CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results of this study show that lysozyme, as a naturalantimicrobial agent, can be considered as a suitable replacement for synthetic antibiotics. Conjugations with polysaccharides, such as dextran, can improve the lysozyme activity particularly against Gram negative bacteria. Lysozyme or lysozyme conjugated dextran reduce bacterial count in the infected skin wound which make these potentially useful for wound healing.
The present study attempts to assess the efficacy of active packaging films incorporating naturalantimicrobial agent like cinnamon essential oil (CEO) into sodium alginate- calcium formulations to extend the shelf- life of paneer at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 ºC). Paneer, analogous to the western cottage cheese, is characterized by a short shelf- life mainly due to spoilage by psychrotrophs, coliforms, yeasts and molds. Natural methods of preserving paneer are an improvement of food safety since there is growing concern among the population about the chemical nature of sorbates and other chemical preservatives used. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has been identified to possess outstanding antioxidant activity as well as high antimicrobial activity against a wide range of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms. Paneer samples were left untreated (C), or were treated with alginate- calcium coating incorporating 2.5% cinnamon essential oil (CP). Proximate analyses, microbial and sensory analyses of all the samples were performed at regular intervals for a period of 15 days in order to determine the storage stability of the paneer samples. Cinnamon essential oil in alginate- calcium coating treatment could efficiently maintain the quality of the paneer samples during storage better than that of the control. Edible coating also increased the shelf- life of paneer samples to 13 days from 5- 6 days of the control sample.
The presence of antioxidants influences the mental and physical health of human beings. The most important source of antioxidants is present in different parts of plants which are the derivatives of phenolic and flavonoids . A variety of synthetic antioxidants have been introduced in food products, i.e. butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), propyl gallate (PG) and tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ). These synthetic antioxidants are not only cheap and efficient but also have lethal effect which damages the health. On these grounds, there is a need to find out and identify the natural compounds which are less detrimental and replace the synthetic antioxidants .
systems that inhibit microbial spoilage (An et al., 1998; Bagamboula et al., 2004; Chung et al., 2001a; Devlieghere et al., 2004b; Miltz et al., 2006; Quintavalla & Vicini, 2002; Weng & Hotchkiss, 1993). Different studies have shown that AM packaging systems can extend the shelf life of packaged foods by extending the lag phase and reducing the growth rate of spoilage microorganisms (Appendini & Hotchkiss, 2002; Coma, 2008; Cooksey, 2001; De Olivera et al., 2007; Devlieghere et al., 2004a; Han, 2000; Rardniyom et al., 2008b; Rupika et al., 2008b; Rydlo et al., 2006; Suppakul et al., 2011b). To diminish food spoilage by microorganisms, different AM agents are commonly incorporated directly into food products to preserve them from microbial contamination. This method has many disadvantages: (i) consumers today prefer foods with no or minimal synthetic additives because of concerns of side effects; (ii) since food spoilage occurs primarily on the surface, incorporation of relatively large quantities of the quite expensive agents in the bulk of the food is not justified; (iii) some of the synthetic agents possess a distinct flavour, rendering the flavour of the food, and (iv) synthetic additives have to be declared on the package which is a disadvantage from the consumers' attitude prospective. Antimicrobial agents that have the potential to be used in food packaging applications can be divided into synthetic and natural ones (Kuorwel et al., 2011a).
The relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations were also investigated. In this studies the antimicrobial peptides SLPI, elafin, pentraxin, LL-37, α-defensins and β-defensin-2, and the protease neutrophil elastase were evaluated. The authors con- cluded that neutrophil elastase was significantly in- creased and SLPI and elafin significantly reduced after rhinovirus infection exclusively in subjects with COPD with secondary bacterial infections, and SLPI and elafin levels correlated inversely with bacterial load. Rhinovi- rus infections are frequently followed by secondary bac- terial infections in COPD and cleavage of the antimicro- bial peptides SLPI and elafin by virus-induced neutrophil elastase may precipitate in these secondary bacterial in- fections. Therapy targeting neutrophil elastase or en- hancing innate immunity may be useful novel therapies for prevention of secondary bacterial infections in virus- induced COPD exacerbations .
