Even when impairments are self-reported, as is likely in the case of visual acuity in the NSS, it is worth reflecting on the findings of the labor economics litera- ture that commonly uses self-reported disability indica- tors in empirical estimates of labor supply models. Typically in this literature, the addition of other objec- tive (clinically defined) health measures adds very little to the explanatory power of analyses . Some researchers have criticized the validity of self-reported disability measures and argued that people may overre- port disability to justify their difficulties in the labor market [19-22]. Other studies, however, have found little evidence of endogeneity of self-reported disability mea- sures and labor force participation [23,24]. In our study, moreover, the validity of disability measures is not com- promised by this justification hypothesis as the National Sample Survey for India did not explore questions of health and retirement in the same survey. Given the extremely limited nature of social protection programs, there is no real incentive for individuals to overreport disability.
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Using disability and chronic ailment as a proxy for health status, Gupta and Sankar (2003) have found that economic condition and living arrangements influence the reporting of physical vulnerability among aged in India. In a recent study, Mini (2009) had assessed the contribution of different factors to the overall health status (measured by combining self-perceived health status, physical mobility and presence of any disease) among the elderly population of Kerala and concluded that while women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility were better for men. Alam (2008) found that caste, widowhood and public health measures were major determinants of health status among rural elderly. However, these studies have focused on a single point of time, using either primary surveys or data from any one of the National Sample Survey (NSS) 52 nd and 60 th rounds (relating to 1994-95 and 2004, respectively).
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The study uses NSS data. The Indian National Sample Survey (NSS) has been conducting Household Consumption Expenditure surveys regularly since its inception in 1950. The data used in this study is MPCE (Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure) For a population with low per capita income levels, Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure (MPCE) is perhaps a better indicator of the economic well- being of people than per capita income estimates (Planning Commission, 2002). The MPCE is considered to be a fair indicator of human living standards, since it aggregates the monetary value of all goods and services actually consumed during a particular reference period. (This includes consumption out of purchase, home produce, free collection, gifts etc.). The MPCE data spans over 17 years of post- reforms period and it pertains to the following years: 1993-94, 1999-00, 2004-05, 2009-10.
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At the time of independence the share of public health facilities was 92 percent in total in-patient care (Radan, 2005; cited in Klein Thilo, 2011). The reasons of this inclination towards private health care were weak public health care delivery system along with poor quality of care offered by those public facilities and other related issues (RAO P.H An analysis from the same round of data shows that the reasons of ailments not treated from government facilities were quality issues (42.7%), long waiting time (27.3%), medical facility too far (11.6%) and required specific services not available (10.3%). In India, currently two-thirds of the total health expenditure was financed by out-of-pocket spending (NHA, 2013-14). Another recent survey shows that “nearly 65 percent of households in India paid their medical expenses from out-of-pocket and they will continue to do so in future also”. The report also says that “53 percent Indians are not prepared for any large unexpected medical expenses” (Signa 360 0 well-being survey, 2017). In 2014, the first major sources of finance for household out-of- pocket spending for hospitalization were household income and saving (74%), borrowing (20.4%) and contribution from friends and relatives (4.3%). Of the total cases of hospitalization, only in 2.9 percent cases the cost of hospitalization has been reimbursed partially or fully with fairly variation between rural (1.2%) and urban areas (6.2%) (NSS report 71st round). The low public spending on healthcare is one of the reasons of this high out-of-pocket spending. The current public spending on health as percentage of GDP is 1.15 percent which is the lowest among BRICS nations (NHA, 2013-14). The 2017 National Health Policy says that the public expenditure on health should be increased to 2.5% of GDP from the existing 1.15 percent by 2025, so as to provide basic healthcare facilities to all. But in the present scenario it is quite difficult to achieve the target without increasing revenue base as it is rightly mentioned by Bibek Debroy, member of NITI Aayog ( Health in India: where the money comes from and where it goes? The Hindu, August, 2016).
