1998b), common nase (Kujawa et al., 2010), ide (Wolnicki, Górny, 1995a; Jamróz et al., 2008; Kucharczyk et al., 2008), dace (Nowosad et al., 2014) and chub (Żarski et al., 2008). Larvae of cyprinid fish are extremely responsive to a number of factors which influence their physiological and health condition (Peňáz et al., 1989; Korwin-Kossakowski, 1992; Nowosad et al., 2013). They are particularly sensitive to any shortage of food during the transient stage between endogenous nutrition (nutrients stored in the yolk) to exogenous foraging (zooplankton). The complex of own digestive enzymes in reophilic cyprinid fish is poor during the first days of life (Dabrowski, 1984b), which is why it partly compensated with the enzymes of the ingested zooplankton. These fish need some species- specific time to acquire the ability to digest dry feed (Dabrowski, 1984a; Hofer, Nasir Uddin, 1985). Any attempts at feeding larvae of reophilic cyprinid fish except larvae of barbel and common nase (Kujawa et al., 1998b; Fiala, Spurny 2001) with dry feed only from the first day of life typically lead to a retarded growth and inferior resistance to diseases, which are consequently responsible for mass deaths of fish (Wolnicki, 1996). The absence of detailed solutions to the above problems in the rearing of sichel larvae has motivated the current research, whose aim was to determine the optimal period of time when larvae should receive natural food before it is replaced with dry feed.
The technical grade dye is further purified by dissolving it in mild alkali, filtering the insolubles, acidifying the filtrate and finally keeping it for 8 days for crystallization (Prasad 2005). The crystallized dye is filtered, washed and dried (yield approx.0.25% on the weight of sticklac, Purity 95% and above). The purified lac dye is bright reddish in colour. It is sparingly soluble in cold water (0.13-0.14%) but completely soluble in dimethyl formamide. It can be used for colouring food materials as it gives deep orange- red colour in aqueous solution like the colour of beverages and cold drinks available in market.
Natural food colourants (biocolorants) may also play an important role in human health as they contain some biologically active compounds, which possess a number of pharmacological properties like strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti- inflammatory and antiartheritic effects 33-41 . Carotenoids are also used as vitamin supplements 42 , since β-carotene is the precursor of vitamin A. The regular intake of carotene can help prevent night blindness resulting from inadequate supply of vitamin A. Carotenoids also act as biological antioxidants, protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen and also as a good source of anti- tumor agent 43 .
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This study confirmed the inhibitory special effects of crude aqueous extract of jojoba meal and leaves with simmondsin (MS and LS) and without simmonds in (MS -1 and LS -1 ) on infectious development in the mango drink kept under room temperature. Recommended that MS and LS at applications of 1% for each had been equally effective at 100 ppm sodium benzoate (SB) used separately. Additional, these aqueous extracts as food preservatives had significantly affected the physio chemically profile of the drink samples with a noticeable increase in acidity and parallel with decrease in pH through storage for six months. The result of jojoba aqueous extracts as preservatives on physiochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of stored mango drink shown in this study founds a major impact that can help the development of a safer and viable storage of mango drink at industrial scale according to the IC50 values.
respiration, reproduction, and mortality (Peters 1983, Brown et al. 2004), to evolutionary patterns (Loeuille and Loreau 2005), and to population characteristics such as abundance and trophic height in a food web (Jennings et al. 2001, Cohen et al. 2003). These relationships have stimulated theories about how species population dynamics, interaction strengths, and food web structure could depend on consumer–resource body-size ratios (Yodzis and Innes 1992, Jonsson and Ebenman 1998, Emmerson and Raffaelli 2004, Brose et al. 2005a, Reuman and Cohen 2005, Woodward et al. 2005, Wootton and Emmerson 2005). Since the distri- bution of trophic links and interaction strengths in a community may reﬂect size constraints on who eats whom, the ratio of body sizes between predators and their prey may play an important role in explaining regularities in food web structure (Warren and Lawton 1987, Cohen et al. 1993) and stability (De Ruiter et al. 1995, Neutel et al. 2002).