Health and hygiene are the primary requirements for human beings to live comfortably and work with maximum efficiency. The study conducted focuses preliminarily on the development of herbal finishes for conventional cotton terry fabrics used in kitchens to suppress the kitchen borne bacteria. An investigation was undertaken to determine the bacterial contamination using 6 samples from vegetarian and non vegetarian kitchens of common houses and hotels were collected and inferred presence of bacterial species namely Moraxella sp, Staphylococcus sp, Escherichia sp, Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumonia. Naturalantimicrobial plants Syzygium aromaticum (Ginger) and Zingiber officinale (Clove) were selected, and their bioactive compounds were extracted by Soxhlet and applied in different proportions on 100% white cotton terry fabrics by using pad- dry- cure method. Five samples were produced in different proportions of Ginger and Clove. SEM and FTIR investigations clearly ensure the presence of the herbal in the fabrics. The antibacterial activity of the fabrics were assessed using standard AATCC 147 test methods and the inhibition zone ranges from 1 mm to 7 mm. The ginger 25% clove 75% sample had better antibacterial activity against all the bacteria when compared to the other samples. The finish is also evaluated by real time usage.
As a trial study, the pro-regions of nematode cecro- pins were selected as parent sequences. Nematode cecropins are naturalantimicrobial peptides [13-15]. Four nematode cecropins (P1-P4) have been identified in the pig roundworm, Ascaris suum . A pro-region (26-30 residues long) is conserved at the C terminus of nematode cecropin precursors (Figure 1). It contains 4-6 acidic residues that might interact with mature pep- tides to suppress their antimicrobial activity in the pre- cursor form . Basic residues including a unique tribasic site, (H/R)RR, are also present at the N termi- nus. These sequences are expected to be promising par- ent sequences because the pro-regions have been estimated to acquire strong net positive charges by acid- amide substitution.
implemented by various environmental bodies such as EPU 3 . The active agent used in antimicrobial finishing should be effective only against undesirable organisms. It should also be nontoxic, safe and biodegradable and should have long durability. The natural agents with their effective antimicrobial activity and less adverse consequences are being used at present to overcome the problems caused by synthetic agents. India has a rich biodiversity with more than 450 plants available for dye extraction and antimicrobial finishing 4 . The use of different naturalantimicrobial agents like aloe vera, eucalyptus, turmeric, neem, and basil has been already reported in textile production. This shows that most of the naturalantimicrobial agents are mainly derived from different medicinal plants 5 . Though much research has been done on the technical and functional aspects of production or synthetic antimicrobial finishing, only a few research papers are available on naturalantimicrobial finishing. This paper offers a comprehensive, critical review of the use of natural products and their applications in antimicrobial finishing finishing on textiles. Numerous antimicrobial agents reported have been taken from natural sources. The following (Table 1) lists the active agents taken from plants and their modes of action against microbes.Table 2 represents their spectrum of activity. Disc diffusion method (AATCC 90) was used for the study.Zone of inhibition was observed beneath fabric which was treated with the antimicrobial extracts.
The effect of Lavandula angustifolia essence on some microbial parameters of butter milk preservation was studied. This essence was successfully used as naturalantimicrobial against S. aureus, E. coli, coliforms, molds and yeasts . Investigation of mango seed kernel extract on pasteurized cow milk indicated that it had the potent to reduce total bacterial count and inhibited the growth of coliforms resulting in longer shelf life . Oregano and thyme showed less antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes compared to Pseudomonas fluorescens on milk model media . According to a study by Owen and Palombo (2007), the presence of fat in full cream milk could significantly reduce the antibacterial activity of whole plant extracts of Eremophila alternifolia and E. duttonii against L. monocytogenes compared to skim milk .
ABSTRACT: Methanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata were tested for potential use as an antimicrobial agent on viscose fabric. Various concentrations of the extracts from 1 % to 9% was taken and treated on viscose nonwoven fabric with the aid of ultrasonic atomizer. The antibacterial and antifungal assay (AATCC test method 90 -2011, Agar test method) of the treated fabric was done against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The zone of inhibition formed were E. coli (3mm), S. aureus(5mm),Candida (3mm)and no zone were formed for A. niger. 5% of Chromolaena odorata extracts can be used as a naturalantimicrobial agent on textiles which can be used for medical applications.
