The indicators will be incorporated into the overall planning process of Metsähallitus as a tool for plan- ning, managing and monitoring the impacts of naturetourism in protected areas. In the process of planning any particular nature protection area, the sustainabil- ity of naturetourism is approached by going through the entire updated LAC process (e.g. Hendee & Dawson 2002, p. 238). If naturetourism plays a sig- nificant role in the area, a naturetourism plan will be made, in addition to the general management plan. As public participation is an integrated part of Metsähallitus’ planning processes, it will also be used in setting the limits of acceptable change for sustainable naturetourism.
Federation for Nature Parks (Federation nationale des parcs naturels regionaux) and the Bird Protection League (Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux). Issues associated with the development of naturetourism are discussed, including the development of ornithological tourism within the context of naturetourism practices. The concepts of sustainable tourism, ecotourism and naturetourism are discussed. Supply and demand issues with regard to French naturetourism in general, and ornithological tourism in particular, are discussed. This includes discussion of the characteristics and expectations of different tourist groups likely to visit sites of ornithological interest (e.g. holidaymakers of nature trips, serious birdwatchers or educational groups). The characteristics and development potential of various French ornithological sites are considered, and the processes involved in developing such sites are outlined. Principles of managing sites are also presented, together with some recommendations for improving the offering of ornithological sites at both national and local level in France. Case studies that have been chosen so as to represent a variety of geographic contexts and scales are then presented. The sites presented in the case studies are: Foret d'Orient-Lacdu Der (Marne-Aube); the Teich ornithological park (Gironde); the Lindre estate (Moselle); Sept-Iles (Cotes-d'Armor), the ponds at Brenne (Indre); Lavoute-Chilhac (Haute-Loire), Montagne de la Serre (Puy-de-Dome), and Val-d'Allier (Allier). An ornithological site in the United Kingdom (Pullborough Brooks) is also described.
suggests that framing activities as ‘entrepreneurial’ refers to a shift in how people imagine their political subjectivity. They become differently governable as enterprise subjects, comprehended or disciplined through their enterprise capacity alone. In Seward, many people described the economic activities during and after the oil spill using similar neoliberal frameworks that privileged self-starters exhibiting individual drive, creating business opportunities for financial gain. As one naturetourism business owner explained, “Our resources sort of got capitalized on as far as our natural beauty and our sport fishing… You’re just kind of bringing more of an entrepreneurial spirit” (Miller interview 2008). While no official statistics are available regarding the makeup of the entrepreneurs who took advantage of the cleanup efforts, anecdotally they represented a cross-section of the community, long-term residents who bought charter fishing boats and newer people who guided kayak tours, creating small, owner-operated businesses based on accessing natural attractions, such as scenery and wildlife.
International best practice points to the need for local interventions designed to raise the capacity of local enterprises to deliver at the quality standards and reliability required in naturetourism accommodation (Torres & Momsen, 2011; Rogerson et al., 2013). Support initiatives to build local linkages must compensate for the current lack of capacity of local producers to offer the quality, consistency and volume of fresh produce as required by nature accommodation providers. This challenge must be dealt with so that the goals of responsible tourism can be achieved (Rogerson, 2012). Tourism- agriculture linkages in rural South Africa are hindered by a host of demand- side, supply-side and market related issues which vary in different local areas (Hunt, 2010). The particular barrier issues in local areas need to be recognised particularly by local governments in order to enhance the potential for local producer participation in food supply chains. Overall, in South Africa the enhancement of tourism-agriculture linkages, including of local sourcing, necessitates that national governments and the tourism private sector both acknowledge the significance of boosting backward linkages through coordinated actions to address the specific local factors which presently
In addition to the availability of accessibility, facilities and infrastructure of naturetourism in Baning NTP which has been built by the Government of Sintang Regency in the outside area was to enhance the current attractions, a hornbill captive breeding or Suaka Enggang has been completed by the Ministry of Environment and Forest through NRCC of West Kalimantan in the area of utilization (Fig. 3). According to the information presented by Br (50 years) that this hornbill conservation aims to conserve hornbills, educate the community in the conservation of hornbills and as a tourist attraction in Baning NTP. It is expected that with this hornbill conservation, tourist visits will be increased since the accessibility is readily available (interview, July 2017).
Gunung Ciremai National Park (TNGC) is one of the nature conservation areas located in the two administrative regions of Kuningan and Majalengka Regency. TNGC has resources that provide as a tourist attraction, especially the NatureTourism Resort area in Kaduela Village and Padabeunghar Village, Kuningan National Park Management Section I (SPTN) such as waterfalls, hot springs, ponds and community culture as well as flora and fauna diversity. This study originate from the potential existence and the absence of natural tourism development planning in TNGC that established in 2004, and in addition the purpose is to make its development plans. As the location, The study was conducted in 4 natural tourism locations, Kaduela Village and Padabeunghar Village, and SPTN I Kuningan (Telagaremis, Batu Luhur, Seribu Bintang Hill and Tespong Lake). The time of data collection is during October-December 2019 using the modified criteria assessment of the natural tourist attraction operating area (ADO-ODTWA) Director General of the PHKA 2003.
