Sample size: 2195
Area covered: Regional - Semnan Province
References: Batool Karimi; Raheb Ghorbani. Overweight and Obesity in the Iranian Schoolchildren. Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health 01/2015; 2(1). DOI: 10.17795/mejrh-24433 Notes: Overweight is defined as a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and lower than the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex. Obesity is defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex.
Exercise-induced asthma was defined as a positive answer to the question, ‘‘In the last 12 months, has your child’s chest sounded wheezy during or after exercise?’’. 9,11,12
Obesity and overweight were defined in accordance with the Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-off points set by Cole et al., for each group by age and sex. 13 Based on this, three groups were established; normal weight, overweight, and obese.
The lifestyle patterns of mothers and their children are also related to childhood obesity. Health factors begin to influence obesity risk in utero 34 and continue throughout infancy and childhood. 35 Extremes of birth weight, either high or low, increase the risk of obesity in children. 34, 36–38 Mothers’ cigarette smoking in the first trimester of pregnancy doubles the risk of obesity among children at age 3, 39 and that risk continues to increase with age. 40 Maternal breastfeeding practices, 41 mothers’ nutritional choices, 25, 28, 30 and children’s energy intake 1 also increase their risk of being obese.
Whether breastfeeding is protective against the development of childhood overweight and obesity remains the subject of considerable debate. Although a number of meta-analyses and syntheses of the literature have concluded that the greater preponderance of evidence indicates that breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity, these findings are by no means conclusive. The present study used data from the Growing Up in Ireland study to examine the relationship between retrospectively recalled breastfeeding data and contemporaneously measured weight status for 7,798 children at nine years of age controlling for a wide range of variables including, socio-demographic factors, the child’s own lifestyle- related behaviours, and parental BMI. The results of the multivariable analysis indicated that being breastfed for between 13-25 weeks was associated with a 38 percent (p<.05) reduction in the risk of obesity at nine years of age, while being breastfed for 26 weeks or more was associated with a 51 percent (p<.01) reduction in the risk of obesity at nine years of age. Moreover, results pointed towards a dose-response patterning in the data for those breastfed in excess of 4 weeks. Possible mechanisms conveying this health benefit include slower patterns of growth among breastfed children, which it is believed, are largely attributable to differences in the composition of human breast milk compared with synthesised formula. The suggestion that the choice of infant feeding method has important implications for health and development is tantalising as it identifies a modifiable health behaviour that is amenable to intervention in primary health care settings and has the potential to improve the health of the population.
Kata kunci: obesitas abdominal, usia produktif, gaya hidup, perempuan
Obesity has become a public health and nutrition issues the world both developed countries and developing countries, including Indonesia. Abdominal obesity is one type of obesity where there is abdominal fat deposits as measured by waist circumference. Abdominal obesity is more at risk of health problems such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular disease than general obesity. Behavioral and environmental factors as well as genetic plays a role in the onset of abdominal obesity. The purpose of the study was to analyze factors associated with abdominal obesity in the productive age (15–64 years) in Surabaya. The independent variables used were age, sex, marital status, family size, education, occupation, smoking, physical activity, consumption of vegetables and or fruit, food or sugary drinks, fatty foods and mental health. This research was analytical study use cross sectional design. The study used secondary data from Basic Health Research Surabaya 2007 amounted to 2191 respondents by simple random sampling.
Moreover, little is known about predictors of overweight and obesity in old age. These might differ from younger population groups as in old age changes occur in body composition, height, food intake and energy expenditure [9, 18]. Old adults have more body fat which, in addition, is distributed differently. Likewise, a decrease in muscle mass and height is associated with ageing. Old adults tend to have a lower food intake and become less hungry. Fur- thermore, the degree of physical activities decreases in old age. Eventually, old adults frequently lose weight for rea- sons of frailty, morbidity and imminent death.
Results: Among the study population the mean bone age index of obese children was 1.08615 and the mean bone age index of overweight children was 0.98097 which was statistically significant. Bone age index=0.016 (BMI)+0.6742.
By using this formula we derived that a BMI of 19 or above triggered significant acceleration of bone age.
