Objective 2 - Preventing the Risk of Social Exclusion

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Chapter 29 The Role of Pension Policies in Preventing Old-Age Exclusion

Chapter 29 The Role of Pension Policies in Preventing Old-Age Exclusion

If the pension had ensured a more comfortable standard of life men might not have had the depressing sense of having become “poor relations” and might have held their heads higher among their children (Townsend 1957, p.147). Nevertheless, as the value of pensions continued to rise throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the gains in terms of enabling older people to participate fully in the social and civic life of their communities were numerous. Workers were able to look for- ward to a planned and secure retirement, in the knowledge that they would receive a guaranteed income. Pensions that were calculated on the basis of “defined bene- fits” became widespread and workers mostly knew in advance the value of their pension since the benefits accrued were linked to earnings and employment careers and the level of future pension was pre-defined and guaranteed. Occupational pen- sions administered by employers also developed alongside the “first pillar” state pensions. With income security in old-age, residential independence became the norm, as witnessed by the large increase throughout western Europe in the number of older one-person households during the 1960s. Older people relied less and less on their kin for their basic needs. A regular income in old-age also enabled retirees to participate in leisure and cultural activities, thereby reducing significantly the risk of social exclusion. This led to what some commentators have referred to as a
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Social support for schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

Social support for schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

• Those related to negative societal processes existing in the society (poverty, homelessness; forced migration, national conflicts, etc.). Discussing the first reason for social exclusion which is related to the individual characteristics of a child, it is important to note that problems related to social exclusion most often occur during teen years. The transfer to senior classes is linked with the drastic growth of academic requirements. Intellect becomes a less important factor in success than motivation. Those schoolchildren who do not complete their schooling are at high risk of social exclusion. Knowledge, skills and qualifications obtained in the educational process are acquisitions fostering involvement in societal life. A peak in egocentrism and a strong reaction to peers are observed. Self-esteem lowers, especially among girls, because of extra social and sexual pressures. Running away from home is often combined with other problems in children and adolescents. In comparison with children who never run away from home, young runaways use drugs 5 to 10 times more often and use alcohol 3 to 6 times more often (Klasen, 1997). Often running away from home is a manifestation of deep domestic and school problems in a child. Some children become street children and they involve in deviant groups, criminal career, sex industry and drug use, others become isolated. Schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion usually are passive; they fulfil daily duties with negativism and fear of punishment. Their relations with peers are also characterized by fear, distrust, rejection of inclusion and aggressiveness.
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The oldest old and the risk of social exclusion

The oldest old and the risk of social exclusion

Multivariate modelling Before presenting the multivariate models that form the main empirical contribution of this piece, a further point arising from the descriptive statistics must be made. There are several instances of item non-response occurring across the predictors and outcomes. Proceeding with the analysis leads to the models being estimated with 43 per cent of cases excluded. Clearly this level of missing data poses the risk of bias. As seen in tables 1 and 2, the missing values are distributed across many variables. We have dealt with this problem by using multiple imputation to provide estimates of the missing values through regression procedures. This technique replaces values missing through item non-response with values estimated according to other respondent characteristics. The approach is preferable to replacing the missing values with the mean, or the alternative of dropping cases on a list-wise basis, which would substantially reduce the sample size and potentially distort the findings. Hence, multiple imputation was considered the best option. All results presented are from five pooled datasets. The original data was dropped as it
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The oldest old and the risk of social exclusion

The oldest old and the risk of social exclusion

finances of the Oldest Old, from calculating asset wealth and other income, to accounting for unclaimed benefit entitlements and for care costs. These matters were beyond the scope of this article but should be subject to future research. In light of our findings, we must note the evidence that a loss of social contact can damage physical and mental health (Social Exclusion Unit, 2005). Furthermore, older persons are more likely to need care from external providers if they live alone, which is more likely among the Oldest Old. This places more pressure on statutory health and social care services. Hospital bed-blocking by older patients who are unable to live independently is an ongoing strain on NHS resources and any viable solutions should be considered. Measures must be taken to help the Oldest Old to continue living in their own homes for as long as possible, whilst maintaining adequate social relations and being able to access services. As first steps, awareness and availability of technology such as Skype, telecare and online
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Benefits of Volunteering in Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion

Benefits of Volunteering in Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion

Conclusion Young people who choose to volunteer have a different profile to that of young people who choose not to, and the results found in this study support this. Regarding the benefits of volunteering, many of the results found are not consistent with those found by previous research. This should not be interpreted as meaning that volunteering is not having a positive impact on volunteers, but it should show, on one hand, the need to study more specific characteristics of volunteering experiences and volunteers. It is likely that not all kinds of volunteering, and being a volunteer, contributes to empowerment in the same way for everybody. For example, a young person's social context, as well as the support and training received during their volunteering placement, are key elements to be considered. On the other hand, it should also show the need to assess the effectiveness of volunteer programmes to implement improvements in them that contribute to increasing their positive impact on all parties involved. In any case, the need to continue researching this topic is evident. Future research should consider the combined use of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, as each option has its pros and cons. The combined use of both can contribute to a more comprehensive delving into this topic.
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SOCIAL EXCLUSION

