“explanation and apology for treating ThomasMore, a Christian saint, as a hero of selfhood” (Bolt xiv). Yet in the text of the play itself, during More’s trial, the Duke of Norfolk pleads with More, “(Leaning forward urgently) Your life lies in your own hand, Thomas, as it always has” (Bolt 151). This clearly indicates a penchant for the second theory of an inevitable martyrdom, further supported by More’s nonchalant declaration that “[d]eath...comes for us all, my lords” and by his melancholic rhetorical question of how any Christian could refuse a passing less horrible than that of “Our Lord Himself,” should God so appoint him to suffer such an end (Bolt 150-151). Bolt’s handling of the causes behind Thomas More’s death thus indicates an insightful understanding of them individually but fails to integrate and fully explain the complex interplay of these forces within More’s heart and mind.
Housman’s poem uses simple language, repeating the word ‘and’ so that ten of the thirty-five lines begin with that word. In ‘Adlestrop’, ‘and’ occurs ten times in a poem of less than a hundred words. ‘The’ occurs eight times. The poem is built around repetition. A dozen different words are used more than once. The second stanza alone uses ‘Someone’, ‘no one’ twice, ‘on’ and ‘only’. Words echo each other quite straight- forwardly: when ‘hissed’ is used it is followed by ‘his’ three words later. ‘Minute a’ is echoed by ‘mistier’. ‘Willow’ is used twice in one line then echoed by ‘meadow’ in the next line, the ‘owe’ sound then occurring in ‘lonely’ in the next line. The last syllable of ‘Oxfordshire’ is repeated, ‘only’ is repeated in ‘lonely’ and so on. The word ‘only’ is key, as is the feeling of absence—expressed by ‘no one’, and ‘bare’. This is a poem about simplicity, a poem pared back to essentials, a poem no longer than it needs to be. And emptiness, bareness or absence, recur as a subject in Thomas’s work. His poems are filled with holes and absences and abandoned spaces. The poem ‘Old Man’ closes with an emptiness that offers no closure: ‘Neither father nor mother, nor any playmate; / Only an avenue, dark, nameless, without end.’ In 1913, when undertaking the journeys described in In Pursuit of Spring, Thomas took a series of photographs that, like Adlestrop, show an empty, bare countryside—as if the war has already hap- pened, as if everyone is already dead. There are a number of simple, unpeopled roads. As he says in The Heart of England ‘the road ahead was a simple white line’. 98 The
‘There are many among them that upon a motive of religion neglect learning, and apply themselves to no sort of study; nor do they allow themselves any leisure time, but are perpetually employed, believing that by the good things that a man does he secures to himself that happiness that comes after death. Some of these visit the sick; others mend highways, cleanse ditches, repair bridges, or dig turf, gravel, or stone. Others fell and cleave timber, and bring wood, corn, and other necessaries, on carts, into their towns; nor do these only serve the public, but they serve even private men, more than the slaves themselves do: for if there is anywhere a rough, hard, and sordid piece of work to be done, from which many are frightened by the labour and loathsomeness of it, if not the despair of accomplishing it, they cheerfully, and of their own accord, take that to their share; and by that means, as they ease others very much, so they afflict themselves, and spend their whole life in hard labour: and yet they do not value themselves upon this, nor lessen other people’s credit to raise their own; but by their stooping to such servile employments they are so far from being despised, that they are so much the more esteemed by the whole nation.
First, we should notice that, like many other things in M&D, be they the ketchup or the stoop, the rifle, this typically American weapon, comes from abroad (like its South African double, imported as it was by the Dutch colonists). Firearms experts in fact tell us that Swiss and German immigrants brought with them their hunting rifles, called Jäger, which were slightly modified (a longer barrel, smaller bullets fitted with a patch to the rifled barrel, a patch box added to the stock) in order to become the Lancaster/ Pennsylvania Rifle (later Kentucky Rifle), and be sold to hunters who operated in that then wild and dangerous land made famous by Daniel Boone, or better by John Filson’s late 18th-Century fictionalization of Boone’s deeds ( Slotkin 269 ). This weapon and its technology (quite advanced in the 18th Century, surely more advanced of the still smoothbore Cape guns) was imported from Europe, and came from outside the British empire, which then included the American colonies. It is part of that circulation of goods, foods, knowledge, news, clothes, individuals, drugs constituting one of the main themes of M&D, and makes it readable as a great allegory of today’s globalization whose aim may well be to deconstruct the commonplace according to which globalization stems from late modernity/postmodernity. Pynchon shows us that the global circulation of goods and individuals has always been here, even if we desperately strove not to see it for what it was. The sailing vessels carrying the Lads to the Cape and then Saint Helen and America may seem poor equivalents of our jetliners and giant container-ships shuttling between China, India, Brazil and the older industrial (now de-industrialized) countries, but Pynchon is careful to highlight how they play more or less the same role —with a huge dose of irony, and frequent comedic effects.
