ABSTRACT: Cloud computing helps to serve services and resources on demand. From cloud service providers’ viewpoint, profit is one of the most important scrutiny, and it is mainly decided by the configuration of a cloud service platform under given market request. However, a Single Long-term Renting scheme(SLR) is adopted to configure a cloud platform, which neither guarantees the quality of services but also leads to wastage of resources. In this paper, a queuing model is used in order to provide services to the request made by user. A profit maximization problem is formulated for the double renting scheme which overcomes single renting scheme. The scheme not only guarantees the service quality of all requests, but also maximizes profit than the latter, by solving the profit maximization problem. Finally, in order to find out the profit maximization of the system, a comparison can be conducted with the single renting scheme.
This technical note reports a practical approach to design generic strategy, and strategy map appropriate for professional service-and-innovative organi- zation. The available information herein is specific to Synchrotron Light Re- search Institute (SLRI)-Thailand, however useful and applicable to other or- ganizations of a similar kind. Successful implementation of such strategies requires culture-based management.
We remark that firm 1's incentive for bundling is independent of the level of access charge. Even if the level of access charge is above the marginal cost of providing it, c , firm 1 is not affected by an increase in the access charge. This is due to the fact that under full market coverage case, both firms' optimal pricing decision in the presence of an access charge compared to the case without an access charge is to increase the service price by the amount of the access charge. Moreover, the entrant's demand level is dependent only on the price differential between the incumbent and the entrant, not on the absolute level of respective service's price regardless of whether the entrant bundles or not. In this case, since both players' optimal pricing in the presence of an access charge is to increase the respective service price by the amount of the access charge, the price differential between two firms will be the same regardless of the level of access charge, thereby leaving the entrant's profit level unaffected by the level of the access charge in both bundling and no-bundling cases. For this reason, the entrant's incentive to bundle is independent of the level of the access charge under full market coverage condition. Of course, this result holds assuming that the level of access charge is set so that full market coverage condition is maintained. On the other hand, the incumbent's profit, regardless of whether the entrant bundles or not, is directly proportional to the level of the access charge.
Abstract: In malaria endemic countries, national malaria control programs have been challenged to change treatment policy from time to time. Many of these countries have complex health care systems with the public and private sectors working alongside each other. Effective malaria treatment policy change and implementation demands appropriate response from both the public and private health sectors. We examined the changes in drug stocks, malaria prescription patterns and service utilization at public, private-not-for profit (mission) and private-for-profit health facilities in Uganda over a 36 month period of malaria policy change discussions and pronouncement. Time series analysis of manually extracted data from hospital patient records was used to determine the variations in attendance, drug availability and prescribing patterns. Key informant interviews were used to understand the perceptions of stakeholders about the effectiveness and implications of policy change. Public facilities were found to be more compliant to the national policy pronouncement. Differences in stock adjustments and prescription patterns were observed among the three facility types despite the adequate level of awareness about the policy change. Main reasons for non-compliance were unacceptable side effects, high cost of new regimen and poor treatment outcomes for the public, private-not-for profit and private-for-profit facilities, respectively.
Maximizing the profit as far as quality and cost, with the utilization of Double Quality Guaranteed Scheme. As past plan in light of Single Quality Unwarranted Scheme which has less favorable circumstances as for quality and cost. Expect that a cloud service stage comprises of m long haul leased servers. It is realized that piece of solicitations need transitory servers to serve, so that their quality can be ensured. Signified by pext (D) the relentless state likelihood that a demand is relegated to an impermanent server, or put in an unexpected way, pext (D) is the long-run portion of solicitations whose holding up times surpass the due date D. pext (D) is not quite the same as FW (D). In computing FW (D), all service demands, regardless of whether surpass the due date, will hold up in the line. Be that as it may, in figuring pext(D), the solicitations whose holding up times are equivalent to the due date will be doled out to the transitory servers, which will lessen the holding up time of the accompanying solicitations. To enhance the maximization of service suppliers expect the multi-server approach.
which refers that they are not subject to government domination and can inde- pendently accomplish their missions. While because of the excessive interference of government authorities, current domestic non-profit organizations have too many administrative means, color of internal bureaucracy is increasingly strong and the identity of ordinary people is lacking . Based on the above factors, phenomenon of excessive government management and control really exists in domestic home care service. For example: if a non-profit organization plan to carry out home care and relevant services, it has to pass through layers of ap- proval of government departments. Otherwise, it is difficult to enter the com- munities and provide services for the old. This indicates that the government still has a strong administrative color in home care service and it fails to appro- priately delegate authority to communities as well as non-profit organizations. As a result, both non-profit organizations and communities can neither escape government control nor conduct barrier-free cooperation, and the efficiency and quality of services will certainly decrease.