2014 (Appendix). For example, in 2014 (71 st round) morbid- ity schedule introduced ‘all other fevers’ (includes malaria, ty- phoid and fevers of unknown origin) as other morbidity but, in 2004 morbidity schedule, malaria was categorized under infectious disease. Therefore, it is likely to have affected in the prevalence of self-reported morbidity. Other backward class was included in other caste in the first round of NSS. Hence, a higher prevalence of self-reported morbidity among the other caste group needs to be read in this light. More- over, food habits, life style, physical activity etc. [31–33] which may have a significant bearing especially on NCDs have not been examined in this study. There is a scope to in- clude these factors in large scale nationally representative survey such as NSS. Despite these limitations, the emerging trend analysis in this study is useful to understand the morbidity conditions in the states of India to inform policy on management of infectious, CVDs, NCDs and disability re- lated morbidities in India.
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Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age‑adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z‑test to measure differences in age‑adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large‑scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. Key words: Age, confounding, covariates, India, intellectual disability, National Sample Survey Organization report, population studies, prevalence, rural, urban
Doctors demonstrated a positive effect on initiation of breastfeeding. Surprisingly, assistance by nurses and midwifes and traditional birth attendants (TBA) did not demonstrate any effectiveness on breastfeeding initiation. Dennis  noted in her literature review that health professionals might have a negative influence on breast- feeding if their knowledge or advice is inaccurate or in- consistent. Unfortunately, this demonstrates noncompli- ance with the ten steps of successful breastfeeding where it is stated that hospital staff should support mothers to initiate breastfeeding within the first half hour of birth . This finding has strong policy implication. Apart from the physicians all other health care staff in India and other low income countries must be instructed to advice their expecting-patients on benefits of early initia- tion of breastfeeding.
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Andaman & Nicobar Islands are a chain of 572 islands surrounded by Coco Channel in the north, Great Channel in the south, Andaman Sea in the east and the Bay of Bengal in the west. These islands are biologically diverse with extensive fringing reefs around the continental shelf in the east, while a barrier reef is also found in the western region which is 350km away from the coast (Venkataraman et al. 2003). The fascinating marine biodiversity of Andaman & Nicobar Islands emphasises the scope of a wide range of faunal communities to work with. Studies on corals, fishes, molluscs, crabs, sea anemones and planktons of Andaman & Nicobar Islands have been carried out from a very early date, while the ascidians are least studied from these areas. The ascidians are well known primitive chordates, common in the coral reef ecosystem, and the only group of chordate to represent retrogressive metamorphosis as a developmental pattern (Ruppert et al. 2004). Ascidians exhibit an ample range of habitat from intertidal zone to greater depth of ocean up to 6,500m (Kott 1969). Ascidians are studied worldwide due to their fouling and invasive nature (Lambert 2002; Minchin et al. 2006; Lengyel et al. 2009; Locke 2009) and for their phylogenic importance (Wada 1998; Corbo et al. 2001; Monero & Rocha 2008). The taxonomical studies on Indian ascidians were mainly based on the coast of the Indian peninsula and a total of 388 species were also recorded (Meenakshi et al. 2003). Seven non-indigenous species were reported from Thoothikudi Port, India (Jaffarali et al. 2014). Till 2012, only seven species of ascidians, i.e.,
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The present study attempts to fill in some of the gaps. Conducted in May 2004, after 44 months of ongoing ter- ror attacks in Israel, this is a follow-up of our previous study on Israelis' responses to terror . The original study examined the psychological impact of terrorism on a representative sample of Israelis 19 months after the out- break of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in October 2000 . The present study was a telephone survey of a different sample of Israelis, and assessed a range of psychological responses among various sectors of the population: men and women, Jews and Arabs, religious and non-religious, Israeli-born and immigrants. The analyses focused on the correlates of and contributors to vulnerability and resil- ience. In addition to examining the role of individual fac- tors (e.g., exposure, psychological features, demographic features, and prior life experiences), it also examined the possible role played by distress concerning other societal problems, a factor not considered in previous studies. Methods
