Carbohydrate digestion in Selected and Control populations. Given that our poor diet is low in carbohydrate as well as protein content, we next asked if carbohy- drate digestion is also different between Selected and Control populations and if it is differentially inﬂuenced by microbiota. About 30% of carbohydrates in both poor and standard diets consist of polysaccharides (starch) from the cornmeal (the rest are sucrose and glucose). Polysaccharide digestion occurs as a two-step process whereby starches are ﬁrst broken down to disaccharides by amylases before being hydrolyzed to monosaccharides. Alpha-amylase activity is under direct negative regulation by glucose concentration in Drosophila larvae, which occurs at the transcriptional level. Amylase activity is therefore expected to be lower in larvae with higher glucose concentrations (15, 16). We quantiﬁed amylase activity rates (again normalized to total larval protein content) in Selected and Control larvae in both colonized and GF states. Microbiota had a striking effect on how amylase activity changed over time: while it declined between early and late third stage in the microbiota-colonized larvae, it increased sharply during the corresponding developmental period in GF larvae (slope difference, P ⬍ 0001) (Fig. 3A). Because no such increase was observed for protease activity (Fig. 2C), it implies that GF larvae upregulate their investment in polysaccharide digestion relative to protein digestion toward the end of their development. Irrespective of these temporal changes, GF Selected larvae consistently showed 3-fold-lower amylase activity than GF Control larvae of the same stage (blue symbols in Fig. 3A); this difference is much smaller and nonsigniﬁcant in microbiota-colonized larvae (orange symbols in Fig. 3A). Thus, we again observed a pattern of interaction such that the difference due to evolutionary history was more pronounced in the germ-free than in the microbiota- colonized state. Interestingly, fast development and high survival on a poor diet (Fig. 1B and C) were associated with lower amylase activity. This implies that increased amylase activity is a sign of nutritional stress. Given the negative regulation of amylase activity
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In ants, nutrient acquisition for the whole colony relies on a minority of workers, the foragers, which are often old and lean. Some studies have shown that the link between age, physiology and foraging activity is more flexible than once thought, especially in response to colony or environmental perturbations. This great plasticity offers the intriguing possibility to disentangle the effect of age, behaviour and physiology on the ants ’ abilities to cope with nutritional stresses. In this paper, we first looked at the capacity of groups of foragers and inner-nest workers to resist starvation and macronutrient imbalance. Second, we investigated whether behavioural task reversion modified the tolerance to nutritional stresses and by extension, changed mortality rate. We found that inner-nest workers live longer than foragers under nutritional stresses but not under optimal conditions. The reversion from foraging to inner-nest activities is followed by an increase in fat content and longevity. Finally, we demonstrated that changes in fat content associated with behavioural transition are highly flexible and strongly correlated to tolerance of nutritional stress. Our results have considerable implications for our understanding of the population dynamics of social insects under adverse nutritional conditions.
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We found little evidence to suggest a trade-off between energy allocation to growth (i.e. compensatory growth) and the physiological parameters measured. In vertebrates, glucocorticoid hormones such as CORT mediate daily and seasonal metabolic processes such as energy acquisition, storage and utilization (Landys et al., 2006; Sapolsky et al., 2000). Upon exposure to adverse events such as increased risk of predation, changes in thermal conditions or food deprivation, activity of the hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal (HPA) axis is upregulated (Greenberg and Wingfield, 1987), increasing the secretion of CORT into circulation (Gangloff et al., 2016, 2017b; Palacios et al., 2012). Stress-induced levels of CORT mediate energy balance, such that self-maintenance and survival are prioritized over processes such as immunity and reproduction in the short-term (Greenberg and Wingfield, 1987; Romero et al., 2009). Chronically stressed individuals may show sustained increases in baseline CORT levels or changes in the magnitude of response to an acute stress which may impair reproduction or survival long-term (Angelier and Wingfield, 2013; Wingfield, 2013). In this study, after the period of food-restriction, low-diet animals exhibited higher circulating levels of CORT but once nutritional stress was alleviated, we found no association between increased growth rates and CORT levels.