There are some techniques that are mainly used for microencapsulation of colourants by wall materials are spray-drying, freeze-drying, coacervation, and emulsion among which, spray-drying has been widely used in the food industry, in addition to the pharmaceutical and biochemical industries. There are several reviews about the detailed principles of these microencapsulation techniques [30-35]. For encapsulation purposes, the core material is homogenized within the wall materials in a suitable solvent. The homogenized mixture is then fed into a spray dryer and atomized with a nozzle or spinning wheel. Water is evaporated by the hot air contacting the atomized material. The capsules are then precipitated to the bottom of the collector . The major advantage of spray drying is its general applicability to both hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer solutions. The other advantages is the ability to handle labile materials because of the short contact time in the dryer, in addition, the operation is economical. In modern spray dryers the viscosity of the solutions to be sprayed can be as high as 300 mPa.s . Besides that, this technique is simple, relatively inexpensive, rapid, and hence widely used in food industry. Disadvantages of this technique are loss of a significant amount of the product due to a sticking problem through the wall of the drying chamber and the possibility of degradation of sensitive products at high drying temperatures . Other limitation of the spray-drying technology is the limited number of wall materials available . Due to the wrong selection of wall materials fiber formation can be another major problem in spray drying . The most common materials used for microencapsulation by spray-drying are gums, like gum arabic, low molecular weight carbohydrates like
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DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.811060 901 Advances in Microbiology Due to the specific characteristics of huge diversity of structure and function, natural resource and being stable to heat; bacteriocins are considered to be one of the weapons against micro-organisms. They are commonly used in agricul- ture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, in food science to extend food pre- servation duration which reduce pathogen infection of animal diseases, phar- maceutical industry and medical society to treat cancer therapy   . Nowadays public is more aware of the importance of food safety, as many of the chemical additives used in food may elicit toxic concern; thus, it is beneficial to claim natural resources and health benefits of diets. However, a good number of commercially available preservatives and antibiotics are produced by chemical synthesis and long-term consumption of such products may have an adverse impact on the human body as they decrease the number of bacteria in the gut. Besides, the use of antibiotics or residues in food is considered as illegal. So, bacteriocins may be used as a potential drug candidate for replacing antibiotics to treat multiple drugs resistance pathogens in the future. Bacteriocins are con- sidered as natural food additives because they are produced by bacteria present in many types of foods since ancient times, such as cheeses, yogurts, and Portu- guese fermented meat. Instead of using antibiotics and chemical preservatives, “Generally Recognized As Safe”(GRAS) bacteriocins, such as nisin is produced by Lactococcus lactis and was the first antibacterial peptide found in LAB (Lactic acid bacteria), used as a food preservative in vegetables, dairy, cheese, meats, and other food products , as they inhibit microbial contamination during the pro- duction process .
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There are a number of success factors that are important in implementing the organic retail chain strategy. In order to attract customer from the conventional chains the organic supermarkets must be able to provide a one stop shopping experience. Therefore, they must have a GHHS DQG ZLGH RUJDQLF UDQJH . Organic chains tend to make 8QLTXH6DOHV3URSRVLWLRQV863 out of fresh and trend aspects of the organic products. The organic chains stores provide services that both the conventional chains and natural food stores could not. They provide ORZHU SULFHVDVLQQDWXUDOIRRGVWRUHV and have KLJKHUVWDIILQJOHYHOVWKDQWKHFRQYHQWLRQDOVXSHUPDUNHWV . Therefore the organic retail chains address the deficiencies of both competitors. These stores are often located in FHQWUDO FLW\ ORFDWLRQV DQG SURYLGH FRQYHQLHQW SDUNLQJ SODFHV . The VWRUH DWPRVSKHUH is very attractive. Most organic chains try to attract their customer through attractive shelving, added organic snack bars or restaurants or creating a feeling like in the large marketplaces one typically associated with Mediterranean countries.