Conclusions: In our study by deriving at the bone age index of both obese and overweight children and comparing them, we found that the trends of obesity affecting the bone age is significantly more than overweight children. Hence the lifestyle modifications in overweight children are vital so as not to get into obese category. This will prevent the bone age changes which in turn will avoid serious health hazards in adolescence and especially in adulthood.
Many predisposing factors may lead to overweight and obesity such as; 1- Genetic factors, environmental, over-consumption, eating too many high-fat or refined sugary foods, reduced energy expenditure, and family influence, 2- demographic factors such as age: gender, and ethnicity. 3- Socio-cultural factors such as educational level, income, and marital status. 4- Biological factors such as: parity. 5- Behavioral factors such as: dietary intake, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. (Morgan 2002) Children and adolescents are especial groups influenced by many factors in their eating behavior which may lead to overweight and obesity such as: family, life style, lack of time, peers and conformity to group norms, school food environment, fast food restaurant, and vending machines ( French 2001). World Health Organization (WHO) stated that the classifications of overweight and obesity according to body mass index are; < 18.5 kg/m2 underweight, 18.5-24.9 kg/rn2 normal or 'acceptable' weight, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 grade 1 overweight, 30.0-39.9 kg/m2 grade 2 overweight obesity, and > 40.0 kg/m2 grade 3 overweight morbid obesity (Jennifer 2008).
Keywords: obesity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, cognitive impairment, aging, cognitive epidemiology
The metabolic syndrome and its complications threaten global health. In most countries, prevalence is high, 1 tends to increase over time 2,3 and generates huge economic costs. 4 Prevalence is largest among older age groups, 5 adding to the relevance of the syndrome as a candidate predictor of and potentially causal contributor to age-related disease including cognitive impairment, which itself is rising in prevalence due to globally ageing societies. 6 It has been estimated that 22% of people aged over 70 years in the USA are currently cognitively impaired, 7 and epidemiological studies have frequently demonstrated associations with the metabolic syndrome. 8–13 Diabetes, hypertension and obesity together contribute to the diagnostic criteria of the metabolic syndrome 14 and have each been assessed in detail for their relationship with cognitive outcome. Links
Introduction: The problem of obesity in children aged 5-12 years in Indonesia is still high, East Java is one of the provinces that have higher prevalence of obesity than the national average (Riskesdas 2013). Consumption of fruit and vegetables DIIHFWV WKH OHYHO RI REHVLW\¶V ULVN EXW QRZDGD\V IUXLW DQG YHJHWDEOH FRQVXPSWLRQ LQ VFKRRO-age children are low. This study was aimed to determine the correlation between consumption patterns of fruits and vegetables with the risk of obesity in school-age children in Ketabang I Surabaya elementary school. Method: This research uses the descriptive correlation method with cross sectional approach. The population of this research is students in grade 4 and 5. Purposive sampling technique used to select 69 respondents as samples. The independent variable in this study is the consumption pattern of fruit and vegetable, while the dependent variable is the risk of obesity. The data were analyzed with chi-square test. Result: The results of this research showed that most of respondents consume less fruit and vegetable (52%). The number of respondents who are obese is 20%, while the number of respondents who have high risk is 13%. Statistical analysis showed that the consumption pattern of fruits and vegetables has a correlation with the risk of obesity (p = 0.009). Discussion: There was a significant relationship between the consumption patterns of fruit and vegetables with risk of obesity in school-age children in Ketabang I Surabaya elementary school. Further studies should examine the appropriate interventions to overcome the problem of obesity in school-age children.