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Minerality is certainly one of the most mysterious and most valuable tones of wine taste and it is very often associated with the concept of terroir. The isotachophoresis was used for determination of cations – minerals in two wines from vineyards with different soil conditions, with and without exceptional “minerality”. However, it was found that it has nothing to do with minerals. More attention was paid to the relationship between the nutritional stress of yeasts and succinic acid production, which can result in a final difference in the taste of wine. In addition, sensory evaluation was used to reveal differences between wines with increasing levels of succinic acid.
Appreciating the importance of maintaining flexibility as a key component of optimal health opens new avenues toward ‘‘biomarkers of health’’ rather than ‘‘biomarkers of disease,’’ which are urgently needed in nutrition research. Most nutrients, when consumed in appropriate amounts, compositions, time of day, season, etc., play key roles in the well-orchestrated machinery maintaining phenotypic flexibility (van Ommen et al. 2014). Certain dietary com- ponents, by excess or by lack of, impair phenotypic flex- ibility (van Ommen et al. 2014). To be able to measure a person’s phenotypic flexibility, the homeostasis of that person must be perturbed, followed by determining the response of single or multiple markers during a limited period of time. Figure 1 gives an overview of the main physiological processes in the context of diet-related health. A detailed description of these processes in relation to metabolic health is considered out of scope for this re- view. By careful design of a nutritional stress response test that triggers most of the physiological processes involved in diet-related health, the effect of food and food products on phenotypic flexibility can be quantified. Ideally, each of
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a balance between growth factor stimuli and nutrient availability. Amino acids or glucose facilitates mTORC1 activation by inducing RagA GTPase recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal outer surface, enabling activation of mTOR by the Ras homolog Rheb. Thereby, RagA alters mTORC1-driven growth in times of nutrient abundance or scarcity. Here, we have evaluated differential nutrient-sensing dependence through RagA and mTORC1 in hematopoietic progenitors, which dynamically drive mature cell production, and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which provide a quiescent cellular reserve. In nutrient-abundant conditions, RagA-deficient HSC were functionally unimpaired and upregulated mTORC1 via nutrient- insensitive mechanisms. RagA was also dispensable for HSC function under nutritional stress conditions. Similarly, hyperactivation of RagA did not affect HSC function. In contrast, RagA deficiency markedly altered progenitor population function and mature cell output. Therefore, RagA is a molecular mechanism that distinguishes the functional attributes of reactive progenitors from a reserve stem cell pool. The indifference of HSC to nutrient sensing through RagA contributes to their molecular resilience to nutritional stress, a characteristic that is relevant to organismal viability in evolution and in modern HSC transplantation approaches.
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Objective To estimate the intensity of nutritional stress among the diabetic patients. Background Non-Communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. The WHO report evaluated diabetes at the fourth position among the four types of NCD’s, this accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. Introduction Nutritional stress depends on what we give to our body, whether it is toxin loaded, chemically constituted platefuls of food and expect it to cope without a grumble. As, diabetes is metabolic syndrome so there is an altered carbohydrate and fat metabolism in these patients that will lead to the development of nutritional stress in these patients. Methodology A cross sectional survey based study was conducted at a local hospital including diabetic patients on anti-diabetic medicines. Demographic data, medical history and drug use duration and dosage were investigated as well as intensity of nutritional stress was calculated by Sadaf stress scale (SSS). The patients with severe and psychological and mental illness or any other chronic illness or patients who were failed to provide reliable information were excluded from study. Result The total of 42 patients have participated in the study out of that 50% have reported mild nutritional stress and 36% have reported moderate nutritional stress. The most common reported symptom of nutritional stress includes sleep problem, abdominal bloating, incomplete emptying and sugars and carb craving. Conclusion The patients have reported the nutritional stress due to the altered carbohydrate and fat metabolism and the use of anti-diabetic medicine further increases the intensity of nutritional stress. The symptoms that are reported in diabetic patients are not associated with diabetes instead occur as a result of anti-diabetic medication use. Such as, sleep problem usually associated with increased stress, increased blood pressure, impaired control of blood glucose, and increased inflammation.
