Framework reports and Millennium Development Goals reports and other United Nations docum[r]

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Evaluation of Global Agenda: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)

Evaluation of Global Agenda: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2-14 June, 1992 [26]; Earth Summit+5 (1997): Special Session of the General Assembly to Review and Appraise the Implementation of Agenda 21, New York, 23-27 June 1997[25]; and the Millennium Summit [22 and 23] New York, 6-8 September, 2000; where world leaders et al all participated progressively to discuss solutions for global problems such as poverty, housing, war, and the growing gap between industrialized and developing countries. The central focus was the question of how to relieve the global environmental system through the introduction to the paradigm of sustainable development- a concept which emphasizes that economic and social progress depends critically on the preservation of the natural resource base with effective measures to prevent environmental degradation [42 and 9]. That was why the UN at the Millennium Summit made the Millennium declaration and set goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and time-bound targets to be achieved in order to liberate the world from total catastrophe. Hence the need to follow the trends in the pursuit of these goals is very crucial even before the expiration of the set time for realization.
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Sustainable development on a timeline? lessons from the 2015 millennium development goals and the agriculture sector of Sauri  Millennium Village in Kenya

Sustainable development on a timeline? lessons from the 2015 millennium development goals and the agriculture sector of Sauri Millennium Village in Kenya

The Millennium Development Goals are a culmination of the policies and commitments for international development enacted in the 1990s and guided by the notion that development can be achieved through democratic governance, human rights, peace and security. They are based on time- bound measurable targets, and indicators designed to help monitor progress. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is the agency charged with the responsibility of coordinating both global and local efforts. One of the main challenges in implementing the MDGs is addressing issues associated with national governance structures. Historically, international programs operated on the assumption of the existence of good governance structures, which have often been absent in the developing nations that have been recipients of bilateral and multilateral assistance (Hyden, 2007). The major reason the development community instituted the MDGs and the Millennium Villages approach was because of the poor national governing structures. The Millennium Villages approach provided development aid to communities at the village level directly instead of through national governments in an attempt to enable them to take ownership of their local development needs. The Millennium Project was premised on the concept of providing quick-impact investments in specific sectors of the economy namely agriculture, education, and infrastructure with the goal of lifting regions from the burdens of extreme poverty. The rationale was that investments could be easily applied, monitored, and adapted to local conditions. (Annual Report, 2008; Sachs, 2008).
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How Communication Rights Might Contribute to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

How Communication Rights Might Contribute to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

This chapter makes a case for recognizing, implementing, and building on communication rights in order to create ‘enabling environments’ conducive to at least partially achieving the Millennium Development Goals. By exercising their communication rights, people are empowered to identify, analyse, dialogue, and tackle the structural, political, economic, and cultural obstacles to improving their lives. The aim is to make possible and guarantee participation by every segment and sector of society so that people can act collectively, effectively, and justly. This requires recognizing and strengthening communication rights as essential to building people-centred, inclusive, and development-oriented societies, to countering the discrimination, exclusion and isolation of different marginalised and vulnerable groups and communities, and to affirming the inherent dignity, equality, and inalienable rights of all people.
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Connecting the Place of Woman and Education in the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals to the Political Thought of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815 1902)

Connecting the Place of Woman and Education in the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals to the Political Thought of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815 1902)

Surely, the leaders of the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals are convinced that it is only through quality education that women and girls are going to impose themselves in the intellectual, cultural, po- litical and economic spheres. In other words, they firmly believe in education as a lifting power or a magic weapon for emancipation, self-accomplishment and social integration. They eloquently stress that for the world to reach a harmo- nious development, there is no other alternative than empower women and di- versify their competences so as to be valuable assets for the whole society. To fulfill the purpose in view, women should not only attend vocational schools in order to acquire pragmatic know-how, as advocated by Booker Taliaferro Washington (1856-1915) in his Up from Slavery (1901), but also have access to good higher education like men and boys for them to get sound knowledge, re- warding positions or become influential decision-makers, as is the ideology of William Edward Burghart Du Bois (1868-1963) in The Souls of Black Folk (1903). Nowadays, more girls are in school now compared to in 2000. Most re- gions have reached gender parity in primary education. The percentage of women getting paid for their work is on the rise. The Sustainable Development Goals aim to build on these achievements to ensure that there is an end to dis- crimination against women and girls everywhere.
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MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH – A CHALLENGE OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH – A CHALLENGE OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Since about 1980, the Indian economy has grown, in terms of its gross domestic product (GDP), at over 6 per cent per annum compound, as against an average for the period 1950 to 1980 of around 3 to 3.5 percent. More recently, between 2003-04 and 2007-08, the rate of growth of India’s GDP even breached the 8 per cent barrier, giving rise to breathless celebrations in sections of the media about India being rapidly on its way to being a “superpower” or at the very least an economic powerhouse. While the current global economic crisis has led to some muting of the rhetoric, it is important not to lose sight of some basic and disturbing features of our track record of development even through these years of rapid GDP growth. This paper is an attempt to understand the millennium development goals in a very descriptive and an interesting manner.
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Back to the future: what would the post-2015 global development goals look like if we replicated methods used to construct the Millennium Development Goals?

Back to the future: what would the post-2015 global development goals look like if we replicated methods used to construct the Millennium Development Goals?

Lessons have been learnt from the MDGs being deter- mined from the top-down, and players and politics in the post-2015 global development landscape will not tol- erate a repeat of the bureaucratically driven MDG process. The lack of ownership, participation, and part- nership among high-level MDG policy makers and com- munities, civil society, the Global South, the private sector and other relevant stakeholders will not be re- peated, especially when such actors are pivotal to MDG and post-2015 success [17,18]. Mac Darrow, Chief of the MDGs Section of the Office of the UN High Commis- sioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), contends global summitry commitments of the 1990s were alone insuffi- cient to underscore the MDGs; “equally if not more im- portant for progress is sustained political mobilisation and innovative use of the commitments” [21] p.57. With this in mind, Fidler’s [22] argument that global health governance is a form of open-source anarchy can be broadened to apply to the contemporary development space, as diverse State and non-State actors “access, adopt, apply, and adapt” to the source codes of develop- ment, recombining a limited range of potential goals, but in frames that have significantly different implica- tions for global development. But this engagement of mul- tiple actors in competing framings has the potential, over the next three years, to drive new goal formulation in di- rections more dynamic and innovative than the UN as an intergovernmental organization may have anticipated.
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Diagnostic methods to determine microbiology of postpartum endometritis in South Asia: laboratory methods protocol used in the Postpartum Sepsis Study: a prospective cohort study

Diagnostic methods to determine microbiology of postpartum endometritis in South Asia: laboratory methods protocol used in the Postpartum Sepsis Study: a prospective cohort study

PP: Postpartum or puerperal; MDG: Millennium Development Goals; ANISA: Aetoiology of Neonatal Infection in South Asia Study; CHRF: Child Research Foundation; WHO: World Health Organization; EDTA: Ethylene- diamine tetra-acetate; SBA: Sheep blood agar; API: Analytical profile index; CLSI: Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute; UTM: Universal transport medium; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction; UTI: Urinary tract infection; CFU: Colony-forming unit; SIMCUT: Sulfide-indole-motility-citrate-urease-triple sugar iron method; MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration; PT: Proficiency testing; ICT: Immunochromatographic Test; CAP: College of American Pathologists; IDRL: Infectious Disease Research Laboratory; SOP: Standard operating procedures; UAB: University of Alabama.
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Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines:  From the Will to the Way

Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines: From the Will to the Way

Abbreviations and Symbols DRR: Disaster Risk Reduction DRRM: Disaster Risk Reduction Management LGU: Local Government Unit MDG: Millennium Development Goals NDRRMP: National Disaster Res[r]

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Barriers to using skilled birth attendants’ services in mid- and far-western Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Barriers to using skilled birth attendants’ services in mid- and far-western Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Improving women’s SBA utilization rate during child- birth is an important component of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) [5]. The World Health Organization (WHO) established international targets for SBA-assisted births (i.e., 80% by 2005, 85% by 2010, and 90% by 2015) [6], but countries with high MMR, such as Nepal, should achieve at least 40% SBA-assisted births by 2005, 50% by 2010, and 60% by 2015 [6]. SBA utilization during delivery has increased steadily in Nepal, from 9% in 1996 to 36% in 2011 [4,7]. Despite pro- gress in achieving MDG targets regarding maternal and child health, such progress has been unequal in Nepal’s ad- ministrative regions. In the mid- and far-western regions, SBA utilization during deliveries is 28.7% and 30.6%, respectively, compared to higher utilization in Eastern, Central, and Western Nepal (42.0%, 35.9%, and 37.8%, re- spectively) [4]. Maternal mortality in Nepal is currently 281 deaths per 100,000 live births) [8], possibly due to a high prevalence of home births and low utilization of SBAs [9]. The main causes of maternal mortality in Nepal are post- partum hemorrhage (32%), hypertensive disorder of preg- nancy (25%), and abortion (13%) [10].
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An ecological quantification of the relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality

An ecological quantification of the relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality

In order to promote access to improved water and sani- tation, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including access to safe drinking water and basic sanita- tion (target 7 C), infant[r]

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Reduction in global maternal mortality rate 1990–2012 : Iran as a case example

Reduction in global maternal mortality rate 1990–2012 : Iran as a case example

Reduction in global maternal mortality rate 1990-2012: Iran as a case example Hora Soltani, Frankie Fair, Sevil Hakimi Out of a total of eight Millennium Development Goals MDG set by the[r]

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Empowering Women Mathematically for the Attainment of Millennium Development Goals

Empowering Women Mathematically for the Attainment of Millennium Development Goals

Nigeria is not left out in the effort to bring women into lime light. Several efforts have been made in Nigeria in the area of empowerment of women. In January 1995, the Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Welfare was created by the federal government. The aim had been to ensure effective implementation and mobilization of women and children to be supported for primary health care and other related issues that are peculiar to women and also to ensure their greater participation in national development as well as empower them politically, socially, and otherwise.

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Impact of the free healthcare initiative on wealth related inequity in the utilization of maternal & child health services in Sierra Leone

Impact of the free healthcare initiative on wealth related inequity in the utilization of maternal & child health services in Sierra Leone

Abbreviations ANC: Antenatal care; FHCI: Free healthcare initiative; MCH: Maternal child health; MDG: Millennium development goals; PLOD: Place of delivery; PNC: Postnatal care; SDG: Sus[r]

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Childbirth outcomes and ethnic disparities in Suriname: a nationwide registry-based study in a middle-income country

Childbirth outcomes and ethnic disparities in Suriname: a nationwide registry-based study in a middle-income country

ANC: Antenatal Care; LB: Live birth; MDG: Millennium Development Goals; MICS: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey; MMR: Maternal mortality ratio; (a)OR: (Adjusted) odds ratio; PAHO: Pan Am[r]

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“Everywhere but not specifically somewhere”: a qualitative study on why the right to health is not explicit in the post-2015 negotiations

“Everywhere but not specifically somewhere”: a qualitative study on why the right to health is not explicit in the post-2015 negotiations

Global negotiations are in earnest to identify the new goals and targets for the Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’) successor, the post-2015 Sustainable Develop- ment Goals (SDGs). Despite activism encouraging a right to health goal [1–7], an explicit post-2015 health rights narrative is not gaining effective traction in intergovern- mental post-2015 proposals. The purpose of this qualita- tive research, therefore, is to examine how or if the right to health is strategically intersecting in evolving post-2015 health and development dialogue. The right to health’s position in emerging post-2015 discussion is of import to the researchers who are part of the larger Goals and Gov- ernance for Health research team (or ‘Go4Health Project’). Go4Health is a consortium of academics and civil society members tasked with advising the European Commission on the international health-related goals to follow the MDGs, advocating “the right to health and its imperative of narrowing health inequities should be central to the post-2015 health agenda” [1]. This study thus draws on a discourse and thematic analysis of data obtained from two rounds of in-depth interviews, one immediately after the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Agenda’s (High-Level Panel) released its report in June 2013, and the second almost 12 months later in April- May 2014, with participants from key multilaterals and related agencies working on health in the post-2015 devel- opment agenda, many who sit at the interface of UN and Member State interaction. In finding the right to health is indeed at the periphery of post-2015 health and develop- ment dialogue, we provide six reasons participants gave for its marginalisation. We conclude by highlighting why the right to health’s lack of incorporation in the post-2015 metrics framework should raise concern for health rights advocates worldwide.
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Trends in US President’s Malaria Initiative funded indoor residual spray coverage and insecticide choice in sub Saharan Africa (2008–2015): urgent need for affordable, long lasting insecticides

Trends in US President’s Malaria Initiative funded indoor residual spray coverage and insecticide choice in sub Saharan Africa (2008–2015): urgent need for affordable, long lasting insecticides

In 2009, 87  % (13/15) of PMI-funded countries with IRS programmes sprayed pyrethroid IRS (Fig.  1). This proportion decreased annually, with only 44 % (7/16) of countries having sprayed pyrethroids in 2013, while car- bamate use increased during the same period from 7 % (1/15) in 2009 to 56 % (9/16) in 2013 (Fig. 1). Bendiocarb was sprayed despite being relatively expensive and having a limited residual duration, as there were few viable alter- natives (namely DDT and organophosphates). P-methyl EC was rarely utilized and was sprayed in <10 % of coun- tries between 2009 and 2012. Following the development of a long-lasting formulation of p-methyl CS came a dra- matic shift in usage, with 85 % (11/13) of PMI-supported countries spraying p-methyl CS in 2015 (Fig.  1), com- pared with 31 % (5/16) in the first year of production in 2013. The gradual replacement of relatively inexpensive pyrethroids firstly with bendiocarb (carbamate) and sub- sequently with p-methyl CS (organophosphate) has also led to substantial changes in IRS spray coverage. The cost of a pyrethroid (Icon ™ lambdacyhalothrin capsule sus- pension (CS) 10 % ai, Syngenta) sachet is estimated to be $5, compared with $12 for bendiocarb (Ficam ™ WP 80 % ai, Bayer CropScience), $20 for a container of p-methyl EC (Actellic ™ EC, 50  % ai, Syngenta) and $23.50 for p-methyl CS (Actellic ™ CS, 30  % ai, Syngenta), all with equivalent quantity of active ingredient to spray 250 m 2
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Nobel prize for the artemisinin and ivermectin discoveries: a great boost towards elimination of the global infectious diseases of poverty

Nobel prize for the artemisinin and ivermectin discoveries: a great boost towards elimination of the global infectious diseases of poverty

The pharmacological and therapeutic paradigm shift discussed here calls for further, strong investments in re- search and development in the field of drugs and vac- cines creating pipelines of new products capable of tackling the challenge of rapid emergence and spread of vectors, parasites and drug resistance. Timely, evidence- based and cost-effective operational approaches and so- lutions for IDoPs and NTDs are required for dealing with the rise and spread of insecticide resistance, and the environmental impact of climate change. Likewise, development of diagnostics with improved sensitivity and specificity as well as preventive therapeutics and ef- ficient information communication/dissemination mech- anisms underscore the quest for novel and innovative approaches. Leveraging on lessons learnt, efficient and integrated intersectoral partnerships as well as collabor- ation in the development of needed, new diagnostics, drugs and vaccines are much needed. So are also proven and innovative community-based programmes with re- spect to ownership in health systems, surveillance and new opportunities in elimination interventions packages and eventually in moving forward eradication of IDoP worldwide.
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