The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is now a global problem (Public Health England, 2013) with the most recent UK findings showing that overweight and obesity now affects almost a third of all children (National Child Measurement Programme, 2011). This is concerning as obesity increases the risk of morbidity in childhood as well risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood (Juonala et al. 2011). In trying to better understand causation and early risk factors, there is mounting evidence to suggest that some cases of overweight and obesity in childhood could reflect, in part, an altered pattern or rate of growth. Overweight and obese children (identified by their body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score, (SDS)) tend to be taller for their age compared with non- overweight children (Bosy Westphal et al. 2009, Pliakas and McCarthy 2010). Thus being tall for age could be considered an early predictor for overweight and obesity. For example, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been associated with taller stature at age 3 years, with tallness for age predicting overweight status at that age (Akaboshi et al. 2008). Additionally, an analysis of serial cross-sectional surveys in 3-year-old English children showed the steepest rise in the prevalence of obesity to be amongst the tallest in the study (Buchan et al. 2007). Complimentary studies have shown that taller children tend to have thicker skinfolds compared with their comparatively shorter age group peers (Freedman et al. 2004) and that greater childhood height may be a marker for increased risk of adult overweight and obesity (Stovitz et al. 2010).
Kazuki Yoshimoto, Tatsuya Noda, Tomoaki Imamura
Department of Public Health, Health Management and Policy, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan
Background: Studies on the association between obesity and all-cause mor- tality have found that the degree of obesity is directly proportional to all-cause mortality. In contrast, there have been studies indicating that obese people with underlying diseases have a higher survival rate. We hypothesized that age and underlying diseases lead to such contrasting results. Therefore, we conducted a study to clarify the influence of post-middle ageobesity and underlying diseases on all-cause mortality. Methods: This study used data from longitudinal studies in the United States, which conducted follow-up for 19 years on 33,708 participants in different age groups: ≥45, 45 - 64, and ≥65 years. Hazard ratio (HR) was determined using the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze a group consisting of all participants, a group of those with underlying diseases, and a group of those without underlying diseases, consi- dering age, gender, education history, marital status, household income, smoking history, and BMI category as covariates. Results: In the group aged
This is of considerable concern for number of reasons.
This is the risk factor of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, CHD, depression and various type of can- cer. This increasing trend of overweight and obesity, when combined with the continued trend toward globalization, will serve to seriously escalate the popula- tion level of obesity. This study showed that 22% and 48% of the Bangladeshi diabetic women of reproductive age are overweight and obese respectively according to Asian specific BMI cut-off value. Thus the results of the present study show that overweight and obesity are major public health problems for reproductive age women in Bangladesh. No study was conducted on Bangladeshi diabetic women of reproductive age for measuring overweight and obesity previously. In Saudi Arab, El Hazmi et al.  conducted a study, where 29.66% and 39.27% diabetic women were found over- weight and obese respectively by using WHO standard Table 4 Association of anthropometric indices with other
The data obtained in this study showed that, contrary to expectations, middle-age as well as obesity per se did not affect myocardial function at baseline level and did not increase the susceptibility of the heart to I/R dam- age, as indicated by infarct size and functional recovery during reperfusion after regional ischaemia. In fact, obesity appears to be beneficial in young animals as indi- cated by the reduction in infarct size when compared to their age-matched controls. These results are in contrast with the many well-established age-related modifications in the cardiovascular system [1–3], but it should be kept in mind that our observations were made in healthy ani- mals, without the comorbidities which may affect the outcome. There is also continued interest in the ability of cardioprotective interventions such as pre-or postcon- ditioning to protect the ageing myocardium [1–4]. Our data showed that although aging hearts exhibited normal function under baseline conditions, with an unchanged response to I/R and retention of the capacity to reduce infarct size when preconditioned, this was associated with a reduction in the ability to recover functionality.
