With the increasing realization that I might not be experiencing equal treatment in the Academy, I could no longer focus on how I could improve my work product or my work ethic. After all, the students had noted me for my community service and my excellent classroom teaching. I instead looked for ways in which the institution could improve. I attempted to define avenues of unequal treatment and possible remedies. Were there ways in which I and other minority women could benefit from increased support? I would no longer answer the “What have I done?” question with self-blaming. There was nothing wrong with me, but somehow being me and doing great work was not yielding the results.
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Fall prevention is a serious issue in the health and aging fields, and much attention and research is now being focused on examining why older adults fall and ways to prevent them from falling. Although it has been well-documented that older adults benefit from programs designed to decrease falling by promoting exercise participation, balance training, and fall education; little research has focused on specifically examining how older minority women view preventive exercise programs. This qualitative study explores the experiences of older minority women participating in a fall prevention program. The specific aims of the study are to: 1) gain an understanding of older minority women’s experiences and perceptions about falling and fall prevention; 2) establish what factors influence older minority women to participate in fall prevention programs; and 3) explore participants’ perceived outcomes of program participation. Post-test interviews with 21 participants were analyzed using the method of grounded theory to identify common themes and outcomes associated with participation in a fall prevention
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liberal feminists, such as Susan M. Okin, Doriane L. Coleman, have pointed out that this use of culture in criminal courts epitomizes the incompatibility between the political goals of feminism and multiculturalism— one seeking gender equity, the other cultural equity. I have argued elsewhere, drawing mainly on critical race theory and Black feminism, that Okin’s highly influential for- mula of “multiculturalism versus feminism” creates a false dilemma, which operates through “white solipsism” (Rich)—i.e. a tunnel vision taking the white perspective as universal—and the erasure of minority women’s view- points and interests (see Bilge 2006). Positing gender justice and cultural recognition as irreconcilable issues, as does the dominant feminist assessment of multiculturalism, fails to address the intersection of gender and culture—i.e. both majority and minority cultures (Philipps)—in the process of production and reproduction of social identi- ties and inequalities.
The purpose of this secondary analysis was to explore associations between obstetric history and both cervical cancer screening and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing among a community sample of diverse sexual minority women (SMW) in the Chicago area. We first conducted an integrated review of the published literature for existing evidence of this relationship and other health care related correlates of cervical cancer screening among SMW (Chapter 2). We then used data from the third wave of the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study to develop logistic regression models of past year cervical cancer screening and STI testing within the past 5-8 years that included participants’ obstetric history as the primary predictor variable (Chapter 3). Finally, informed by Intersectionality theory, we developed decision tree models predicting past year cervical cancer screening and STI testing within the previous 5-8 years to identify subgroups of SMW who were more and less likely to be screened, using 26 predictor variables of theoretical interest including obstetric history (Chapter 4). In this chapter, we summarize the major findings of the study and review implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research stemming from this work.
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It has already been shown that many of the births being analysed would have occurred during the 1980s. So it is important to check whether the ethnic differences seen here would still be true in the late 1990s. This has been done by dividing women into three seven-year groups according to the dates at which they themselves were teenagers (Table 3). For whites, the rate of teenage childbearing increased very slightly between the beginning and end of the period of observation: an increase of about 4 per 1,000 between 1976–82 and 1990–96. For Caribbean women, there appears to have been a decline followed by a rise. For both these groups, though, the pattern of teenage motherhood seems essentially stable. Among the three South Asian communities, though, there are clear signs of a fall in early fertility. Indian women, already below average in 1976–82, had reduced their rate to only 7 per thousand in the 1990s. Pakistani women – much higher than the white average twenty years ago – showed a consistent fall over the period, and were very similar to whites in recent years. For Bangladeshi women, there were too few cases in the early period for a reliable estimate, but there are signs of a strong fall between the mid/late 1980s and the early/mid 1990s
engraining I have had is cultural engraining meaning, serve others, like I’m still, when we are in a meeting, I still try and fix the chairs around the table and move things. Those are just things I have been trained to do since I was a little kid that I have a hard time breaking and so some of that baggage of those actions plays into what I think others expect of me. Then when they see me do it, they expect it of me afterwards. So in some ways, I think that double standard is self imposed, but I think it is other imposed as well, it’s not like a one way street. So men who, for example, might see me take a half an hour off early to go with my daughter to a play, I remind them that they were gone last week to go see their son’s football game and it’s not like I’m demanding they remember, but I’m like hey, how was your son’s football game? So it’s kind of like a reminder of the reality that we all have these separate lives from work. Some of it’s what we make of it, some of it is other people’s making. I haven’t yet figured out what’s theirs and what is mine. I don’t think men would say there is a double standard for women or I don’t think women of color would automatically say yes there is or no there isn’t. You know as a first-generation college student and as a low income student I always feel like a fraud, to this day. I have my Ph.D. Graduated in 2001. Seven years and there are parts of me on certain days where I still feel like a complete fraud. Like I don’t belong here. Like I’m not good enough. If we are not honest with our mentees about that, we are setting up this false illusion that there comes a time when it’s done. And I really don’t believe if we are growing and learning and developing all the time that it’s completely ever done. Does that shock you?