Hence, in order for Baltic Sea Region tourism to really be successful, it is argued that transnational cooperation must be strengthened and that the concept Baltic Sea Region Tourism will have a higher priority among all involved countries. In the Baltic Sea Region, one of the only examples of such cooperation is the so-called ‘pearls-on-a-string’ cruise concept. The most important part of this successful concept is that it is based on an international understanding of tourism which is further based on a national financing of the tourism activities. As all know, the one who pays de- cides the activities in such a structure and frame for tourism. The national organization creates sub optimizing and challenges for an efficient cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region countries. In the cruise concept, it is many different ports around in the Baltic Sea Region that create and constitute the product itself. Therefore, tourism actors within the Baltic Sea Region needs to question whether they can somehow create other products with a high level of international cooperation. Looking at the AGORA framework, it could be argued that it is only the castle category (and to some extent the Red Brick Gothic category as well) that has managed to create such cooperation crossing borders.
Environmental issues have been a hot topic lately. For example, there have been public discus- sions on global warming and its future effect. People are in general more interested in environ- mental issues and they also want to make a difference. It has been stated that individuals can also have an effect on what is happening, with their consumer behaviour for example. People have adopted environmental friendly ways in their everyday lives and now they also have started to think about the impacts of travelling to the environment. More environmental friendly forms of tourism, such as nature and ecotourism have been born as a reaction to this demand. Protected are- as have also become more and more attractive and more popular tourism destinations. This crea- tes a huge challenge to the managers and developers in protected areas. On the other hand when people are more environmentally conscious they also respect nature; protected areas have profiled themselves as naturetourism resorts and therefore attract more tourists that are really interested in the environment and also want to keep nature in good condition. Customer survey in Koli Na- tional Park showed that tourists can be grouped based on their environmental values. The groups were formed with the assistance of the New Environmental Paradigm statements (by Dunlap et. al. 2000). In Koli three groups were found: Biocentrics, Ambivalents and Anthropocentrics. The- se groups did not differ a lot from each other based on demographic factors, but the differences became more evident when their opinions on ecolabels were asked. The tourists’ environmental values (tourist types) affected their opinions on ecolabels and certifications as well as their opi- nions on ecolabelled products and services.
Newsome, Moore & Dowling (2002) include under naturetourism: adventure, nature-based, wildlife and ecotourism. McKerchner (1998) expands the scope of naturetourism including: adventure tourism, ecotourism, alternative tourism, educational tourism, anti-tourism, sustainable tourism, responsible tourism and many other forms of outdoor-oriented, non- mass tourism. These two views of what naturetourism includes and overlaps, agree, but also contradict themselves. To better understand, and conclude, what naturetourism is, we must understand the three relations that can occur between the natural setting and the visitor which are: in, about and for the environment (Dowling, 1977, 1979; as cited in Newsome, Moore & Dowling, 2002). So any tourism based in a natural setting and experienced in, about or for the environment will be considered 'naturetourism'.
The landscape valuation of the Lozoya Valley by the visitors was examined through surveys carried out in two years (2007 and 2017). Questionnaires to visitors were conducted during weekends and vacation periods, from autumn to summer. The interviewed visitors were chosen randomly in the valley and their access routes in areas considered to be of particular interest for recreation and tourism. No more than two people were surveyed within each group of visitors. The questions did not refer only to those places, but rather to landscape characteristics of the whole valley. Visitors were asked about four classes of questions: i) sociological profile; ii) reasons for visiting the area; iii) landscape typology preferences; and iv) profile of intended activities.
towns and monuments are also important attractions (78%, 57% and 60%, respectively). The results also showed a stronger valorization of nature and countryside among “inland tourists” compared to “seaside tourists.” Another relevant point was that nature-based walks and gastronomy-related experiences were considered favorite activities for tourists visiting inland Algarve. Also of note was that intentions to recommend the region to others and to revisit the region had a statistically significant positive relationship with visiting the inland. These results support a new reality that must be acknowledged in order to meet the needs of new market segments that have not, so far, been considered in the DMO’s communication strategies. A concluding remark on the promotion of this destination is thus warranted. In particular, this study has implications in terms of the design, development and promotion of new products to the region of Algarve. In effect, the study’s findings suggest that it would not be sustainable to promote the destination exclusively with a focus on the sun and beach product. More than ever, it is necessary that the DMOs endorse an integrated management of new products with existing ones, in order to effectively meet the expectations of new tourists. It is thus necessary to reposition the strategy for the Algarve by differentiating it from the competition based on an integrated offer of sun and beach, nature, culture and gastronomy. As in many other times and circumstances, substantive decisions on this issue are necessary, taking advantage of all the opportunities offered by the market, and intending to plan the future of the Algarve as a destination with vision, wisdom and good sense.