It is believed that turmeric has the maximum antimicrobial property and women in north apply turmeric on their feet before they enter the waters of ganges. They do this to protect themselves from various water borne infections from the polluted waters of ganges. The present study confirms that turmeric has the best antimicrobial property which inhibits coliforms present in such waters. So people going for holy dips are advised to consume foods with turmeric and use traditional methods like applying turmeric to protect themselves from the acquiring infections. By this we can control the spread of infections transmitted through water. Therefore the present study revealed that naturalantimicrobial substances are not only potent against target pathogens but also seems to stand a better chance to overcome the microbial resistance mechanisms.
In recent years the research on the chemotherapeutic intransigence of microbial biofilms, whose antibiotic re- sistance is 1000 times higher compared to planktonic bacterial cells, has been intensified . In the oral cav- ity in particular, the antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus fae- calis detected in infected root canals expressed the endocarditis-related antigen A (EfaA) . Due to the production of β-lactamases by Prevotella spp., fusobac- teria and capnocytophaga, an abundance of bla TEM re- sistance genes could be identified in subgingival and tongue samples . Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel oral antimicrobials with low risk of provoking bacterial resistance to antibiotic monotherapy . In that context, the scenario of introducing novel phytopharma- ceuticals has attracted attention lately [25, 26]. The ef- fectiveness of naturalantimicrobial candidates can be attributed to their synergistic impact and broad pharma- ceutical spectrum resulting from secondary metabolic reactions [27, 28].
broad spectrum inhibitory activity is also to be looked in. The mechanism of bactericidal action of the different naturalantimicrobial agents is still unknown. The dissolution of the agents for textile application is also a major challenge because most of the products are not soluble in water. The attachment of the bioactive substances to the different types of complex textile substrates for longer durability of the antimicrobial activity is also a new avenue of research. Although a little research has been done for the development of natural agents encapsulated products (such as microencapsulated neem oil), the design of bioactive textiles with slow release mechanism for longer activity will be a good area of innovations in the world of biotextiles. Some natural products have very stringent and bitter smell which may cause mental illness of the wearer is also to be considered before putting those substances onto textile substrates. The physical and other performance properties of the treated textiles also need to be unaltered too much during making it antibacterial. For example, air permeability of the fabric which ultimately affects the comfort of the wearers is reduced after coating the textile surface with chitosan and so on. The antimicrobial finishing should not alter the other important functional and physical properties, such as bending rigidity and bending modulus which directly affect the fabric stiffness and drape characteristics. The blocking of the active functional groups (which may be responsible for their antimicrobial activity) during their textile attachment may also loose their bioactivity on textile substrates.
Essential oils have been used in medical, cosmetic and food industries for a long time. In recent years there has been an extensive research to explore and determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils. Certain studies tilt to naturalantimicrobial substances in recent decades because of the resistance to antibiotics. Besides, consumer preference for natural products or products including fewer chemicals in health and food sector has directed the scientific attention towards that area. Lots of essential oils were found to be effective against both standard and clinical bacterial strains. Researchers show that when combined with an antibiotic, essential oils increase their effect besides being alone [1-3]. However, little quantitative data is
Antibacterial activity of T Belerica extract was reported 18-20 . Antimicrobial activity of C.longa against different strains of bacteria 21-23 . Antibacterial activity of C.longa against methicillin resistant S.aureus 24 . Since PRA-5 is a mixture of T.cordifolia, T.belerica O.sanctum W. somnifera and C.longa, antibacterial activity is expected and proved against the tested microorganisms. PRA-5 is reported to have tannins and polyphenols in previous experiments. The antimicrobial mechanisms of tannins may be due to its astringent property induce complexiting with enzymes or substrates 25 . The inhibition of many microbial enzymes in raw culture filtrate or in purified forms when mixed with tannins 26 . Tannins toxicity may be related to their action on membranes of the microorganisms which may be due to complexation of metal ions 27 . According to Cowan (1991) the phenolic toxicity to micro organisms may be due to enzyme inhibition possibly through reaction with sulfahydryl groups or through more non specific interactions with proteins. Polyphenols are shown to inhibit growth of many bacterial species 28 . The bactericidal effects may be due to membrane perturbation 29 . Phenolic compounds are responsible for antimicrobial activity of Olive (Olea europaca) 30 .
