musictherapy, that is, a sadder face was selected at the end of the session compared with the beginning. b Frequency of responses where the response after musictherapy was higher than before musictherapy, that is, a happier face was selected at the end of the session compared with the beginning. c Frequency of responses where the response after musictherapy was the same as before musictherapy, that is, no change.
Looking back at the early sessions of co-therapy I am now aware of feeling a bit limited, less intuitive and thus participating in a way that was not completely natural for me. I realise I restricted myself a bit, as I perhaps was sometimes wondering what was appropriate to do. It certainly is a challenge for some people to fully expose themselves in front of people they are not very familiar with as Bull and Roberts (2005) also suggest. Exposure is a part of what we do in musictherapy as we allow ourselves to be musically expressive. Questions like ‘how much do I show of my musicality?’ and ‘If I play more fully on the drum now and use my technical skills will it help the client?’ were at the back of my mind as I was considering the other therapist’s view, and leadership. Debriefs and discussions between the therapists were helpful in realising some of the answers to those queries and as the experience grew so did the trust and understanding, and a more mutual and natural relationship evolved. As a student, it is important to state that learning is definitely in the core of the co-therapy experience, and having the opportunity to work alongside an experienced therapist was without doubt a great learning process. Naomi, on the other hand, commented that she enjoyed seeing the clients through new eyes as she had experienced facilitating musictherapy with those clients on her own previous to the co-therapy period.
Throughout the execution of this study it became possible to state that music or musictherapy have a great effective potential in the anxiety and stress levels reduction in ICU’s patients, and that effect should be applied to all hospital context, in the aspect that it’s seen as a physical and spiritual patient’s recovery alternative therapy. Therefore, due to the fact it reaches every single person present in these environments, it is possible to recognize a relation to a more humanized care that reflects on the sedation period of time reduction, pain perception reduction, and also it does not promote any patient loss, being side effect free, consequently seen as a non-pharmacological measure.
Apparently contradicting this regulatory emphasis on improvisation, the recent articulation of “Community Music Terapy” (Pavlicevic & Ansdell, 2004; Stige, et al., 2010) suggests that musictherapy practice incorporates diverse manifestations of musical interaction. Furthermore, none of the early pioneers of improvisatory practice exclusively improvised. Documentary flm footage of Nordof and Robbins’ work reveals a spectrum of forms of musical activity, ranging from ‘purely’ improvisatory means of establishing contact and musical relationship with an individual child, via the use of structured songs, to the rehearsing and performance of complex musical plays, often in front of an audience. In his study of the work of Nordof and Robbins, Aigen (1998, pp. 234-235) notes a tendency in many cases for there to be movement over the course of therapy from a predominance of improvisation towards the use of song and song structures, but also acknowledges the inter-relatedness of improvisation and composed music. Tis seems an important consideration to set alongside the all too often black-and-white rhetoric of the discourses surrounding contemporary musictherapy. In musical terms, improvisation is rarely, if ever, a discrete practice separated from other modes of music making. Improvisation needs resources: often it develops out of the playing or singing of pre- composed music. Pre-composed music, likewise, can be a ‘frming up’ of improvisation.