While there is a general broad social consensus for the permanent preservation and development of valuable landscapes with their ecosystems, and numerous studies on willingness to provide the financial means to do this exist (e.g. Spangenberg & Settele 2010; Grunewald et al. 2014), it is difficult to achieve consensus on the specific development direction in an area (Lupp et al. 2014) – e.g. in a tourist region – and the preferred or the most favorable management options. Demand driven analyses of the public may support politicians and planners to design management policies and to set priorities in regard where to invest public money to maintain landscapes and protect biodiversity and gain acceptance (e.g. Casado-Arznaga et al. 2013). Nature conservation, especially the maintenance of human-influenced, biodiversity-rich, so-called semi- natural ecosystems, e.g. the flowering mountain meadows which may shape the character of many cultural landscapes or tourist regions attracting especially nature-oriented tourists need considerable financial means. Such analyses should be also seen against the background of the further development of existing and the establishment of new funding
The industry and literature review also shows a clear requirement that the critical issues of authenticity and sense of place in the facilities that compliments but does not dominate the destination can to a large extent be informed by, and developed with, the inclusion of Aboriginal and local people. All the key principles and actions of sustainable tourism seek the inclusion of Aboriginal people and local communities. It would follow therefore that sustainable facilities, both at the planning and development stages would use the local knowledge of the area. It is clear to the research team that the development of an Aboriginal cultural brief to inform the overall project brief will contribute to the long-term sustainability of the project.
Morse (1997) defined the scientific study tour as an organised tour operated by a scientific institution operated tours that are primarily for scientific educational purposes. Ellis (2003a) on the other hand defined research tourism as non specialist volunteers or tourists who pay for a volunteer vacation or conservation holiday to help wildlife managers in environmental field research and contribute financially to fund the research. Benson (2005) conceptualised research tourism as a form of alternative, ecotourism, volunteer, scientific, and educational tourism that is situated in a niche tourism context. Clifton and Benson (2006) described research tourism as activities consistent with generally accepted definitions of ecotourism which are offered to paying individuals within a research-oriented framework. Such activities are primarily directed towards conservation and monitoring of the natural environment as well as research involving villages and local communities in programmes which may be summarised as ‗sustainable community development‘ (Clifton & Benson, 2006).
One limitation of this study is that only a limited set of motives are tested for their relationship to tourist satisfaction. All except one were hypothesized to be positive relationships, which are examples of intrinsic aspirations in the tourism field (Kasser and Ryan, 1996; Ryan et al., 1999). No extrinsic motives are examined here, though a negative relationship between extrinsic motives and satisfaction would be proposed based on Self-Determination Theory and related studies reviewed earlier. Findings from existing tourism studies are congruent with this proposal, where extrinsic motives may be interpreted as including those that are contingent upon external factors, or more specifically, the performance of tourism products and services. For example, motivation for sports attraction (Schofield and Thompson, 2007) and pull motivation (Yoon and Uysal, 2005) were found to negatively impact tourist satisfaction. Similarly, Uysal and Williams (2004) examined the influence of expressive and instrumental factors on tourist satisfaction. The instrumental factors included convenience, mobility, high-quality service and accommodation, and a good value for money. It was found that tourists who placed greater importance on instrumental factors were less likely to obtain satisfaction. Studies including both intrinsic and extrinsic motives should be conducted in the future for further validation and understanding.
related benefits. (Source: analysis of survey results). Note: Bold and underline criteria are criteria with one or more external links between factors. Also, NB, circle size is not important in this figure. ........................................................................ 395 Figure 7.1: Major factors that will influence the nature of MRT worldwide (Source: The analysis of 85 MRT product web sites worldwide) ............................................................. 425 Figure 7.2: Description of the many key factors and relationships that influence the conceptual
The modern development of this form of international business can be described using the following main characteristics. The first one is related to the fact that tourism is a profitable economic activity – for example, in the recent years the USA have made about 84 billion USD annually, France – 31 billion USD, Italy – 27 billion USD and Spain – about 33 billion USD from rendering tourist services to foreign guests. Bulgaria has all chances, offering trade products and services on the international market, to earn well and to prosper in its economic development. The top management of our state administration estimates the importance of tourism as “export branch number one of Bulgaria”, providing both directly or indirectly for over 400 thousand jobs (Hadjinikolov, 2003). In recent years the share of tourism in the GDP of the Republic of Bulgaria is averagely 8%. In comparison with other European countries, close to ours, the share of tourism in the GDP of Greece is 24% and of Croatia – 19%. The average annual per capita income from tourism for the period 2005-2010 is 397 USD for our country, 985 USD for Croatia, 1048 USD for Greece and 273 USD for Turkey (http://www.world-tourism.org/mkt/menu.html). Obviously our country has the potential for successful participation in this type of international business, strengthening its international character.
Such approach to the issue of tourism has led certain experts to consider escape from the environment and cutting quotidian social interactions as an essential characteristic of tourism and incorporate it in their definition of tourism. On such basis, tourism is transitory scape from normal, quotidian interactions (Di Giovine, 2008: 145). This definition looks at this phenomenon from an anthropological aspect instead of relying on the element of social interaction and introducing tourism as a tool for upgrading this objective with a view to exploring the essential and natural features of traveling. In this definition, traveling is recognized as a factor keeping humans away for some time from the circle of social groups where someone belongs and alleviating the psychological burden of the responsibilities created by affiliation with these groups.