We proposed an algorithm for ruling out the well-organized VM for the allocation as per the user’s demand. In this paper, we discussed about the some existing load balancing algorithms that area unit used for allocation of economical virtual machine. Our proposed algorithm is used for handling request, which arrives for the requirement of VMs. We suggest some of VMs with their configuration, if the required VM is not available. CloudSim is a simulator, which we used to test our algorithm. In future we wish to add new steps in our proposed algorithm which will able to provide better result for getting better service from the cloud provider.
most part dictated by the design of its administration stage. To arrange a cloud administration stage, an administration supplier normally receives a solitary leasing plan. That is to say, the servers in the administration framework are all long haul leased. Since of the set number of servers, an approaching's percentage administration demands can't be handled quickly. So they are initially embedded into a line until they can took care of by any accessible server. In any case, the holding up time of the administration demands can't be too long. With a specific end goal to fulfill nature of-administration prerequisites, the holding up time of each approaching administration solicitation ought to be constrained inside of a certain range,which is determined by a service-level agreement (SLA). In the event that the nature of administration is ensured, the administration is completely charged, something else, the administration supplier serves the demand with the expectation of complimentary as a punishment of low quality. To acquire higher income, an administration supplier ought to lease more servers from the base suppliers or scale up the server execution pace to guarantee that more administration solicitations are prepared with high administration quality. On the other hand, doing this would prompt sharp increment of the leasing expense or the power cost. Such expanded expense may stabilizer the addition from punishment decrease. All in all, the single leasing plan is not a great plan for administration suppliers. In this paper, we propose a novel leasing plan for administration suppliers, which not just can fulfill nature of-administration necessities, additionally can acquire more benefit.
increase. Therefore, this system tends to over-cost for large- size or high-volume products, and to under-cost for small- size or low-volume products when product diversity exists within the same operation . Under the aforementioned circumstances, ABC has major advantages over TC because of its ability to trace overhead cost, which allows for a more accurate unit costing. ABC helps to reduce cost distortions and provides more accurate costing of the cost objects. Inaccurate cost information can lead to undesirable strategic results, such as unrealistic pricing, wrong product-line decisions, ineffective resource allocation and finally to lower competitive advantage as a consequence . Even though developing an ABC system is expensive and time consuming, many firms realize its benefit by trading off its cost. It is implemented in various types of business but mainly by manufacturing firms. With the successful existing implementation of ABC, its extensions are to marketing, service, and not-for-profit organizations such as logistics management , education [7, 8], banking , and IT investment , etc. In the field of maintenance, the related literature, especially on costing and pricing, received much less attention. To adopt ABC in maintenance,  and  to propose a framework and its application in the costing of the in-house planned maintenance of an agricultural service organization, the findings show its ability to capture the planned maintenance cost elements and to provide information to improve the cost efficiency of the organization’s overall maintenance system. However, the proposed framework is still limited to in-house costing; therefore, the feasibility of an application of ABC in a maintenance service organization is an interesting issue. Not only service costing, but also service pricing is a primary concern especially in small and medium size organizations that lack the experience of using statistical and mathematical analyses in formulating decision strategies. The objective of this paper is to propose a maintenance pricing framework for small or medium size organizations which implement the ABC system without any experience of using statistical and mathematical analyses. On the other hand, they can use the proposed framework to make decisions on profit planning or pricing under conditions of imprecise information for maintenance service operations. In Section II, a framework for profit planning under conditions of imprecise information for maintenance service is introduced. In Section III, the proposed framework is employed to illustrate its application in a case study company. In Section IV, the implementation issue of the framework is drawn in the conclusion.
Licensed under Creative Common Page 1275 (Calik and Balta 2006; Yap and Sweeney 2007). Indicators of customer satisfaction conducted in this study is the satisfaction of the functional quality (attitude and behavior of human resources) and Electronic Banking (Zhou 2004). Besides customer satisfaction, customer complaints is also a concern of Islamic banks. With the customer complaints, meaning that future Islamic banks will prepare a recovery service so that customer satisfaction is maintained. Quality is created from the activity of Islamic banks in handing the value of the services to customers. The realization of quality services is a long-term process. But to achieve it is not easy for banks (Cristobal et al. 2007; Witell and Lofgren 2007). Bank sharia should be able to create and maintain a loyal customer behavior (loyal). For the only way that Islamic banks find the key to get out of the problems being faced, especially in an era in which the intensity of competition is very high (Alexzndrov et al. 2007). According to Foss and Stone (2001), customer loyalty relates to what customers think and do (or try to do). Customer loyalty is a state of mind, a set of attitudes, beliefs, desires. Strengthen customer loyalty and develop a positive state of mind and related behavior. Manage loyalty not only to manage behavior, but also manage the state of mind; Siddiqi (2011). Woud indicator of mouth, intention to repurchase; (Eggert and Ulaga, 2002; Lin and Wang; 2006) Developing a good relationship and are not affected by the temptation of other products.