This case study research explores the impact of a musical performance event—the Coffee House—held bi-annually at an adolescent mental health treatment facility in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Any client or staff member is welcomed to perform at this event, which is organized by the facility’s music therapist and framed here as an example of community musictherapy. Drawing upon Turino’s (2008) ethnomusicological perspective on performance, I will argue that the Coffee House’s success within this context is due to its participatory ethos, wherein success is primarily defined by the act of participation. Here, performance takes place within an inclusive and supportive atmosphere in which participants can overcome anxiety, engage in the risk-taking of performance, and experience increased self-efficacy and confidence. This ethos also naturally affords a “levelling” of institutional relationship dynamics. Resonant with Aigen’s (2004) vision that “performances as community musictherapy can forge a new type of art, one that creates meaning and invites participation” (p. 211), the Coffee House
Musictherapy training is now offered in universities and other educational settings throughout the world. established in 1985, the World Federation of Musictherapy brings together musictherapy associations and individuals for global musictherapy promotion and collaboration. the World Federation definition of musictherapy is: the use of music and/or its musical elements (sound, rhythm, melody and harmony) by a qualified music therapist, with a client or group, in a process designed to facilitate and promote communication, relationships, learning, mobilization, expression, organization and other relevant therapeutic objectives in order to meet physical, emotional, mental, social and cognitive needs. Musictherapy aims to develop potentials and/or restore functions of the individual so that he or she can achieve better … interpersonal integration and, consequently, a better quality of life, through prevention, rehabilitation or treatment. 30
• Music for AIR (Advances in Respiration) n=200 Clinic, CCR, Nursing Homes (in press) Summary of the Training and Orientations at the Louis Armstrong Center We provide weekly and monthly trainings-shorter visits are orientations and observations and monthly trainings are more in-depth. We teach and tutor on our musictherapy approaches and professionals as well as students, doctors, nurses, social workers and chaplains with interest and/or former music training or healthcare study backgrounds are welcome to attend. We are also an AMTA- approved training site for musictherapy students seeking the internship for board certification and our program can lead to Child Life certification if applicants specify for this. For musictherapy professionals seeking advanced training in our music psychotherapy approach, we have an International Training Institute and the Thanks to Scandinavia programs which run throughout the year or within the Summer months. We are affiliated with the International Association for Music and Medicine (IAMM) which is an association comprised of medical professionals and music therapists and music and medicine professionals. Their conference was July 3-8, 2012 in Bangkok, Thailand.
Purpose: To investigate the effects of musictherapy on depressive mood and anx- iety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregiv- ers. Materials and Methods: Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group partic- ipated in the musictherapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after musictherapy. Satisfaction with musictherapy was evaluat- ed by a questionnaire. Results: BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after musictherapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Musictherapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative. Conclusion: Musictherapy has a posi- tive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood im- provement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are need- ed in this field.
Surveys conducted with student music therapists have previously revealed verbal and communication skills to be a domain that requires greater attention on training programmes (Clements-Cortes, 2015). While not all music therapists may require the same level of competence in verbal techniques due to working with non-verbal popu- lations, there may be a basic level of training that is appropriate for entry-level gradu- ates to ensure that they are equipped to deal with diverse verbal scenarios. This corre- sponds with Grocke and Wigram’s (2007) recommendations that comprehensive coun- selling skills are not essential to musictherapy practice, but some training is evidently beneficial. Edwards and McFerran (2004) previously made recommendations about ed- ucating musictherapy students about sensitive topics such as childhood sexual abuse, stating, “It is a challenging responsibility to ensure that students are prepared for the work that awaits them in the field, and in particular are alerted and appropriately pre- pared for the requirements of working therapeutically with vulnerable populations” (p. 335). The present authors concur that addressing potentially triggering topics within the safety of a training programme may buffer distress if these issues arise unexpect- edly for students on clinical placement.
Concluding; which therapeutic instrumental music performance exercises are the best candidates to be adopted by an interactive installation? A variety of exercises are performed during TIMP sessions. It doesn’t really matter which are chosen, as long as there is a variation between which muscle groups are stimulated. All these exercises should be performed to simple (metronome) or more complex music, as long as it doesn’t become too cognitively demanding. For certain exercises the use of arpeggio’s or scales can be used as a guiding help. Conventional musictherapy is effective in increasing gait speed and step length etc. in Parkinson’s patients. As an extension to this, research has been done on the effect of visual cues on therapies for Parkinson’s patients. Most of these studies shown that visual cues can help increase step length, gait speed and range of motion in Parkinson’s disease, with only some studies claiming a decline in walking speed. Studies agreed, however, that some patients found visual cues challenging to use, therefore they should be kept simple. Most studies are positive about the use of visual cues and therefore it is feasible to improve TIMP exercises by adding visual cues.