The lack of cohesion and vision among policymakers and the various actors has manifested into a slow translation of evidence (natural and social) into policies that benefit the public. The literature argues that the uptake and impact of evidence to date is limited at best (Head 2010; Howlett 2009; Lang et al. 2009; Omand et al. 2009; Parsons 2002). An example is the late market introduction of Benecol into the market for the benefit of the population. Green et al. describe the evidence of health benefits derived from plant sterols, developed in the 1950s, in reducing cholesterol. Commercialization of the compound into a food product was not accomplished until forty years later when Raisio introduced Benecol to the market. An integrated approach among the actors at the outset would have resulted in earlier commercial uptake of the compound. Essentially the authors argue that such an integrated approach is required to translate science and knowledge to the benefit of society (Green et al. 2006).
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food crops were collected from three different farms across the area. Substantial quantity of food samples enough for the analysis was collected. Soil samples were also collected from the same location for analysis. All the food crop samples collected for analysis were native to these areas and represent the common food crop types and choice from where over 85% of daily food/diets needs and requirements of the population are derived. The food samples were washed and prepared fresh shortly after collection into different diets according to the major dietary preferences of the people in the locality, using varying techniques of food preparation. The source of water used for cooking and washing was from the wa- ter supply sources in the villages; such as hand dug well, bore hole etc. However, before the preparation of the samples, the non edible parts were discarded such as the peel of yam tuber, cassava as well as the infested parts in some of the food crops. To investigate the possible removal of radionuclide during diet preparation, part of the food samples were prepared using typical local practices, such as the making of yam into boiled and, roasted yam, and yam flour, cassava was made into lafun (Cassava flour), Cooked cassava (Amala) Flour and Fried Cassava paste-garri, plantain was prepared roasted and boiled, maize into boiled and roasted maize (Table 1). To ensure that the diet preparation represent true local
notice of adoption directly identified seven major findings associated with obesity in New York City: (1) obesity is an epidemic; (2) “it is mainly a result of excess calorie consumption from meals eaten outside the home;” (3) food from fast food restaurants “is associated with weight gain and excess calorie consumption;” (4) the distorted perception of calorie content “’led consumers to unhealthy food choices;” (5) consumers would make informed and healthier decisions if provided caloric information, similar to the NLEA’s Nutrition Fact panel,; (6) restaurants’ voluntary activities were woefully inadequate and were unsuccessful at informing the majority of consumers; and (7) it is recommended by leading health authorities that calorie content information should be posted at the point of purchase.” 155
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Several points are worth emphasizing from these studies. First, suspected food allergy is extraordinar- ily common in early childhood, with at least one fourth of all parents reporting 1 or more adverse food reactions. Second, true food allergy can be con- firmed in 5% to 10% of young children with a peak prevalence at ⬃1 year of age. Third, as is discussed in detail in the next section, most food allergy is lost over time. Finally, children who begin with 1 food allergy, especially if it is an IgE-mediated allergy, have a very high chance of developing additional food allergies as well as inhalant allergies. It is there- fore critical that children with food allergy be iden- tified as early as possible, both to initiate an appro- priate diet for their existing allergies and to institute preventive measures that may help to reduce their chance of developing additional food allergies, as well as asthma and allergic rhinitis.
Finally, building and maintaining trust is essential, because without these, both vertical and horizontal collaboration is impossible. This research has previously identified mutual dependency of actors as a driving force towards collaboration. Additionally, this mutual dependency is driven by the trust in these relationships. Many authors have discussed trust as the building block of supply chain agility, as it helps visibility, reliability, velocity and flexibility (Narasimhan, Mahapatra, & Arlbjørn, 2008; Yang, 2014). This research finds that building and maintaining trust mostly originates from social norms within these regions, and that high levels of trust helps to achieve agility, adaptability and alignment. The most important finding in this component is the conflict resolution mechanism discussed in the findings section. This conflict resolution process (Jirga and the market committee), provide a high degree of confidence within these chains and ultimately builds trust. Conflict management during natural disasters also enables flexibility and velocity, two important factors for disaster responses. Nevertheless, conflict management is an important activity as many conflicts arise during difficult times in these food chains. Yet due to the incompetent and slow formal judicial system, actors prefer to resolve their issues using the Jirga as the more efficient alternative dispute resolution system. However, this system has also its own flaws, such as decisions influenced by parties who have more financial power, weak decision- making processes and non-acceptance of decision by the parties. The provincial government has made moves to provide it with legal status by establishing dispute resolution committees, but the process is slow. If the Jirga system can gain full support from the government, then this could enhance the overall conflict resolution status of these supply chains.