Abstract- In the animal kingdom, the rule is, eat or be eaten: in the human kingdom, define or be defined. “These are words of Stephen Thomas an American psychologist, which a Cleary depicts a picture of the nature of Conflicts: that they are inevitable and occur everywhere: whether at individual level, family, group .societal organizational, regional and globally. There is a common believe that among several scholars on the definition of conflicts. They all view it as a disagreement, contradiction, incompatibility or differences that may arise in any situation/individuals/groups /organizations in which there are incompatible Goals, Ideas, Cognitions, or Emotions within or between individuals or groups that lead to opposition or antagonistic interaction. The definition recognizes three basic types of conflict: Goal conflict, Cognitive Conflict and Affective. The Hard and Soft model of Human Resource Management contend that conflicts are avoidable if organizations create a high committed workforce and focus on the needs of their employees contrary to the hard model. The soft model takes a unitaristic approach while the hard model takes a pluralistic approach.Unitarism view conflicts as dysfunctional whereas pluralism anticipates and views conflicts as normal in any organisation. The divergence of these approaches is a clear indication that conflicts are not necessarily undesirable. The resolution of conflict can often result to a constructive solution. This paper examines conflict from a variety of viewpoints. It considers the positive and negative aspects of conflict, discusses the levels of conflict that can occur within organizations which include: intrapersonal level, interpersonal, intragroup, intergroup, and intra-organisational level and finally, it identifies the approaches to conflict resolutions and strategies, of managing conflicts. The paper adopts Thomas and Killman strategies of conflict management modes which includes: Avoidance, Accommodation Collaboration, Competition and Compromise thus incorporating a more conducive pre-conflict resolution environment elements ICLWC which stands for: Identify the nature of conflict; Communicate effectively; Listen to one another, show the willingness to resolve the conflict and demonstrate Congruence of the mind. Therefore the article proposes setting a pre-conflict resolution environment (ICLWC) before identifying the appropriate conflict management strategies. It is also evident that organisations that take conflict audit and manage them amicably are likely to have a more satisfied work force and achieve their objectives.
I am now thoroughly disgusted with them; they live in ungrateful ease, and bend their whole minds to mischief. It seems as if God had given them over to a spirit of infidelity, and that they are open to conviction in no other line but that of punishment. It is time to have done with tarring, feathering, carting, and taking securities for their future good behavior; every sensible man must feel a conscious shame at seeing a poor fellow hawked for a show about the streets, when it is known he is only the tool of some principal villain, biassed into his offence by the force of false reasoning, or bribed thereto, through sad necessity. We dishonor ourselves by attacking such trifling characters while greater ones are suffered to escape; 'tis our duty to find them out, and their proper punishment would be to exile them from the continent for ever. The circle of them is not so great as some imagine; the influence of a few have tainted many who are not naturally corrupt. A continual circulation of lies among those who are not much in the way of hearing them contradicted, will in time pass for truth; and the crime lies not in the believer but the inventor. I am not for declaring war with every man that appears not so warm as myself: difference of constitution, temper, habit of speaking, and many other things, will go a great way in fixing the outward character of a man, yet simple honesty may remain at bottom. Some men have naturally a military turn, and can brave hardships and the risk of life with a cheerful face; others have not; no slavery appears to them so great as the fatigue of arms, and no terror so powerful as that of personal danger. What can we say? We cannot alter nature, neither ought we to punish the son because the father begot him in a cowardly mood. However, I believe most men have more courage than they know of, and that a little at first is enough to begin with. I knew the time when I thought that the whistling of a cannon ball would have frightened me almost to death; but I have since tried it, and find that I can stand it with as little discomposure, and, I believe, with a much easier conscience than your lordship. The same dread would return to me again were I in your situation, for my solemn belief of your cause is, that it is hellish and damnable, and, under that conviction, every thinking man's heart must fail him.