SLO 1: Students’ ability to describe research findings and utilize, combine, or integrate these findings within the practice of musictherapy will be assessed via a student presentation as the culminating project in MUS 768. Students cannot enroll in MUS 768 until all other degree credits have been completed. This includes 12 credits in musictherapy, 9 credits in electives, and 3 credits in music coursework have been completed. Student competency will be assessed by the students’ thesis committee using a presentation rubric. Eighty percent of all students will receive a proficient or higher rating.
Musictherapy trainings in the UK share the belief that the process of relating rather than the musical product is essential to therapy and all use primarily improvised music. However there are differences of emphasis and in the perspective from which the relationship is viewed. Despite these differences a core syllabus has been agreed and the profession stipulates this as the pre-requisite for qualifying. This syllabus can be put under 6 headings: MusicTherapy theory and practice, clinical studies in related disciplines, music skills, personal development, clinical placements and research studies.
Some music therapists present at the meeting made positive, encouraging comments about the audiovisual system on questionnaires we asked them to fill out. Their responses indicated that the audiovisual instrument would be useful in musictherapy and community music, and that the instrument could be useful for work with children, teenagers, adults, and clients with phys- ical or mental difficulties. Music therapist Bianca La Rosa Dallimer commented that research would be needed on the suitability of an audio- visual instrument to particular client groups. For example, she wrote, in some cases the visuals may “distract the client from the music” whereas in other situations “… the visuals may be a ‘way in’ to a client who was previously struggling to become engaged in the music.”
Music is long known to produce remarkable results for humans and other animal species, musictherapy appears to benefit for plant life as well. There are different opinions about the effect of music on plants, whether they feel or understand music. It has been noted that hu- man conversation in the vicinity of plants would cause accelerated and strong growth. Studies on the effect of music on plant growth began as early as 1968 with Dorothy Retal- lack. She compared the effects of different types of music on plant growth. She was the first to deliver this subject through her book: The sound of Music and Plants 1 . Her observa- tions were that plant life flourished when treated to classical music and withered when
When the participants were asked about whether there were any significant moments in the musictherapy sessions they could recall, their responses were interesting. They all seemed to try to pin point the particular things they saw their child did either during or between the sessions. Even though some could point out specific moments and things the child might suddenly achieve, the improvement happened incrementally and the child seemed to have come a long way. For example, Vicky, in case 2, thought that the significant moments came from those little moments of improvement in each session. Those moments were like “little windows” that let her realise Ryan was in fact making good progress. Musictherapy provided those little moments of achievement that made the intervention meaningful for the carers and their child. The musictherapy process offered the opportunity for carers to see what their child could achieve with the resources they had. In other words, it helped them to see beyond their child’s disabilities and discover their potential in the process of a shared music experience. Boxill (2007) stated that the music therapist helped the client progress with a “pattern of small successes, giving direct reinforcement, and identifying the client’s accomplishments in ways that can be received, understood, and assimilated, and the momentum for reaching objectives and goals is created”.
Other research studies which recorded the usefulness of musictherapy include Hilliard (2001) examining the effects of musictherapy intervention on women suffering from eating disorders; Longhofer and Floersch (1993) who used drum ensemble to assist psychiatric patients to achieve a sense of competency; Gold, Wigram, and Berger (2001) who conducted a pilot study to examine the effects of individual musictherapy with children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders on their symptoms and quality of life; and Silverman (2002) who studied the benefits of musictherapy in both short and long-term mental health facilities. These studies all pointed towards the idea that musictherapy is useful in supporting patients to reach their treatment goals using a variety of musictherapy activities. For example, Hilliard (2001) found that by using song-writing, singing, drumming, and lyric analysis, patients seemed motivated as they engaged in their treatment and their views towards the treatment process also became more positive. Gold et al. (2001), on the other hand, found musical improvisation to be the most successful intervention in improving the patients‟ symptoms and competencies. Last but not least, Silverman (2002) found that by implementing a song-writing programme, the patient‟s was able to develop appropriate behaviour and that these behaviours were able to transfer from musictherapy groups to other settings on the unit.