4) The current pension risk is becoming more and more diverse and people are not satisfied with the current social security system construction. Through the investigation, we can see that the current risks mainly focus on economic support, life care, spirit comfort and health & medical. With the continuous de- velopment of social economy and the continuous improvement of the national social security system, the risks of economic support and health & medical will reduce gradually. However, for empty-nest elderly who living alone, the prob- lems that lack life care and spirit comfort still exist and will exist for a long time. At the same time, the pension services provided by the government are difficult to meet the needs of the elderly. However, it also provides a space for non-profit organizations to participate in the provision of social pension services for the so- ciety. In the West, in response to “welfare crisis”, the western theorists put their eyes on non-profit organizations. The practice of Western governments also proved that the make NPO participate in the social pension service is an effective way.
This paper investigates the impact of provided service by the retailers and manufacturers on customers’ demand and members’ profit in a supply chain. It focuses on a supply chain structure with one manufacturer and a common retailer. The demand of customers depends on retailer price and service level. A game-theoretic framework is applied to obtain the equilibrium solutions for each entity in supply chain. In order to investigate the impact of service on the demand and supply chain members’ profit when the manufacturer is a leader, we derive and compare equilibrium solutions for the supply chain under three different scenarios. These scenarios include the case that manufacturer and retailer do not provide any service to customers; the case that retailer provides service to customers; and the case that manufacturer provides service to customers. We compare results from these three scenarios and provide the best scenario for the proposed problem.
On the contrary, when the transit authority minimizes individual travel cost while maintains break-even, individual travel cost rises whenever highway capacity increases. This is because, transit service is already in relatively good quality (relatively low fare and high efficiency) with such a transit authority. Once the highway expands, it is impossible for the authority to maintain break-even while keeps or even improves service quality. In other words, highway expansion hurts the transit side, as well as the overall system performance. This calls for the comprehensive consideration for highway expansion and development in the multi-modal transportation system. Particularly, the public transit service side should be taken into account. However, our results do not mean that a profit-maximizing transit authority is preferred in terms of social welfare. A s shown in the numerical examples, zero-profit transit responses indeed generate more benefit for the travelers, because the absolute value of the individual travel cost produced in this scenario is lower than that with a profit-maximizing transit authority.
As an efficacious and efficient way to provide computing resources and accommodations to customers on demand, cloud computing has become more and more popular. From cloud accommodation providers’ perspective, profit is one of the most paramount considerations, and it is mainly determined by the configuration of a cloud accommodation platform under given market demand. However, a single long-term renting scheme is conventionally adopted to configure a cloud platform, which cannot guarantee the accommodation quality but leads to solemn resource waste. A double resource renting scheme is designed firstly in which short-term renting and long-term renting are coalesced aiming at the subsisting issues. This double renting scheme can efficaciously guarantee the quality of accommodation of all requests and reduce the resource waste greatly. Secondly, an accommodation system is considered as an M/M/m+D queuing model and the performance designators that affect the profit of our double renting scheme are analyzed, e.g., the average charge, the ratio of requests that need transitory servers, and so forth. Thirdly, a profit maximization quandary is formulated for the double renting scheme and the optimized configuration of a cloud platform is obtained by solving the profit maximization quandary.  Conclusively, a series of calculations are conducted to compare the profit of our proposed scheme with that of the single renting scheme. The results show that our scheme can not only guarantee the accommodation quality of all requests, but withal obtain more profit than the latter.
Investments on relationship and search of custom- er’s satisfaction are justified by studies that indicate a strong relationship between customer retention and high satisfaction levels. The high satisfaction level alone does not allow us to keep these custom- ers continually, neither to stimulate them to increase consumption, neither to charge higher prices nor stimulate the indications. The process of customer’s retention starts at the first contact with the organiza- tion and it lasts for the whole period of relationship. Growth and profits are not achieved only with fo- cus on customers. It is crucial that the company also focuses employees, especially front office staff (Zeithaml 2003; Heskett et al. 2002). It is important to observe, inside the company operational strategy, elements such as effective policies of recognition and rewards, efficient structure of the workstation and adjusted tools to take care of customers’ needs. These elements, consequently, provide a better en- vironment and greater satisfaction to these employ- ees. Internal elements (qualification, satisfaction, employees loyalty and productivity) and external (satisfaction and customers loyalty) of this chain, form the links of this model, as results from several research studies, conducted in companies of dif- ferent segments by Harvard’s professors Heskett, Schlesinger and Sasser. Among the serviceprofit chain strongest relations, the authors identify: profit x customer’s loyalty; employee’s loyalty x custom- er’s loyalty; and employee’s satisfaction x customer’s satisfaction (Heskett et al. 2002).