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function resulting in elevated corticosterone (CORT) may contribute to this effect. We examined whether developmental conditions affected the association between adult song and HPA axis function, and whether nutritional stress at different developmental stages has distinct effects on song learning and/or vocal performance. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were raised in consistently high (HH) or low (LL) food conditions until post-hatch day (PHD) 62, or were switched from high to low conditions (HL) or vice versa (LH) at PHD 34. Song was recorded in adulthood. We assessed the response of CORT to handling during development and to dexamethasone (DEX) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges during adulthood. Song learning and vocal performance was not affected by nutritional stress or catch-up growth. Nutritional stress elevated baseline CORT during development. Nutritional stress also increased rate of CORT secretion in birds that were not stressed before nutritional indpenendence (HL group). As adults, birds in the LL group had lower CORT levels after injection of ACTH compared to the other groups, however there was no effect of nutritional stress on the response to DEX. These results challenge the developmental stress hypothesis and indicate that nutritional stress that affects HPA function may not affect song development in zebra finches.
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Nutritional excess as seen with intake of calorie-rich foods, contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of abnormalities including impaired glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, obesity, and dyslipidemia [16–18]. The abnormalities associated with metabolic syn- drome are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and dia- betes. In experimental animal models, excess dietary fat consumption contributes to impaired glucose metabolism, leading to development of insulin resistance and hypergly- cemia . High-fat diet feeding has been used as a model to induce type 2 diabetes, obesity, and associated pheno- types in mice . Psychological stressors downregulate expression of CRF 2 receptors , and CRF 2 receptor null
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It is generally accepted that marine mammals subjected to nutritional stress will experience differential losses of lipid and lean mass because of their tendency to conserve LBM and use (largely metabolically inert) lipid from the blubber layer as their primary energy source while fasting (Oritsland, 1990), although this generalization is largely formulated from studies of phocid seals that have greater overall lipid reserves. Hence mass-specific DMR may increase simply due to the relative increase in the proportion of LBM. In our case, 48.4% (range 38.2–57.6%) of the mass loss of our study animals could be attributed to the lipid layer. However, when metabolism was scaled to LBM we still saw an increase in mass-specific MR s and DMR, indicating that other factors besides
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Furthermore, although honey bee queens and workers have the same genetic makeup, they experience divergent nutritional environments during both development and adulthood. These differences ultimately determine their phenotype and social role (Winston, 1987; Page, 2013). Queen-destined larvae are unrestrictedly fed with a high-quality diet through their whole larval stage. In contrast, worker-destined larvae are fed a less nutritious diet that is restricted during early development, and then they are starved during the last larval stage (Atkins et al., 1975; Page, 2013). As adults, a queen is fed protein-rich royal jelly ad libitum by nurses, but the major food for a forager is nectar or honey, and a worker bee is under nutritional stress when foraging outside (Atkins et al., 1975; Page, 2013). Larval nutrition (Page, 2013) and the insulin and the target of rapamycin (TOR) nutritional pathways play central roles in queen – worker differentiation (Patel et al., 2007; Mutti et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2013a,b). Adult nutritional status (Toth et al., 2005; Toth and Robinson, 2005), insulin pathway and AKH pathway play significant parts in determining the social roles of queens and workers and the resultant division of labor (Corona et al., 2007; Ament et al., 2008, 2010, 2011a,b; Wang et al., 2010a,b, 2012a,b). The overlap between these regulatory mechanisms further supports the potential for an anticipatory mechanism that regulates development to adapt to a variable nutritional environment being co-opted to produce the behavioral and physical castes that make honey bees more adaptive to the environment at the colony level.