Abstract: Background: Obesity is a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries. Its prevalence is increasing rapidly and reached epidemic proportions globally. Evidence suggests that the situation is likely to get worse especially among women because women tend to gain greatest amount of weight during their child-bearing age, putting them at risk for cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, hypertension, and many other chronic disorders. Only few studies assessed the situation of obesity in women of childbearing age living in urban areas of Ethiopia. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the determinant factors of obesity among women of childbearing age in urban areas of Ethiopia. Methods: The study used women’s of childbearing age dataset from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The survey sample was designed to provide national, urban/rural, and regional representative estimates of key health and demographic indicators. This study used 3,535 urban women’s, from the total 14,505 eligible women of childbearing age in the country. The sample was selected using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure. Odds ratio along with 95% confidence interval in binary logistic regression was used to assess determinant factors associated with obesity among urban women of childbearing age. Results: The prevalence of obesity was (2.84%) among women of childbearing age living in urban areas of Ethiopia. Obesity was significantly associated with occupation, age, marital status, children ever born, wealth terciles, religion, parent’s educational status and residing region in the binary logistic regression analysis. Parents education (AOR= 0.50: 95% CI (0.26 - 0.94), wealth tersiles (AOR=2.01: 95% CI (1.10 – 3.67) and (AOR= 6.37: 95% CI (3.38 – 12.00) in medium and high, respectively and residing regions (AOR= 4.91: 95% CI; 1.24 – 19.47), (AOR=5.68: 95% CI; 1.52 - 21.16), (AOR=17.81: 95% CI; 4.97 – 63.78), (AOR=4.62: 95% CI; 1.36 – 15.64), (AOR=4.21: 95% CI; 1.28 - 13.75) and (AOR=6.06: 95% CI; 1.81 – 20.23) in Afar, Oromiya, Somali, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa regions, respectively were found to be determinants of obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity among women of childbearing age in urban areas was high. Parents’ education, wealth terciles and residing region were associated with obesity. Targeted interventions should be put in place to reverse increasing levels of obesity in order to prevent the risk of obesity and its related life threatening effects.
= 0.08), but there was no association among black girls.
Any association between menarcheal age and adult height is likely to be small.
Several limitations of the current study should be consid- ered when interpreting our results. Despite the large sam- ple size, only 1179 of the 3041 age-eligible children were reexamined as adults and included in the analyses. How- ever, the sample appeared to be representative of the larg- er population, and childhood levels of BMI, weight, and height did not differ between the 1179 re-examined chil- dren and the other 1862 (3041 minus 1179) children. The agreement of our findings, concerning the interrelation- ships among childhood obesity, menarcheal age and adult obesity, with those of other investigators also indi- cates that our results are likely to be generalizble to other populations.
Kathryn Tully Oelsner 1 , Yan Guo 2 , Sophie Bao-Chieu To 3 , Amy L. Non 4 and Shari L. Barkin 5,6*
Background: The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool- age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity.
Our study has however some limitations. We are using a small subgroup of the population and thus might have not had enough power to detect signi ﬁ cant differences with regard to metabolic variables; still we were able to ﬁ nd a difference in the risk of MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants. Besides, we have used the HOMA-IR as a de ﬁ nition for the MHO phenotype, because of the lack of a standard de ﬁ nition for MHO, other ways of classifying MHO versus MUHO might lead to different interpretations. In summary, we have shown that young obese SGA-born individuals had a higher risk of belong- ing to the MUHO phenotype de ﬁ ned by the HOMA-IR index. Those ﬁ ndings are speci ﬁ c to this homogeneous population but can however be generalised to other young obese adults born SGA. The results from this study highlight the understanding of the importance of IR as a determinant for metabolically healthy obesity as well as the importance of preventing births that are SGA. In conclusion, SGA might confer a higher risk than AGA with regard to MUHO independently of age, sex, physical activity level and socioeconomic status.
the menstrual cycle making it difficult to compare results across studies (Kaaks et al., 2005;Bernstein, 2002).
Our observations of a higher E 2 level among women who have both an early age at menarche and adult obesity support studies demonstrating a modest increase in breast cancer risk associated with younger age at menarche (Bernstein, 2002;Kelsey et al., 1993). To our knowledge these studies have not stratified by premenopausal body composition. The observed association between age at menarche and breast cancer risk is often explained due to early establishment of regular cycles and longer time between age at menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and hence the overall higher total cumulative dose of estrogen
The ageing process is an ongoing and inevitable one. We cannot stop it. We can delay it, or lessen the effects of old age by taking care of ourselves, staying physically active and not allowing obesity to take hold. The work of dietitians, psychology and cosmetology have an enormous influence on the health of seniors. These enable them to take care of both their physical and mental health, and their external appearance including skin condition. World Health Organisation experts estimate that by 2030 half of the world population will face the problem of excess weight, and the number of obese people will be greater than the number of overweight people.