hosted services over the Internet. Cloud computing is able to provide the most cost- effective and energy-efficient way of computing resources management. Cloud computing turn’s information technology into ordinary commodities and utilities by using the pay- peruse pricing model. A service provider rents resources from the infrastructure vendors, builds appropriate multi server systems, and provides various services to users. A consumer submits a service request to a service provider, receives the desired result from the service provider with certain service-level agreement. Then pays for the service based on the amount of the service and the quality of the service. A service provider can build different multi server systems for different application domains, such that service requests of different nature are sent to different multi server systems. Owing to redundancy of computer system networks and storage system cloud may not be reliable for data, the security score is concerned. In cloud computing security is tremendously improved because of a superior technology security system, which is now easily available and affordable. Applications no longer run on the desktop Personal Computer but run in the cloud. This means that the PC does not need the processing power or hard disk space as demanded by traditional desktop software.
Cloud computing describes a type of outsourcing of computer services, similar to the way in which the supply of electricity is outsourced. Users can simply use it. They do not need to worry where the electricity is from, how it is made, or transported. Every month, they pay for what they consumed. The idea behind cloud computing is similar: The user can simply use storage, computing power, or specially crafted development environments, without having to worry how these work internally. Cloud computing is usually Internet-based computing. The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet based on how the internet is described in computer network diagrams; which means it is an abstraction hiding the complex infrastructure of the internet. It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided “as a service”, allowing users to access technology-enabled services from the Internet ("in the cloud") without knowledge of, or control over the technologies behind these servers.
Heskett et al. (1994) while propounding their theory of service-profit chain analysis have used various examples from airlines, banking and fast food sectors to explain the concept. Extant literature after the seminal work of Heskett et al. (1994) on service-profit chain, has also analyzed various service sectors to establish the relevance of service- profit chain in those sectors. But there has been rarely any study that analyzes the service-profit chain in the healthcare sector – one sector that seems an ideal candidate for such analysis. It is not that there have been no studies to understand the service delivery in this sector, but these studies have mostly been in the nature of understanding some of the links of the service-profit chain, viz., customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, employee productivity, etc. But, studies analyzing the service-profit chain in its entirety for this sector are lacking. An exception is a study done at a private hospital in Thailand (Panjakajornsak, (2009) that has tried to find the relationship between the various links of the service-profit chain.
We attempt to layout a service mechanism for income optimizations of each a cloud provider and its more than one users. We remember the trouble from a recreation theoretic attitude and symbolize the relationship between the cloud company and its multiple customers as a Stack elberg game, in which the strategies of all users are subject to that of the cloud company. The cloud provider tries to pick and provision appropriate servers and configure a proper request allocation method to reduce power price even as gratifying its cloud customers on the identical time. We approximate its servers choice space by way of including a controlling parameter and configure an most fulfilling request allocation method. For every consumer, we design a application feature which mixes the net profit with time efficiency and try and maximize its price under the approach of the cloud issuer. We formulate the competitions among all customers as a generalized Nash equilibrium hassle (GNEP). We solve the problem by way of using variant inequality (VI) concept and prove that there exists a generalized Nash equilibrium answer set for the formulated GNEP. Finally, we advise an iterative algorithm (IA), which characterizes the whole method of our proposed service mechanism. We conduct some numerical calculations to confirm our theoretical analyses. The experimental results show that our IA set of rules can gain both of a cloud issuer and its a couple of users by means of configuring right techniques.
Overall, society’s best choice is D4. The firms’ best choice is M2, followed by D4. If the social planner acts to ensure that the firms play the two-stage game then D4 is ensured as an outcome by the prisoners’ dilemma. If D4 cannot be a guaranteed outcome (i.e. firms manage to use the opportunity to collude and maximise prices in both stages), the social planner’s next best strategy is to impose regime D2 – here the firms establish a pricing rule (rather than an actual fixed price in stage 1). Again, if the firms cannot be trusted, the social planner may ensure that D2 occurs by allowing an independent agent to set price on cross-service tickets to maximise profit – this has the same effect as D2 played without illegal collusion.