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According to Saunders et al (2012, p127) a research philosophy is concerned with the ‘development of new knowledge and the nature of that knowledge’ and as such plays a critical role in any research project. This study adopts a philosophy akin to critical realism, allowing the Scottish food sector, the NRBV and SSCM to be viewed as unpredictable realities to be observed and analysed (Adamides et al, 2011). Pertinently, this conflicts the body of supply chain research in which positivism assumes some dominance (Wolf, 2008; Adamides et al, 2011), but nonetheless is suited to the proposed study. More specifically, a critical realist ontology supports the collection of real-life data from real-life contexts (Sayer, 2004), which supports the pertinence of context in valuing NRBV and SSCM strategies (Russo & Fouts, 1997; Chrismann, 2000; Barney, 2001) and the study’s emphasis on the Scottish food sector. A critical realist epistemological stance allows for the analysis of data in a descriptive and explanatory fashion (Sayer, 2004) thus allowing the researcher to discuss a natural- resource-based perspective of SSCM and to draw conclusions about the value of the amalgamation between the two schools. As a result critical realism provides effective philosophical guidance for the successful completion of this study.
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As we are interested in food supply chain resilience, we examine the literature for supply chain management within the disaster management discipline. In the humanitarian con- text, supply chain can be defined as the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the flow and storage of relief items as well as information and finances from point of ori- gin till the point of utilization to remove the suffering of people (Thomas & Kopczak, 2005). Although disaster relief supply chains have to deal with special challenges, the basic philosophies of commercial supply chains often remain valid. However, there are certain specific characteristics which make relief supply chains unique. In disaster relief supply chain, demand for relief is unpredictable, multiple organizations are involved, numbers of volunteers are involved, transportation is incapacitated or limited, and local infrastructure is paralyzed. All these issues make disaster supply chain management very challenging as compared with commercial supply chains (Kovács & Spens, 2007). To manage relief supply chains effectively, some of the areas which are greatly highlighted in literature are knowledge management (Islam & Chik, 2011; Pathirage, Seneviratne, Amaratunga, & Haigh, 2012), sourcing decisions (Ertem, Buyurgan, & Rossetti, 2010; Kovács & Spens, 2007), col- laboration among different supply chain players (Asgary, Anjum, & Azimi, 2012; Jahangiri, Izadkhah, & Tabibi,
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17 of sweet taste sensitivity in M. musculus (Niki et al. 2015). Mutant leptin M. musculus (ob/ob) consume less food when treated with a Cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cnr1) antagonist, though Cnr1 antagonist treatment had no effect on glucose metabolism (Li, Schmidt, and Friedman 2013). The endocannibinoid signaling pathway can, however, impact glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues (Silvestri and Di Marzo 2013). Cnr1 is present in mature white adipose tissue, and plays a role in the nearly immediate energy and metabolic regulation that occurs in white adipocytes (Silvestri and Di Marzo 2013). Cnr1 and Cannabinoid receptor 2 (Cnr2) were previously thought to be specific to deuterostome lineages with no apparent orthologs in protostomes, including D. melanogaster (Elphick, Satou, and Satoh 2003, Elphick and Egertova 2005, Elphick 2007). More recent research, however, has elucidated the evolutionary conservation of endocannibinoid signaling in protostomes (McPartland et al. 2006, Vrablik and Watts 2013, Khaliullina et al. 2015). In D. melanogaster and mammals, endocannibinoids circulate as lipids in lipoproteins, affecting metabolism by repressing hedgehog signaling (Khaliullina et al. 2015). Hedgehog signaling regulates adipogenesis in D. melanogaster and mammals, affecting the differentiation of brown over white adipocytes in M. musculus (Pospisilik et al. 2010). Enhanced hedgehog signaling affects mammalian glucose metabolism by increasing its uptake by muscle and brown adipocytes independent of insulin (Teperino et al. 2012). Similarly in D.