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The results indicated that increasing the rate of salicylic acid from 0 to 1.4 mM led to increasing significantly leaf area, plant height and all yield components of sunflower plants under all levels of soil salinity. Increasing salicylic acid levels had a positive effect of all physiological compositions. Under high levels of salicylic acid 1.4 mM was given high values of physiological compositions (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, total carbohydrate, protein content and proline). Increasing soil salinity levels from 4 to 12 dS m-1led to clearly decreasing nutrients uptake of leaves.While splattering salicylic acid on leaves helped on enhancing all nutrients uptake. Splattering salicylic acid on plants led to increasing all Na ratios (K/Na, Ca/Na and Mg/Na) because salicylic acid alleviated the salinity stress on plants, as well as enhancing nutrients uptake.
changes in health and the performance of body system including the gastrointestinal system. These changes include decreased salivation, diffi- culty in swallowing, and delay in emptying of the stomach and esophagus as well as lower gastroin- testinal movement (5) which all of these issues affect nutrition as one of the most important parts of health maintenance (6), and as a result elderly are a potentially vulnerable group at the risk of malnutrition (2). Drug use, loneliness, de- pression, lack of oral health, low quality of life, incidence of chronic diseases and frequent hospi- talization influence elderly health and put them at higher risk of malnutrition and threat resulting from it (7). The undesirable nutritional status in addition to increased hospitalization also causes lower quality of life, increased length of stay in hospital and increased mortality among elderly (8-11). In addition it makes a favorable situation for the incidence of diseases such as diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure which these factors, in turn, cause the occurrence of other issues such as self- medication and side effects of medicines (12) and also create many health and socio-economic problems in the society (13). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is one of comprehensive and valid tools developed for assessing and determin- ing the nutritional status among elderly which is used in the most of studies (14, 15). The MNA consists of an anthropometric assessment, a brief questionnaire about diet characteristics, global health and environment as well as a self- evaluation of health and nutritional status. The final score categorizes nutritional state as ‘well nourished’ (scores higher than 23.5), ‘at risk for undernutrition’ (scores from 17 to 23.5) and ‘un- dernourished’ (scores lower than 17) (16). Most published studies indicate the MNA to have high sensitivity and specificity and good predictive value for higher mortality, hospital admissions and other adverse outcomes (14, 16-18). Thus, the current study examined the literature to de- termine the prevalence of malnutrition among elderly over 60 yr of age in Iran with Mini Nutri- tional Assessment (MNA).
Abstract— The plant rhizosphere is a major soil ecological environment for plant- microbe interactions involving colonization of different microorganisms in and around the roots of the growing plant. Plants can be used in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. The objective of this study was determine the relationship between the effect of Cd on the symbiotic model of Sinorhizobium meliloti – Medicago sativa and the application of Trichoderma sp. on the nutritional status as well as biochemical characterization of the sandy brown forest soil. The effects of biofertilizer Sinorhizobium and coinoculants Trichoderma strains on growth, chlorophyll and N, P and K content of alfalfa growing in soil polluted by cadmium were investigated. The results indicate that the presence of the saprobe fungi Trichoderma harzianum further enhanced shoot dry weight, N, P and K content of Sinorhizobium meliloti- alfalfa symbiotic model. The co-inoculation of alfalfa with T. harzianum was more effective for Cd uptake. The effects of the bio-multiple inoculants on the growth of alfalfa were stimulated the colonization of Sinorhizobium strains in the rhizosphere, promoted the nodulation potential and increased the dry organic matter. Sinorhizobium meliloti interacts with alfalfa as a model for rhizobioremediation and Trichoderma strains interact with this model as nodule promotors as well as a partner in the process of cleaning the plant rhizosphere from cadmium metal.