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Gravity base network was established and the gravity values were published in different parts viz Part-I:-150 gravity bases in South India (Qureshy and Brahmam, 1969); Part-II:- 93 gravity bases in Northern and Western India (Qureshy and Warsi, 1972); Part-III:- 50 gravity bases in North India (Qureshy and Warsi, 1973);Part-IV:- 125 gravity bases in North Eastern India (Qureshy et al., 1973) and Part-V:- 16 gravity bases in Central India (Subba Rao et al., 1982).During these investigations, several of the SOI stations were reoccupied for standardization anda few new first order and secondary gravity bases were also established by various organisations(Murthy et al. 1976; Verma et al. 1979; Singh et al., 1986 and Radhakrishna et al., 1998). Regional gravity surveys carried out by GSI over the Deccan traps during 1964-1970 delineated two major lineaments, one along the west coast and other along the 21st parallel degree north of the Earth’s equatorial plane (Kailasam et al ., 1972). A detailed gravity survey covering 1900 gravity measurements in the Singhbhum region was carried out, which revealed Bouguer anomalies ranging from +10 mGal in the eastern part to about -60 mGal over the Singhbum granite batholith (Verma et al., 1984). Further, a large numberof gravity measurements are carried out under the National Gravity Programme by SOI. GSI launched National Geophysical Mapping (NGPM) programme during the 2002-2003 with an objective to generate gravity and magnetic responses in potential areas of mineral exploration.
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The promotion of female autonomy is both intrinsically and instrumentally desir- able. We document differences in the distribution of female autonomy in India (using the National Family Health Survey 2005-6) addressing two methodological challenges: the multidimensional nature of the concept and its frequent measurement with ordinal discrete variables (which are not amenable to direct comparisons of social averages). We tackle these challenges with three methods based on stochastic dominance techniques suited for ordinal and dichotomous variables. Whenever these dominance conditions hold for a pairwise comparison, we can conclude that the multidimensional autonomy distribution in one state is more desirable than in another one across a broad range of criteria for the individual and social welfare evaluation of autonomy. Consistently across the three methods, we find that most of the states with better autonomy distribu- tions (in pairwise comparisons) come from the North East and the South, whereas most of the states with worse autonomy distributions come from the North.
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members of Steering committee and Technical Working Group for the pilot mental health survey. Our sincere thanks goes to Dr. David Vincent Sheehan, distinguished university health professor emeritus, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, USA for his guidance during different phases of this study. We would like to thank Mr. Raj Kumar Subedi for his help in language editing. This study would not have been possible without the efforts of field data enumerators, and our survey participants. We are grateful to Nepal Government and WHO Country Office for Nepal for financial support to conduct this study.
The country has emerged as the largest private sector employer of India as it generated the employment to the tune of 4.5 million people (direct and indirect) out of which 50 percent comes in the category of below 25 years of age (NASSCOM, 2011). The study undertaken by Vaid (2009); Amoribieta et.al, (2001); NASSCOM and McKinsy (2005) stated that India continued to be the prominent location to outsource business activities, in spite of tough competition from other developing nations. Ramesh (2004) reasoned that the growth of Information Communication and Technology (ICT), low cost labour and availability of larger number of English speaking youth have emerged India as one of the desired destinations of BPOs.
ficant reduction in fertility has been achieved in the recent period. According to the sample registration system estimate, the crude birth rate in the rural sector of Kerala, which has about 84 percent of the state's population, declined from about 37 in 1965-66 to 27 in 1974. A decline of this order in a span of less than 10 years is not only of great significance to other states in India but also to other developing countries because Kerala does not in any way rank high among the Indian states in terms of per capita income and in terms of the level of indus trialization and urbanization. As a matter of fact, Kerala occupies only an intermediate position among the states of India in many of the economic indicators. Then, how this state could achieve a significant reduction in the birth rate?