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2. More funding mechanisms that allow science-business co-creation would allow co-development of science-based soil natural capital valuation methods and road- testing in real business settings. This goes beyond consultancy: to tackle the urgent issue of soil degradation new scientific discoveries that achieve real practice change are needed. This requires funding structures that facilitate both goals.
dence from a number of studies indicates declining growth of yields under intensive cropping even on some of the better lands, e.g. the Indo-Gangetic plains (Vira et al., 2015; FAO, 2011; ILEIA, 2000). In response, tropical agroforestry systems have been pro- posed as a mechanism for sustaining both biodiversity and its associated ecosystem services in food production areas (Steffan- Dewenter et al., 2007; Schroth et al., 2004), by increasing tree cover, while maintaining food production. The importance of agroforestry systems in generating ecosystem services such as enhanced food production, carbon sequestration, watershed functions (stabiliza- tion of stream ﬂow, minimization of sediment load) and soil protection is being increasingly recognized (Lasco et al., 2014; Idol et al., 2011; Jose, 2009; Roshetko et al., 2007a,b; Alavalapati et al., 2004). Tree components also produce important products, e.g. wood, fruits, latex, resins etc., that provide extra income to farm- ers and help alleviate poverty (Tscharntke et al., 2011; Snelder and Lasco, 2008; McNeely and Schroth, 2006). The economic return, especially net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), beneﬁt-cost ratio (B/C), return-to-land and return-to-labor of agro- forestry has been found to be much higher than from seasonal agricultural systems in many locations (Roshetko et al., 2013; Rahman et al., 2008, 2007; Rasul and Thapa, 2006; Alavalapati and Mercer, 2004; Elevitch and Wilkinson, 2000). This is especially so for marginal farmlands where agricultural crop production is no longer biophysically or economically viable (Roshetko et al., 2008), and may become incompatible with the sustainable development concept with its major focus on ‘people-centered’ development (Snelder and Lasco, 2008).
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During short periods of food deprivation, organisms use their stored carbohydrate reserves to supply energy for survival. In insects, the mobilization of these stored carbohydrates is mediated by peptide hormones called adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) (Gade and Auerswald, 2003). In Drosophila, one of these peptides is called AKH or dAKH. It is encoded by the akh gene and it mobilizes glucose after starvation (Kim and Rulifson, 2004; Lee and Park, 2004). Targeted cell ablation of akh-producing cells decreases hemolymph sugar levels whereas over-expression of akh increases them (Isabel et al., 2005; Kim and Rulifson, 2004; Lee and Park, 2004). A decrease in akh expression is also associated with a lack of starvation-induced hyperactivity and resistance to starvation- induced death (Isabel et al., 2005; Lee and Park, 2004). Thus, akh appears to mediate hemolymph sugar levels and starvation-induced changes in behavior.
The issue of food security, especially in a developing nation like India, raises the twin problems of uncertain food production and unequal food distribution. The impact of unequal food distribution can have adverse effects on the rural and urban population living below the poverty line. Food insecurity is not only economic problem but also problem of non-humanity approach in India. There availability of the food grains is enough to satisfy their needs. According to the statistical data published by the ‘Food Corporation of India’ and the government of India foodgrain availability is 229 million tonnes in 2008-09 which is 230 million tonnes in previous year. While it is happening because, foodgrain traders are doing speculation practice and sealing them in high prices than fair prices. We may say that, Food insecurity is not only natural but also manmade