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Among various adaptation mechanisms, selection and promotion of nutritious food crops with low water re- quirements for smallholder farmers and home gardens can improve a community’s nutritional and health status. Past and present foreign influences on African cultures have altered traditional diets . However, the usage and cultivation of traditional or indigenous vegetables is still widespread in most African countries -. Indigen- ous vegetables such as amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius), African nightshade (So- lanum scabrum and S. villosum) and Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata) are commonly consumed by African households  . Compared with some widely consumed vegetables such as common cabbage, tomato, and onions, many indigenous vegetables are relatively rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and protein . Moreover, consumption of leafy indigenous vegetables is more prevalent in poor households as emergency food sources during shortages  . Indigenous vegetables are mostly collected from the wild rather than culti- vated. Some local leafy vegetables previously studied for susceptibility to drought include African-type ama- ranth and nightshade -.
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in the presence of a steady amount of Zn, significantly enhanced the amount of both Zn and Cd ions in the mobile fractions (Table 1, Additional file 1: Tables S1 and S2). Also in this case, we can speculate that the gradual saturation of cellular matrices with Cd ions may have displaced Zn ions leading to a transient increase in the activity of the free Zn forms that, in turn, was only partially counterbalanced by a weak increase in the amount of Zn ions immobilized with thiol compounds in the LMW complexes (Additional file 1: Figure S3, Tables S3 and S4). Finally, by plotting the xylem loading data obtained in the two experimental setups as a func- tion of the Zn/Cd or Cd/Zn concentration ratios in the mobile fractions, we can easily deduce that increases in the Zn/Cd ratio did not produce fully reciprocal effects on Zn and Cd translocation, whilst increases in the Cd/ Zn ratio resulted in fully reciprocal effects (Fig. 5). Such a finding strongly confirms the hypothesis that Cd ions may use at least two distinct pathways to be translocated from roots to shoots. The first one – shared with Zn – is probably used for Zn translocation in physiological conditions, whilst the second one appears as a Zn- insensitive route that Cd may preferentially use when the first pathway is saturated with Zn. Moreover, the Zn-insensitive pathway we postulate seems to be inde- pendent from Cd stress or nutritional status reached by plants under Zn excess (10 μM), since the partial inhibi- tory effect exerted by Zn on Cd translocation was also observed in short-term PETIS experiments performed with unstressed rice plants (Fig. 4). In fact, time-course analysis of Cd systemic movement in the plants revealed that: i) the rate of Cd translocation was significantly re- duced by changing the external concentration of Zn from 0.1 to 1 μM and then remained unaffected follow- ing a further increase in Zn availability (Fig. 4d); ii) the rates of Cd translocation measured in the presence of different Zn external concentrations significantly differed just starting from the first hour of exposure (Fig. 4d), suggesting that the hypothetical Zn-insensitive pathway was constitutively expressed and not induced by changes in the nutritional status of the rice plants. It is also note- worthy that rates of Cd translocation measured in the presence of 1 and 10 μ M Zn 2+
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The results indicated that most of the girls in dormitories pay attention to their nutritional status. It is because the cooking is one of the characteristics of women, and they cook and prepare food in the dormitory if they needed. In addition, in terms of health responsibility, women care more about their health and visit doctors with any arisen health problem. In a study by Larouche on 151 students, girls had a significantly better behavior than boys in terms of nutrition, interpersonal relationships, health responsibility, and health-promoting lifestyle (28); these are consistent with our results and confirm them.