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particularly, though not exclusively, on Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Black Caribbean women. Pakistani and Bangladeshi women are included because they have the lowest rates of employment of any other ethnic group, and Black Caribbean women because they are under-represented in senior level jobs, despite being more likely than white women to work full-time. A focus on these three groups has meant that resources can be channelled more effectively for depth research and analysis, and in order to avoid over generalisations about ethnic minority women.
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Research also indicates that the prevalence of these well-known risk factors is generally higher among sexual minority individuals — that is, lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) indivi- duals. Smoking is more common among sexual minorities, both men and women, than among their heterosexual counterparts. 3–8 Further, in 2007, the President ’ s Cancer Panel found that sexual minority youths smoke at rates as high as those of adults, and tend to start smoking at a younger age than heterosex- ual youths. 6 Sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to drink alcohol 5 8–12 and to be overweight or obese. 10 13–16 In contrast, gay men ’ s alcohol use has not been shown to differ from that of heterosexual men, 12 and gay men are less likely than heterosexual men to be overweight or obese. 17 Finally, sexual minority women have higher rates of nulliparity than heterosex- ual women. 10 13 14 18–20
A government adopting democratic political system is based upon the criteria of majority. This putforward a slew of questions to rational and idealist political philosophers and common mass. What about the people and mass who did not vote for the ruling party, who do not belong to the religious background of government in rule and whose views and ideas are in contradiction with the majority in society? This makes the minority vulnerable to the attacks and atrocities of the majority classes. Thus in a democratic country like India it is quite natural and normal that minorities will sense insecurity and panic domination of the majority. In a multifaceted society, therefore, it is obvious that the minorities would clamour and petition constitutional safeguards for protecting their rights and privileges. It is a widely acknowledged truth that individual liberty and human rights have ample space and recognition in the working atmosphere of democracy. Democracy is “purported to be the political framework in which human rights are best safeguarded.” 5 It has constructed a political system and form of government where the rights and freedom of citizens are valued more than anything else. The same democracy which is based liberty, justice and equality also has a supplementary duty of upholding a balance between the rights and liberty of individual and groups. This pinpoints the importance of extending openings to groups to preserve their diverse and unique identities as well as ensuring ample space to individuals to advance and mature their personalities and potentialities to its brim.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) includes acts of physical, sexual, and/or psychological (emotional) abuse by a current or former intimate partner. These acts also extend to stalking and controlling behaviors (Breiding, Basile, Smith, Black, & Mahendra, 2015). Common terms used to describe IPV are domestic abuse, spouse abuse, domestic violence, courtship violence, battering, marital rape, and date rape (Ali & Naylor, 2013). Both males and females may experience violence, but national trends reveal approximately 75% of victims are female and those between the ages of 18- 24 are most commonly abused by a partner (Truman & Morgan, 2014). Overall, approximately seven million women in the United States have experienced some form of violence or abuse (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010).
The Task Force recommends that the federal government now recognize as an additional urgent role the need to use its employment practice as a lever for ex panding and diversifying the nation’s sci ence and engineering workforce at all lev els. The system should be as open as possible to entry-level personnel. It can widen the pool of entering scientists and engineers by providing internships for as piring professionals. It can extend efforts to recruit scientists and engineers from among minorities, women and people with disabilities. It can make known the way benefits of federal service compensate for salaries that are lower than in industry.
Women instrumentalists in rock bands have the bad luck of having female bodies in a field in which having a male body is one of the most basic standards of participation. But since we are still agents with an investment in the flourishing of our art and livelihood, we engage in a significant amount of extra-musical creative work to overcome the demerit of female bodies. We work harder in our alone time, we sexualize ourselves, we de-sexualize ourselves, we marry our guitarist, and we try to help other women — all as part of staying afloat in a field in which our body automatically puts us at a disadvantage. The few women who become involved in the Tampa, Florida rock music scene learn through months and years of playing in rock bands that maleness is a form of embodied cultural capital key to the field and, unlike other forms of embodied cultural capital like being able to play the guitar or run a successful sound check, they will never accumulate it barring significant body modifications. This state of the field molds their habitus, impressing on their understanding of how the rock music scene works the importance and implications of maleness in how to act and interact with other participants. But because of the infinite generative capacity of habitus explored above, which implies the innate creativity and freedom of human individuals, these women use this understanding of the centrality of maleness to think and act in ways that help them ameliorate their lack of embodied cultural capital.
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Infertility is a disease of reproductive system that means a failure to achieve clinical preg- nancy after 12 months or more of regular un- protected sexual intercourse, which is defined by the World Health Organization . Infertility is an important global health problem, but does not receive enough attentions, especially in de- veloping countries . Infertility may bring dam- aging effect to family relationships and cause negative psychological outcomes . Due to most of the elderly in China, needs the care in physically and mentally from their children in their later life, childless families may face with helplessness and loneliness. Women with in- fertility are also blamed or subjected to domes- tic violence .
Previous studies have reported that women, particu- larly women from ethnic minority populations, tend to distrust people outside their ethnic community, hence maybe reluctant to disclose their experience of abuse to persons unknown to them [18, 19]. Therefore, L Good- man, MA Dutton, K Weinfurt and S Cook  suggest that women with lived experiences of intimate partner abuse are likely to disclose such experiences to members of their informal networks, which may include family members, close friends and ethnic community group members, as opposed to health and social care profes- sionals. Furthermore, M Kershner and JE Anderson  reported that women are likely to rely on self, God, family and friends in their disclosure of the abusive experiences. Thus, empirical evidence on disclosure em- phasises the importance of understanding factors influ- encing the disclosure and help-seeking practices of women with lived experience of IPV, to aid the develop- ment of appropriate intervention and support strategies. Ethnic minority populations in the UK and intimate partner abuse
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Furthermore, two of the professionals discussed innovative responses to DV utilized by their agencies. Mariam indicated that their work with male perpetrators of DV is innovative and has made a difference. She noted that “Domestic violence is not a woman’s issue, not a man’s issue; it’s an issue that impacts the whole family.” Additionally, deeper collaboration between services has been useful to two agencies. Mariam listed collaborating with other community organizations (e.g., police, hospital, sexual assault support, FACS) as an innovative example. However, she wished that they did more community collaborating with regard to cases in- volving specific cultural needs. Similarly, Hasina highlighted how her agency’s collaboration with 20 different organizations, has been helpful in terms of innovative policies and practices. She further spoke about various innovative programs that her agency offers, such as community-based research, which involves a “team of young Muslim women who are survivors in different ways or just community leaders that want to do work in their community around violence against women.” This innovative example directly responds to visible minority immigrant women’s needs as it includes their voices and lived experience in seeking change. In addition, they are also involved with immigration law reform, and other programs that look at anything from policy to counsel- ling in order to create safer spaces for Muslim women.
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45. Moreover the appendix which led to the decision reveals an incorrect approach to the statistical data of the incidence of domestic violence. Ealing observed that the largest proportion of domestic violence in its borough was suffered by white European women. But that statistic was meaningless and irrational unless compared with the fact that 58 per cent of the female population of Ealing during the same period consisted of white European women. As the documents show, 28 per cent of domestic violence was suffered by Indian, Pakistani and other Asian women. That statistic is of vital importance when one considers that those groups made up only 8.7 per cent of the population within Ealing. In those circumstances it is plain from the statistics available to Ealing that a very large proportion of women from that background suffered from domestic violence in comparison to white European women.
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Previous research shows that age at immigration is an important determinant of the socioeconomic attainment of immigrants (Inbar and Adler, 1976; Cahan et al., 2001; Myers et al., 2009). Child immigrant women are more likely to have higher socioeconomic attainment than teen and adult immigrant women. Part of the reason is that child immigrants receive their education in the host society. On the other hand, the qualifications of teen and adult immigrants educated in their own countries are often not recognized as equivalent to the standards of the host country, and this can account for reduced socioeconomic returns for the immigrants. Another important reason is that teen and adult immigrants may be less able to learn the new language and culture of the receiving society as compared to younger immigrants. This in turn may make it difficult to generate earnings appropriate to one’s formal educational and occupational training. Finally, immigrant parents have higher educational expectations for their younger children because in many circumstances teen immigrants might be expected to leave school early and seek paid employment to help support the family (Ali and Kilbride, 2004; Tyyskä, 2008). Thus I hypothesize that child immigrant women of visible minority would have higher socioeconomic attainment than teen immigrant women of visible minority. The expectation is consistent with previous research conducted by Trovato and Grindstaff (1986), Inbar and Adler (1976), Inbar (1977), Jones (1981), Cahan et al. (2001).
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The demand to justify the exclusion of pregnant women from research is not only essential for reasons of equity but also for reasons of corrective justice. Since scientific knowledge on the effects of treatments for the health needs of pregnant women is relatively underrepresented, fair inclusion implies that intensive stimulation of research in this population is justified. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every re- search project. Inclusion of only a few pregnant women in a population of women will not help to determine the ef- fectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. If pregnant women are included it should be done repre- sentatively or they should be oversampled in order to be able to determine a difference in intervention effects be- tween groups of pregnant and non-pregnant women. In the few cases where we may be certain that there are no differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women, we should conduct post-marketing studies or arrange the establishment of registries. But, since evidence is typically limited for the treatment of health conditions that affect pregnant women, we either know, or otherwise have to as- sume, that pregnant women differ from other subpopula- tions. Separate trials may then be preferable. The current vagueness of the demand to justify exclusion unless scien- tific reasons exist seems to indicate that fair inclusion only comes into play at the moment of ethical review of already-designed individual research projects. However, fair inclusion is not only an obligation for individual re- searchers and research ethics committees. The develop- ment of separate trials has to be realized at the earliest phases of research with pregnant women. In addition to researchers and research ethics committees, scientific ad- visory councils, funders, drug regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, journal editors and others all have a joint responsibility to further the evidence base for drug use in pregnant women.
research suggests that racial differences decrease when we con- trol for workers’ human capital, and they disappear when we control for workers’ workplace contexts. Thus, these findings do not confirm the empirical studies that suggest thatrace nega- tively impacts workers’ workplace control (Skinner, 2002; Ro- binson, 2009). This study also shows that work-family conflict reduces workplace control of workers, more for women. But its effect vanishes when supportive workplace context enters the equation. Thus, we can say that having supportive workplace culture and supportive supervisor helps women workers to re- duce their workload considerably, which in turn reduces their work-family conflict, and consequently, enhances their work- place control. Most importantly, our findings suggest that job satisfaction is a vital predictor of women workers’ workplace control. This result also confirms the literature that posits that job satisfaction of the workers improves their workplace control (Bethge et al., 2009).
The current poor performance of visible minority immigrants in the labour market is likely to lead to future problems because there is evidence that the income of parents can adversely affect the incomes of children. For instance, Burton and Phipps (2009, p.4-5) have found that children coming from low- income families exhibited considerable “stickiness” of position in the income distribution and that this was exacerbated by being “non-white” as are the greater majority of recent immigrants. And immigrants coming to Canada during the current period of high unemployment could suffer from “scarring” and have the long term prospects of themselves and even their children damaged.
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