Antimicrobial substances such as chlorhexidine diglu- conate has been considered as golden standard when compared to other chemical agents used in dentistry, due its capacity to avoid dental biofilm formation . The main advantage of using chlorhexidine is its wide antimicrobial spectrum, acting on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, and its prolonged and continuous effect even in the presence of blood and other body fluids . However, the prolonged use of chlorhexidine can cause mucous peeling, stains on the teeth, alterations in the sense of taste, compromising of the wounds healing and reduction of fibroblast adhesion to radicular surfaces . Thus a potential antimicrobial adjuvant alternative with less side-effects would be of great value acting on oral affections.
The fast growth of population has caused rapid increase in the domestic sewage pollution in various cities and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) can be a best tool for phytoremediation technology to solve the sewage pollution . This aquatic weed helps in bio-purifications of coal mine and municipal wastewater by significant reduction in pH, Nitrate, Sulphate, and iron content of the water. Water hyacinth has potentiality for the removal of toxic chemical present in different types of wastewater, along with integrated biological control and watershed management and in focus to the future aspects of phytoremediation, the plant can be utilized for their sustainable management in treating waste water . Eichhornia crassipes tested for its ability to bioconcentrate toxic metals, had the lowest and the highest tolerance indices for Hg and Zn, and have shown a significant reduction in biomass production in metal treated plants. Further all trace elements were found accumulated to higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Trace element concentrations in tissues and the bioconcentration factors (BCF) were proportional to the initial concentration of individual metal in the growth medium and the duration of exposure proving that it is a promising plant species for remediation of natural water bodies and/or wastewater polluted with low levels of Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ag and Ni . The digested samples of the plant analyzed for four metals (Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr) by a Perkin Elmer 3000DV Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP- AES) has removed appreciable amount of heavy metals that was recorded maximum on the 10th day of exposure and the roots were proved better accumulator of the metals than leaves . Water hyacinth also has potential of removing approximately more than 90% of Cu and Cd from polluted water and at all levels the plants accumulated the highest concentration of Cd in roots, while the highest concentration of Cu was accumulated in stems. The biocencentration factor (BCF) of Cu was higher than that of Cd, suggesting that the accumulation potential for Cu was higher than that for Cd and could be used to treat waste-water contaminated with low Cu and Cd accumulations .
Chitosan is as an ideal antimicrobial agent.  Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer in nature next to cellulose, is a high molecular weight linear polymer of 2- acetamide-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose units linked together by 1,4-glucosidic bonds. Chitosan is the deacetylated derivative of chintin It is characterized by non toxicity, biodegradability and compatibility with other ingredients. Previous reports.  disclosed that D- glucoseamine hydrochloride (chitosan monomer) dist not slow any growth inhibition against several bacteria whereas chitosan was effective. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan is, therefore, related to not only its cationic nature but also to its chain length. It has been also reported that many plants used for dye extraction are classified as medicinal, and some of these have recently been shown to possess remarkable antimicrobial activity. 
Generally, in this method, a paper disc moistened with pure essential oils or its major constituents is attached to the lid of polystyrene Petri dish, which is then sealed with Para film or vinyl tape, inverted and incubated. Previous researchers mostly use Petri dishes with internal diameters of 85 and 90 mm, however other researchers have worked with 140mm diameter polystyrene Petri dishes (Edris and Farrag, 2003) and smaller diameter dish was 60 mm (Nunc dish) (Inouye et al., 2000). The results of antifungal/antimicrobial activity are presented as the diameter of the microorganism inhibition zone (Didry et al., 1993; Sukatta et al., 2008) or minimal inhibitory concentration which inhibits the total growth of microorganism (Edris and Farrag, 2003; Ben Arfa et al., 2007; Martinez-Romero et al., 2007; Nostro et al., 2007; Nedorostova et al., 2009; Nostro et al., 2009). The dosage of active compound by vapour contact was expressed by added weight or volume divided by unit headspace of the container.