This action research project examines the researcher’s journey of establishing a therapeutic relationship with a child with autism spectrum disorder during her practicum. Children with ASD present difficulty in communication and social relationship skills. As a student in training with a limited experience, the researcher had uncertainty and low confidence with regard to her clinical and professional skills which affected her work. In this project, the researcher has examined her own process of musictherapy with a child with ASD and shows how she was able to improve her practice and therefore establish meaningful and effective therapeutic relationships with this client population and obtain valuable learning through the training. The study was conducted at a dedicated therapy centre in New Zealand where the researcher was in placement. A total of seven, thirty-minute weekly individual musictherapy sessions and four
Lastly, as the musictherapy session always took place in the playroom, I shared space with other activities in the room; therefore sometimes these activities and the musictherapy sessions affected each other to some extent. As they were part of the playroom, my musictherapy sessions needed to be flexible, in accordance with the goals, themes or principles that applied in this room. For example, during the time coinciding with the 4 th cycle, the playroom was bedecked with Christmas decorations; and for my session to be in keeping with this atmosphere, I started to learn Christmas carols. I was able to feel part of the community not only because of the music I played, but also because I could engage other people in the playroom in celebration of the special occasion. During my playing, the mother of a patient encouraged the patient to sing along, and the play specialist joined in a conversation with the mother and me to suggest other popular Christmas songs. This would have made it possible for the mother to share her worry about her child with the play specialist. This example shows the importance of blending in with, or being flexible regarding, the room’s atmosphere, because my flexibility had the potential to influence other people and bring about a convivial, celebratory ambience.
According to Bunt (1994), in treating some children with cognitive disabilities or speech impairment, encouragement and stimulation of all kinds of vocal activity through musical interaction becomes an important feature of the musictherapy approach. To prompt communication, it is suggested that natural methods of achieving this (for instance vocalisation and eye directing) be used (Pennington, 2008). Gentle humming – which is an approach commonly used in early intervention (Schwarts, 2008) – may also encourage the child to try to match the sound, especially when working with non-verbal clients (Coulson, 2004). It could create the sense of a ‘home’ environment in which parents, especially hum and sing songs to their children. Bunt (1994) has stated that “synchronous vocal interaction with a young child often employs silences, switch-over points and other non-verbal cues that break up the sustained stream of vocal play into antiphonal turn-taking. The relaxed and child- centred setting of much musictherapy with this age-group often fosters playful exploration of vocal sounds” (Bunt, 1994a, p. 94). Thus, much stressing, pausing, repetition and differing durations are observable in these systems, but somehow this may lead to unclear patterns of interaction, so the music therapist must be proficient in responding nonverbally at the right time in order to maximise the musical responses of the child (Bunt, 1994b; Wheeler, Shultis, & Polen, 2005).
Ancient Greek papers mention a thinker Ismenias who claimed that epilepsy was effectively treated by music of aulos (an oboe- like wooden instrument with a tongue) (quoted from West, 2000); in his work The Influence of Music on Health and Life (1875) a French doctor Hector Chomet describes a case where listening to music helped prevent a seizure (quoted from Licht, 2007). The importance of music in the treatment of epilepsy in different periods is proved by the scientific study of W. F. Kümmel Musik und Medizin: Ihre Wechselbezienhugen in Theorie und Praxis von 800 bis 1800 (Freiburg, 1977). In the work telling the history of musictherapy, the author arranged its chapters by diseases subject to musictherapy rather than by periods. Epilepsy is mentioned alongside melancholy, fever, insomnia, plaque, tuberculosis, apoplectic stroke and pain (Horden (ed.), 2000).