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Corbet & Hill (1992) and Agrawal (2000) synonymized this taxon under the species Rattus rattus without any details. Musser & Carleton (1993), however, listed it as a subspecies of Rattus tanezumi (Temminck). Musser & Carleton (2005), on the basis of the law of priority, validated it as a separate species Rattus andamanensis and synonymized burrulus (Miller, 1902); flebilis (Miller, 1902); holchu Chaturvedi, 1966 (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India); sikkimensis Hinton, 1919 (Sikkim, India); hainanicus G.M. Allen, 1925 (Hainan); klumensis (Kloss, 1916); koratensis Kloss, 1919; kraensis (Kloss, 1916); remotus (Robinson and Kloss, 1914) (Thailand) and yaoshanensis Shih, 1930 (China) under it, and also noted that on verification of multivariate analysis of morphometric traits shows Andaman Island populations and those on mainland Indochina are the same species. Rattus andamanensis is now widely distributed in Andaman & Nicobar Islands (islands of North Andaman, Interview, Middle Andaman, Long, Henry Lawrence, Havelock, South Andaman, Little Andaman, Car Nicobar & northernmost of the Nicobar Isles.), northeastern India (Sikkim, northern West Bengal, Arunachal
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This study used data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized, adult US population to investigate the association between COPD and CVD. Our aims were: 1) To measure prevalence of CVDs in COPD patients; 2) to determine if the diagnosis of COPD is an independent risk factor for CVD after adjusting for major sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbidity risk factors, including physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking; 3) to stratify COPD as a CVD risk factor in different age and gender groups; 4) to determine in a case-control study whether COPD plays a role as an independent risk for cardiovascular morbidity amplifying effect of smoking. We hypothesized that the diagnosis of “COPD” increases the risk of having CVD, independently of smoking history, age, gender, and lifestyle risks known to lead to CVD.
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Another important variable the NFHS collected data on was the amount of education received by the respondent. Questions about education included: years of education, highest educational level, educational attainment, and school attendance. Highest educational level contained the most complete data for each survey year. Table 5 below shows the data on educational attainment for the two survey years and the totals of the study sample. A large proportion of women in both years reported having no formal education. However, almost one third of the respondents reported completing at least secondary education. While a large proportion of women reported having no formal education, this percentage decreased from NFHS-2 to NFHS-3 (49-38%). In addition, a larger proportion reported completing secondary education although slightly fewer women reported having any primary education. The smallest proportion of women indicated that they completed higher education.
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The Constitution of India recognizes the vulnerable position of children and need for their right to protection. Following the doctrine of protective discrimination special attention to children has been provided so that necessary and special laws and policy could be made of to safe guard their rights. But till now, Child Abuse is rampant in our country and the existent laws and rights are not adequate enough to safe guard the interests of the children. A large amount of Child Abuses are even not penalized due to non-existent of specific provisions of Indian Penal Code. For instance, there are no specific provisions of law for dealing with sexual harassment of male children.
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A national survey in India state that 70% of milk sold and consumed in India is adulterated by contaminants such as a detergent and impure water, impure water is most Harmful. Usually the adulteration will make the product more profitable, while the fraud goes undetected. Milk adulteration is very common food fraud and is posing a big social problem in today’s world.
We obtained prevalence estimates of smoking and other behavioral risk factors from the Ontario sample of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The CCHS provides ongoing cross-sectional estimates of health determinants, health status, and health system utilization at a sub-provincial level in two-year cycles. The target population of the CCHS includes household residents over 12 years of age in all provinces and terri- tories, with the principal exclusion of populations on Indian reserves, Canadian military bases, and some re- mote areas. Respondents to the CCHS were linked to the Registered Persons Database (RPDB), containing information on births and deaths in Ontario.
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