nutritional status and cell ploidy (even in the haploid state). The molecular mechanism underlying P atl inhibition of entry in meiosis is well characterised: P atl inhibits Mei2 (an inducer of meiosis) by phosphorylating its Ser438 and Thr527 residues, and expression of Mei2 w ith these residues m utated into alanine (Mei2-SATA) causes ectopic meiosis (Watanabe et al. 1997). Furthermore, disrupting the meil gene in patl loss-of-function m utants abolishes ectopic meiosis (Beach et al. 1985; lino and Yamamoto 1985a; lino and Yamamoto 1985b). meil is transcriptionally activated by S te ll u nder nitrogen starvation conditions in both haploid and diploid cells (Shimoda et al. 1987; W atanabe et al. 1988; Sugimoto et al. 1991). The Mei2 protein carries three RNA- recognition motifs (RRMs), and is required at two meiotic stages: firstly it induces premeiotic DNA synthesis, and later on it is required to prom ote the first meiotic division (Meiosis I) (Watanabe and Yamamoto 1994). These results suggest that P atl phosphorylates and inhibits Mei2 until all the requirem ents for meiosis entry are met. H ow is P a tl activity inhibited in response to diploidy and m ating-type heterozygosity? The meiS gene encodes a positive regulator of meiosis that can induce haploid meiosis, independently of the nutritional status, w hen ectopically expressed (McLeod et al. 1987; Wilier et al. 1995). Mei3 can bind to P atl and inhibit its kinase catalytic activity (McLeod and Beach 1988). meiS transcriptional activation is tightly regulated and only occurs upon nutritional starvation in a heterozygous diploid. Ectopic expression of M atl-Pm and M atl-M m in haploid cells, in the absence of M atl-Pc and M atl-M c, lead to expression of meiS and consequentially to ectopic meiosis (Wilier et al. 1995). A recent analysis of the mei3 prom oter show ed that a critical element for meiS expression is a binding site for M atl-Pm , and that M atl-Pm functions as a direct activator of mei3 expression in vivo (Van Heeckeren et al. 1998). The dependence of meiS expression on M atl-Pm and M atl-M m function explains the several requirem ents for its activation, as induction of matl-Pm (in P cells) and matl-Mm (in M cells) require both nitrogen starvation and pherom one signalling (Nielsen and Egel 1990; Nielsen et al. 1992; Wilier et al. 1995).
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glutathione reductase activities decrease under salt stress, while superoxide dismutase and re- duced glutathione increase and malondialdehyde and total protein remain unchanged (Comba et al. 1998). Overexpression of genes leading to in- creased amounts and activities of mitochondrial Mn-SOD, Fe-SOD, chloroplastic Cu/Zn-SOD, bacterial catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)/glutathione peroxidase (GPX) can increase the performance of plants under stress (Roxas et al. 2000). Gossett et al. (1994) reported that in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) NaCl stress increases the activities of SOD, guaicol peroxidase, and glutathione reductase and decreases the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Salt stress also causes a decrease in total ascorbate, total glutathione, and α-tocopherol levels in this case. In leaves of rice plant, salt stress preferentially enhances the content of H 2 O 2 and the activities of SOD, APX, and GPX, whereas it decreases catalase activity (Lee et al. 2001). On the other hand, salt stress has a little effect on the activity levels of glutathione reductase (Lee et al. 2001). Lechno et al. (1997) reported that NaCl treatment increases the activities of the antioxidative enzymes cata- lase and glutathione reductase and the content of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione but does not affect the activity of SOD in cucumber plants. In wheat, activities of APX, MDHAR, DHAR, and GR increase in the shoots and decrease in the roots (Meneguzzo and Navarilzzo 1999). The tomato under high salt concentration showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, catalase, ascorbate peroxi- dase, glutathione reductase, and GST (Rodriguez- Rosales et al. 1999). At higher concentration of NaCl Hernandez et al. (1999) showed that activity of cytosolic CuZn-SOD II, chloroplastic CuZn- SOD II, and mitochondrial and/or peroxisomal Mn-SOD increases with increasing concentration of NaCl (110–130 mmol) in pea.
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In the table below we describe the characteristics of the participants' research and the risk factors for hypertension found in them which include: sex, age, hypertension genetic factors, blood pressure, nutritional status, smoking habits, coffee consumption habits, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and stress experienced. This study found that most of the participant were female (69,4%) and aged 45-65 years old (66,7%). Sixty-two percent had a family history of hypertension. More than half (59,3%) had obesity, as stated by their Body Mass Index (BMI). In the lifestyle assessment, the majority of participants did not have a smoking habit, did not have a habit of consuming coffee, 77.8%, and 68.5% respectively, and only nine participants (8.3%) who consumed fruits and vegetables every day in their meal, Based on physical activity, most participants have moderate physical activity (68.5%), and 98.1% have mild mental stress. For more details, can be seen in Table 1 below: