Necessary Information for the Decision-Making Process

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Initiation Economic Information for Decision Making Process in Housing Development

Initiation Economic Information for Decision Making Process in Housing Development

The finding shows that authority policies, a market of housing and timing (life cycle of a project) are most necessary information in the economic part. All of the economic information also illustrates that they are crucial and key factors in the decision-making process. The stages in the initiation phase require economic information in the form of a qualitative data bank of a developer.

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Management Information System and Decision-Making

Management Information System and Decision-Making

Following the research phase, which results in the recognition of the problem or opportunity, the design phase, involves inventing, developing and analyzing possible directions stock. Support for the design phase should provide iterative procedure when reviewing alternatives. Decision support system is an information system based on the computer that regulates manipulates and demonstrates the necessary information to make decisions. The role of the computer here is not to replace but to assist the recipient in the decision making process decisions. These systems represent the latest technology and more complex, which enables managers to ask questions and get answers to questions posed and enters the database related to their needs for information and are therefore particularly useful to solve recurring problems.
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The impact of accounting information on decision making process

The impact of accounting information on decision making process

whereas, others go for an odd combination of activities and even subterranean one to survive. Any business or individual that wants to survive must make the right decisions. The era of mile of thumb is gone, employing it is a sure way to fail absurdly. The price of any conceivable item from bread to book not to mention petrol has been soaring in geometric progression over the years. The economy is truly in dire straits. These compounds and complicates intricately are the problems of organizations vis-a vis-effective planning and decision making processes, other factors such as stagflation, taxation, economic and political in research study. It is the intention of the researcher to concentrate more on financial accounting, cost
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THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS

THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS

Ratios of financial statement analysis and the business decision Ratio is rational or relative number which means that one economic value is put into relation (it is being divided) with other economic value. Since there is no sense in connecting any two economi- cal values, we can speak about prerequisites of ratio’s accuracy. Considering the time dimension, financial ratios can be basically divided into two groups. One group of financial ratios includes company’s business within the particular time period (usually a year). This group is based on the data from profit and loss account and cash flow statement. The other group of financial ratios re- fers to the exactly defined moment which corresponds with the balance sheet date and talks about company’s financial position in that moment. Ratios contain concentrated information that is needed for business quality measurement and decision making process as well.
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MODERN SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND  THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS OF CONSUMERS

MODERN SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS OF CONSUMERS

The increased importance of social networking may translate into the increased importance of the impact those communities have on the purchasing process. The most pronounced economic implication of participation in online communities is their impact on the process of finding information in the early phase of the decision-making process. In order to obtain the information they seek, consumers may contact like-minded people or consumers who have already had experience with a given product. Recommendations from friends, family members and like-minded consumers have a significant impact on the decision to make a purchase, both in offline and online conditions. They are particularly important in the case of services, when the level of uncertainty and the risk associated with the purchase are particularly high. The increased importance of social networking causes a significant increase in opinions and recommendations available to the customer (Cheung, Lee &Rabjohn, 2008, pp. 231-234).
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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM AND DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN ENTERPRISE

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM AND DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN ENTERPRISE

7. CONCLUSION The role of information in decision making cannot be overemphasized. Effective decision making demands accurate, timely and relevant information. MIS provides accurate and timely information necessary to facilitate the decision-making process and enable the organizations planning, control, and operational functions to be carried out effectively. MIS also plays the crucial role of providing a wide range of streamlined options from which decision-makers are able to make their preferred choices and this ensures that whatever choices are made by decision makers, the outcome, more often than not, becomes positive. This, as a matter of fact, is the reason why many decision makers tend to prefer using MIS tools when making tough business choices. MIS as renowned concept, having good decision choices guarantees viable decisions in our businesses.
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Most models of decision making assume a decision criterion is necessary and that

Most models of decision making assume a decision criterion is necessary and that

Pooja P. Reddy Psychology M ost models of decision making assume a decision criterion is necessary and that this criterion is static. However, many everyday decisions are made in a dynam- ic environment. When two decision environments vary in accuracy, with the accurate environment having higher hit rates and lower false alarm rates, a mirror effect is said to occur. Mirror effects are important because they shed light on how people set their decision criteria, but the dynamic course of these effects is not understood. Here we used alternating easy and hard decision environments to induce shifts in decision cri- teria. A traditional study-test experimental paradigm was employed and the accuracy of recognition memory for pictures was measured. The data indicate that there are slow, systematic changes in decision criteria that lag behind the physical changes in the decision environment. These findings have important implications for models of decision making.
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Information is Power: Public Disclosure of Information in the Planning Decision Making Process

Information is Power: Public Disclosure of Information in the Planning Decision Making Process

sensitive materials themselves are protected from disclosure. The Bath case provides further clarity about the circumstances where information can be withheld, but it also highlights the important point that although information can legitimately be withheld from the public, the presence of such information in a document does not necessarily justify withholding the entire document, only the information considered sensitive. This has been supported in the Heygate Estate decision (EA/2013/0162). This decision related to the provision of affordable housing within the redevelopment proposal for the Heygate Estate in Elephant and Castle. The tribunal decided that the entirety of the financial information should not be released because this could be harmful; in particular, a financial model was considered protected. However other matters relating to known market values should be disclosed. Here again, partial release was therefore the appropriate response. These can be seen as facilitating deeper public participation in the process without providing the full technical information required to make a complete analysis. The notion of public bodies acting as information gatekeepers is therefore particularly apparent in this instance.
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Improving the decision making process using an information management system

Improving the decision making process using an information management system

© Copy Right, IJCR, 2011, Academic Journals. All rights reserved INTRODUCTION Information leverage is seen as the key to success for organizations and many people have to deal with an overwhelming amount of information from many sources as part of their job. People cannot afford to ignore information in the workplace. Professional and personal survival in modern society clearly depends on our ability to take on board vast amounts of new information. Yet that information is growing at an exponential rate. The technological developments of the last 50 years have made more information more available to more people than at any other time in human history. The machines we have invented to produce, manipulate and disseminate information generate information much faster than we can process it. It is apparent that an abundance of information instead of better enabling a person to do their job, threatens to engulf and diminish his or her control over the situation. In the absence of proper information management systems, organizations use spreadsheets to manage and analyze data in a bid to make decisions that will lead to increased profit margins. Spreadsheets provide an extremely simple interface for commonly needed functions like calculating, presenting and displaying numerical data.
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Identifying the necessary components of a police decision-making model

Identifying the necessary components of a police decision-making model

Police officers have a great deal of discretion where they may choose to act or not act, use force or talk things out, detain or arrest, search and seize, etc. and must decide all this, usually on their own and in the moment, while considering what courts, the public, and inquiries will deem reasonable at a later date. As discussed in the introduction, these decisions are not always optimal. Society has a responsibility to assist police in their work to prevent crime and disorder. Researchers are uniquely qualified to assist in multiple areas that have far reaching consequences. Bradley and Nixon (2009) compared the critical and policy police research traditions and suggested that a third approach is also necessary. They assert that police need knowledge to strategically improve their policies and practice and that these needs are only partially met through the two established approaches to police research. Greater impact can be had through close and continuous police-university partnerships. They point to participatory action research as one way to involve and give voice to all stakeholders in the research process. Their goals go beyond knowledge generation, to also include validation, diffusion, and use within public policing.
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Creating the Safety and Respect Necessary for “Shared” Decision-making

Creating the Safety and Respect Necessary for “Shared” Decision-making

psychotherapy, and the philosophical foundations of bioethics. First, developmentally, how can we expect a 13-year-old boy, even one labeled as somewhat “mature, ” to understand and process information delivered to him this way? 8 How does a young adolescent think about invasive procedures, pain, suffering, isolation, and death itself or even what he might be giving up by not living past 13? We know that most 13-year-old boys have immature executive function, with insufficient ability to regulate emotions like fear, and difficulties envisioning prospective states. 9 Many such children seem, in their decision- making, to be able to essentially only picture 2 temporal points: now and never. If one cannot envision the future in terms of shades of gray, and if one’s thinking is readily hijacked by fear, what does it mean to hear that one’s chance of survival 5 years from now is 40%, and only if one goes through a noxious treatment right now? Jorge likely heard that treatment would certainly cause suffering and that he was more likely to die than live anyway.
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Decision-making with the AHP: Why is the principal eigenvector necessary

Decision-making with the AHP: Why is the principal eigenvector necessary

2. What is a priority vector? Now we ask the question, what is priority or more generally what meaning should we attach to a priority vector of a set of alternatives? We can think of two meanings. The first is a numerical ranking of the alternatives that indicates an order of prefer- ence among them. The other is that the ordering should also reflect intensity or cardinal preference as indicated by the ratios of the numerical values and is thus unique to within a positive multiplica- tive constant (a similarity transformation). It is the latter that interests us here as it relates to the principle of hierarchic composition under a single criterion. Given the priorities of the alternatives and given the matrix of preferences for each alter- native over every other alternative, what meaning do we attach to the vector obtained by weighting the preferences by the corresponding priorities of the alternatives and adding? It is another priority vector for the alternatives. We can use it again to derive another priority vector ad infinitum. Even then what is the limit priority and what is the real priority vector to be associated with the alterna- tives? It all comes down to this: What condition must a priority vector satisfy to remain invariant under the hierarchic composition principle? A pri- ority vector must reproduce itself on a ratio scale because it is ratios that preserve the strength of preferences. Thus a necessary condition that the priority vector should satisfy is not only that it should belong to a ratio scale, which means that it should remain invariant under multiplication by a positive constant c, but also that it should be in- variant under hierarchic composition for its own judgment matrix so that one does not keep getting new priority vectors from that matrix. In sum, a priority vector x must satisfy the relation Ax ¼ cx, c > 0. We will show that as a result of the need for invariance to produce a unique priority vector, x must be the principal right eigenvector of A and c is its corresponding principal eigenvalue. Our prob- lem for positive reciprocal matrices and their pri- orities is a special case of the following:
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The Process of Decision Making in Chess

The Process of Decision Making in Chess

Of course, even if there is a threat we can go on through the full process of positional evaluation and we should still reach the same conclusion, investing more energy in the process. The difference between the two is that in the first option, which is the more thorough, we study the position in depth, going through a constructive method that assures us we will reach the best answer if done correctly. The "shortcut" method, used when there are threats against us, doesn't guarantee we will find the best solution as we depend on our own ability to look at all the possible answers to a certain threat. This is the reason that in the "shortcut" version of positional evaluation we must be thorough scanning the board for all the possible ways to respond to a threat.
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Decision Making(Process & Technique)

Decision Making(Process & Technique)

The Stepladder Technique is a useful method for encouraging individual participation in group decision making. The Stepladder Technique is a simple tool that manages how members enter the decision-making group. Developed by Steven Rogelberg, Janet Barnes- Farrell and Charles Lowe in 1992, it encourages all members to contribute on an individual level BEFORE being influenced by anyone else. These results in a wider variety of ideas, it prevents people from "hiding" within the group, and it helps people avoid being "stepped on" or overpowered by stronger, louder group members.
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WHAT IS THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS?

WHAT IS THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS?

o Letters of interest that come directly from the convention center or convention and visitor’s bureau in a particular city; and o OHBM Council and Committee recommendations. In order to ensure transparency, this document provides an overview of the selection process in deciding future venues and guidelines for interested parties in presenting a Letter of Interest to OHBM regarding hosting a future Annual Meeting. Please feel free to consult with the OHBM Executive Office Staff at info@humanbrainmapping.org if you have any questions regarding these guidelines.

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Decision-Making Structure and Process

Decision-Making Structure and Process

• Results in completion of the NEPA process by Spring 2009. A key element of the approach is a structured decision-making process and well-defined decision-making organization. The aim of a structured decision process is to create a logical path through a complicated project by establishing major decision points. Thorough and thoughtful consideration of issues at each decision point by all of the project stakeholder groups helps to ensure quality decisions that will not have to be revisited later in the project. The aim is to avoid going “back to square one” because something of significance has been omitted or improperly addressed. Structuring the process in this way enables the project team to explain to stakeholders where we are in the process, what we have accomplished, and what lies ahead. The clear identification of decision points creates an expectation in stakeholder groups for meeting the deadlines and staying on schedule as a way to avoid more and more meetings.
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Multimedia and Decision-Making Process

Multimedia and Decision-Making Process

formal means, like records of meetings. On the other hand, superficial representations may lose useful detail, while detailed repre- sentations may create trivial knowledge. [11] Since design is a collaborative process, in- formal design rationale knowledge often con- sists of discussions among individuals en- gaged in the process and they communicate through multiple channels. Informal repre- sentations enable the retention of information in its most complete form, thereby facilitat- ing the creation of thick descriptions. Re- cording human interaction in such forms al- lows access to the richness and complexity of social behaviour. Formal representations can only be used by individuals who are familiar with such rigor, while informal representa- tions can be used by a wide type of users. But, the main problem of informal represen- tations is the classification, indexing, re- trieval and use. Given the volume of knowl- edge generated in large projects, the problem of access and navigation is a significant im- pediment to the use of design rationale. [11] We can say then, that formal and informal representations of design rationale are com- plementary, so the design rationale should combine the advantages of both forms of rep- resentations.
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The Process of Decision Making in Chess

The Process of Decision Making in Chess

If we are safe in the position, and there are no threats against us, we will go through the full process described above, finding out requirements and offering solutions in form of moves. But if there are threats against us, we can use a "shortcut" version of positional evaluation. In that case, we can first suggest solutions to the threats, making sure they really either prevent the threats or make them not dangerous. Then, to choose the best response to the threats, we will compare them by looking at the effects of each solution on the criteria of positional evaluation, making this comparison once we reached the point of quiescence for each solution's variations.
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Tracing the decision-making process of physicians with a Decision Process Matrix

Tracing the decision-making process of physicians with a Decision Process Matrix

suspected diagnoses at different points in time, etc. For example, DPM allow the addressing of specific questions like: Why was a suspected diagnosis not considered earl- ier in the process? Why was the physician overconfident or underconfident about a specific diagnosis at a specific point in time? Why did he or she miss a diagnosis? Did he or she interpret the specific cues correctly? Being aware of and communicating the subjective confidences in suspected diagnoses might serve as a uniform cur- rency that helps to avoid unnecessary steps, scrutinizes possible heuristic biases, and enhances the overall qual- ity control. In certain cases, a satisficing strategy could be optimal; on the one hand, testing strong suspected diagnoses sequentially and defining case-specific confi- dence thresholds for inclusion as well as for exclusion may be more productive. Furthermore, incorporating in- tuition might result in a shortening of the diagnostic process, as 90 % of the final diagnoses were mentioned already as suspected diagnoses during stage one [41].
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Accounting Information in a Business Decision-Making Process – Evidence from Croatia

Accounting Information in a Business Decision-Making Process – Evidence from Croatia

H1: Information based on accounting data for which exists typical values to deter- mine business quality based on company’s characteristics are important for busi- ness decision making process. For business decision making process, different qualitative and quantitative infor- mation that are available from all organizational units, and including, available from accounting system, are necessary. “Every investor or other business decision maker, and especially, every manager, to make valid decision, has to have clear perception on accounting terms and concepts” (Belak, 1995, p. 5). Every company has on its disposal basic accounting data that need to be transform into information that will represent basis for business decision-making process. The research includes obtain- ing information about style in which are information used in Croatia, i.e. weather they are used as the original data available from accounting system, or they are used in form of fi nancial ratios. The research includes question if knowing typical values of individual fi nancial ratios, categorized by business activity or size of companies, would improve quality and increase level of using accounting information within business decision-making process. Frequency of using fi nancial information within business decision-making process depends of several factors as its availability, price, organization, and from the other side, important role has manager himself, and his tendency to use quantitative information and generally his willingness to use modern tools for processing them.
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