Like with so many other areas of utopian thought, Thomas More’s (1478–1535) epochal novel Utopia (1516) laid the groundwork for many of the later debates surrounding the issue of money. Above all else, More sought to show how western society’s infatuation with, and dependence upon, money as a carrier of value actually served as a hindrance to what he saw as the overarching goal of human civilization: namely, peace and prosperity. 4 In particular, More worried about the effects that the placing of such high value in monetary forms had upon societal relations, pointing out that ‘frauds, thefts, robberies, quarrels, tumults, contentions, seditions, murders, treacheries, and witchcrafts’ all tended to originate from disputes over money. 5 More also found his contemporaries infatuation with gold and silver intolerable and delights in describing how the inhabitants of the fictional Island of Utopia hold both metals in so little esteem, using them either for the ‘humblest items of domestic equipment’ (including chamber-‐pots!) or as symbolic markers of shame to be worn by those who have committed crimes. 6
however, been interpreted conspiratorially. They deserve more careful reading than they have usually been given. Viscount Lisle would claim that his earlier reports of troubles had been ignored and would emphasise his current difficulties; Cromwell would respond by accusing Lisle of failing to send him timely information. Historians have seized on Lisle’s accusations and dismissed Cromwell’s responses as hypocritical: Lisle, allegedly, was entirely right and Cromwell was subverting his authority by ignoring Lisle’s requests for help. But close reading of the sequence of letters will suggest rather that we should be wary of taking these letters as proof that Cromwell was in any way protecting religious
3 For example, Descartes’ rejection of the distinction, Reid argues, led him to conclude that “the material world has no bounds nor limits”, and that “the soul must have had ideas in its first formation, which, of consequence, are innate”. Others, such as Hume, were led to infer that “body is only a collection of qualities to which we give one name; and that the notion of a subject of inhesion, to which those qualities belong, is only a fiction of the mind”; or again, that “the soul is only a succession of related ideas, without any subject of inhesion”. IP, pp. 140-41 Along a similar vein, Reid rejects Priestley’s claim that the term ‘substance’ is “nothing more than a help to expression,. . . but not at all to conception”, that is, by arguing thus: “If the term Substance express any conception of the mind, though even an obscure conception, it m ust be a help to conception; and if it be no help to conception, it can express no conception clear or obscure, and then I apprehend it can be no help to expression but an incumbrance upon it, as till unmeaning words are.” MS 3 0 6 1 /1 /4 ,5 ; in AC, p. 176.
The second source of crime, for Hobbes, does appear to seamlessly tie together unjust acts and injustice. Hobbes notes that “[f]rom defect in reasoning (that is to say, from error), men are prone to violate the laws three ways” (Leviathan, 27/10, 153). It is the first with which we are here interested. “First,” according to Hobbes, “by presumption of false principles, as when men (from having observed how, in all places and in all ages, unjust actions have been authorized by the force and victories of those who have committed them, and that potent men, breaking through the cobweb laws of their country, the weaker sort, and those that have failed in their enterprises, have been esteemed the only criminals) have thereupon taken for principles, and grounds of their reasoning, That justice is but a vain word; that whatsoever a man can get by his own industry, and hazard, is his own; that the practice of all nations cannot be unjust; that examples of former times are good arguments of doing the like again, and many more of that kind; which being granted, no act in itself can be a crime, but must be made so (not by the law, but) by the success of them that commit it” (Leviathan, 27/10, 153). Hobbes is here implying that this particular source of transgression follows from the presumption that the determination of what constitutes legal transgressions is not grounded in justice (i.e., the social covenant that holds the authority of the sovereign’s law over renounced natural rights) but, rather, the determination of those who gain the kingdom by successful rebellion. This, as we shall see in section 2.5 below, is the foole’s position, and, accordingly, warrants its own analysis.
Latest cancer survey reports by the International Agency for Research on cancer reveal that there are 14.1 million new cancer cases worldwide, 8.2 million cancer deaths, and 32.6 million people living with cancer within 5 years of diagnosis. Less developed regions carry the major burden. With 528, 000 new cases popping up every year, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide, after breast, colorectal, and lung cancers. More than 25% of all new cases are diagnosed among the women in India. 1
The more we are able to connect the dots between the CIA, US military, and the occult practitioner network - as Thomas has already begun to do - the more we can understand why, beginning in the mid 90s, some of the same CIA employees and contractors - who had been involved in the CIA human experiments - actively and consistently testified, along with close associates in the FMSF, for the defense on behalf of "alleged" occult practitioners who were accused, usually by "alleged" child victims, of having committed occult crimes against the children and other victims. We may also eventually learn who funded their very expensive criminal defenses and legal appeals (if they were found guilty), which - over time - ensured that the vast majority of defendants accused of occult crimes against children went free.
The pattern, prevalence and health seeking behavior of genital infections vary from region to region. In developing countries, STI is one among the top five causes for which sexually active adults seek treatment. 7 Women aged 15–49 years, in poor and developing countries, lose about one third of their healthy life years due to reproductive illnesses. 8 Everyday, more than a million of sexually transmitted infections (STI) occur worldwide. An estimated 357 million people are newly infected with one of the four STIs - chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis, each year. Absence of symptoms or mild symptoms often hinders the recognition of STI among them. 9 More than 6% of the adults suffer from an episode of RTI/STI each year, in India. Infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancy, genital cancer, premature death and perinatal infections are the several consequences that women face if these infections are not treated at the earliest. If one has STI/RTI, the risk of HIV acquisition from an infected sexual partner increases by 8-10 fold. Hence, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of STI/RTI is considered as a very important and cost effective strategy for control of HIV. 7 The stigma associated often results in suppression of genital infections among women. 2,7 These women often face serious social consequences in terms of marital conflicts and ban from social & religious life. 10 There are only a few studies in Kerala and almost none in Kannur, which tries to assess the burden of genital infections among women in reproductive age group. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of genital infections among women in reproductive age group in a rural area in Kannur district, assess its association with various socio-demographic, menstrual and obstetric factors and to assess the health seeking behavior of the study population.
In our study majority (71.5%) of the subjects was males and females were 28.5%. The mean age of study subjects was 34.04±7.52 years, where mean age of males was 34.79±7.72 years and mean age of females was 32.15±6.66 years. Three fourths of the study population were married, most (42.75%) of them staying in a nuclear family and only a meager of 6% of them was staying in a joint family. Two thirds of the study subjects were working as engineers (junior cadre), almost half of them were having work experience of more than 5 years and three fourths of the study participants were working only in day shifts. About 63.25% of the study participants work on the computer for more than 7 hours in a day, laptop was the most (78%) commonly used device. Around (44%) of the study subjects were taking break from their work every 2 hours.
The study was conducted at DUT Library, which is located in the KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. The study population included thirty-three of the eighty-one permanently employed staff members at DUT Library. The forty-eight staff members who did not form part of the study group included those who function in library support services: namely the stack attendants, circulation desk staff, materials processing staff, administrative assistants and the researchers; the researchers excluded these staff members because none of them were users of SharePoint and could not be expected to have operational experience of the application. It was decided to limit the survey group to the thirty-three staff members who might be expected to have some experience of SharePoint because of their job roles. All thirty-three were sent the questionnaire, whilst a sample of twelve was drawn from this group for the focus group interviews. The sampling method employed was purposive sampling, which relied upon selecting a few informants who were known to have more extensive experience of using SharePoint and might reasonably be expected to have formed opinions about the application. Purposive sampling also gives the researcher better control over the variables involved (Singh 2006: 91). A further advantage is the cost and time saving associated with this type of sampling (Kothari 2004: 59).
independent learning affordances to formal education classrooms in contexts where a separate self-access learning center may not be available. This push for integration brings together the characteristics of the affordance-rich classrooms at the primary level from Thomas (2018a) and Edlin’s (2016) principles for self-access learning space design. As I have argued above, solely viewing the space and resources the space contains does little for us in understanding best practices in formal language education where we can expect a teacher to be present. There is a need to establish clearly defined methods for how teachers can best utilize affordance-rich, facilitative spaces—perhaps by scaffolding, monitoring, and assessing strategy usage. There is also a need to change the typically negative view of formal education settings to one that helps to develop learner autonomy and self-regulation, as concepts from strategic learning and formal strategy instruction can enhance learning in truly independent settings.
narrative, his attempts to achieve this authorial removal range from the use of temporally-distant foreign settings to framed narratives that force the audience to directly engage with matters of space. It is nonetheless possible, by closely examining Kyd’s rhetoric in its historical context, to illustrate the primary tensions which govern vengeance narratives on the Renaissance stage. By firmly establishing the most common conceptions of revenge during the period, we can begin to track the progress of these ideas across historical epochs. Because the play deftly synthesizes the rhetoric of historians, physicians, and theologians alike, it is also worth examining separate examples of different rhetorical modes. While the play has “no major narrative source” (Mulryne xv), its cultural influences are demonstrable. Though Kyd is partially indebted to Seneca, The Spanish Tragedy is better understood by analyzing prose documents which immediately precede and follow the work's popularization. This exploration reveals a strong undercurrent of violence and vengeance relating to the use of space; these traits are evident both in terms of the locally- specific examples and geographically-removed allegories explored in the works of Thomas Beard, Phillip Stubbes, and Thomas Adams.
Other important investigators include the New Zealand peace activist and investigative journalist Nicky Hagar. In 1996 Hagar published Secret Power, which was the first account of the real nature of relationships between the Five Eyes. Hagar showed how intelligence priorities that were actually relevant to New Zealand and to the Pacific nations more generally were systematically excluded in favour of American priorities. The book also revealed the nature and extent of ECHELON, and how it operated through ‘Dictionaries’ specific to each UKUSA party. The book was published by a very small press, and it was not until Steve Wright picked up on Hagar’s article for the first official European Parliament (EP) report on ECHELON, An Appraisal of the Technologies of Political Control (Wright 1998), that his work became truly appreciated. The EP also published the summation of Campbell's work, Interception Capabilities 2000 (Campbell 1999), and embarked on a series of inquiries into ECHELON, a history of which has just been produced by the European Union’s archives services (Piodi and Mombelli 2014).