SOCIAL EXCLUSION

social services about young people, whose lives have not been easy, achieving independence by 18 years of age. OUTCOME GROUPS As suggested earlier, adopting a social exclusion framework may mask differences between groups of care leavers, especially in relation to their outcomes. By definition, social exclusion is about ‘risk’ factors and poor life chances. However, there is also a growing literature on ‘looked after’ young people, adopting resilience as a central organizing concept (Gilligan 2001; Schofield 2001; Newman 2004). A review of research studies on care leavers completed since the mid-1980s and carried out within a resilience framework suggests that in broad terms young people leaving care fall into one of three groups (Stein 2005).
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Profiles and Transitions of Groups at Risk of Social Exclusion: Lone Parents

Profiles and Transitions of Groups at Risk of Social Exclusion: Lone Parents

(b) The competing explanation is that those with good employment prospects exit low income quickly. The policy implication of this interpretation is that we should wait for some time before intervening, otherwise we will be helping individuals who would have exited low income on their own after a short stay. 2 Unfortunately, the longitudinal SLID sample is small and, as a result, most of the independent variables of the hazard models tested here, including the effect of the duration of spells, turned out to be statistically insignificant. As a result, in addition to the more conventional hazard analysis, we used OLS regression analysis to assess the effect of various factors on in-progress spells. This approach is methodologically less satisfactory than hazard analysis but, in the face of sample size limitations, it provides a simple way of complementing the hazard analysis results.
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Social Protection and Vulnerability, Risk and Exclusion Across the Life-Cycle

Social Protection and Vulnerability, Risk and Exclusion Across the Life-Cycle

and opportunity linked to education, self-esteem, assets and access to labour markets. Research studies demonstrate the way in which low socio-economic status of parents is often transmitted to the next generation 1 . There is also a crucial link in the evolution of life-cycles between generations and between breadwinners and dependents. For example, the loss of employment of a parent can bring an entire household into a new and more vulnerable life-cycle. These links are illustrated clearly in contexts where mortality of prime age adults due to HIV and AIDS and conflict, as well as migration of wage-earners 2 can lead to an increasing burden on older people to care for young children and other dependents. The burden of care, which is often characterised by intergenerational links, is a major factor in determining vulnerability. For example, 6 million children in sub-Saharan Africa are cared for by their grandparents in „skipped generation households‟ (HAI, 2004). Households including both older people and children are, on average, the poorest households in Africa (Kakwani and Subbarao, 2005).
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Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

● the joint Department for Work and Pensions and HM Treasury target to halve child poverty by 2010 and eradicate it by 2020. 19. The report highlights the centrality of mental health to the public health agenda and the forthcoming White Paper on improving health. People with mental health problems have an increased risk of premature death. 25 A person with schizophrenia can expect to live for ten years less than a member of the general population, 26 and the economic costs of suicide are estimated to be in the region of £5.3 billion. 27 Mental health problems present a particular challenge for deprived neighbourhoods, which will be prioritised in implementing this action plan.
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Child social exclusion

Child social exclusion

In the pooled sample, and particularly in Spain and S Korea, participation is strongly associated with social resources exclusion. So, if children are listened to and taken into account by adults (parents, carers, teachers, town council, etc.) they are less likely to be excluded on the participation domain. Also it is important for children to be able to decide how they use their time and to participate in organised leisure time activities to promote their social inclusion. Moreover, it is worrying that materially deprived children in England and Ethiopia are at higher risk of being excluded in almost all other sub-domains and especially in the housing and environment sub-domain in the case of England and in the health and well-being sub-domain in the case of Ethiopia.
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Unemployment and social exclusion

Unemployment and social exclusion

In general, an employment relationship ends either because workers are laid off, their contract expires and is not prolonged or they quit voluntarily. In the empirical analysis I study how the effects depend on the type of job loss. The distinction be- tween voluntary and involuntary unemployment allows me to learn more about the self-selection of employees into unemployment. The PASS-ADIAB does not contain information on mass layoffs which could be used to estimate the effects of involuntary job loss as it is often done in the literature. However, the individual risk of being af- fected by a mass layoff might also be influenced by selection both on the part of the firm as well as on the employee side. 7 Firms of a different size, sector or workforce compo- sition face different business risks and vary with respect to their employment contract designs. Similarly, employees might self-select, for instance due to family reasons, to work in firms that are less likely to make layoffs. The German Employment Protection Act (Kündigungsschutzgesetz) prescribes the requirements for making workers redun- dant. 8 This law states that termination with notice is only valid if it is based on reasons relating to either the employees’ character, conduct, or urgent operational business re- quirements. The employer has to undertake a social selection of the relevant employees on the basis of length of employment, age, family support obligations and severe dis- ability. However, there might still be a certain scope for an employer to lay off workers with low productivity or bad health. The individual probability of becoming unem- ployed might be influenced by unobservable factors like ability or motivation but also by lower levels of the outcome variables before job loss. For instance, unhappy people or people with few social contacts or mental health problems could be more likely to become unemployed.
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Salutogenic health promotion program for migrant women at risk of social exclusion

Salutogenic health promotion program for migrant women at risk of social exclusion

Changes in the dependent variables between the pre- test and posttest in relationship with the sociodemo- graphic data are shown in Additional file 2. A greater increase in SOC can be observed in the women from Latin-American countries who were not living within a family setting at the moment of the study. Mean values for self-esteem increased more among participants from Latin-American countries, compared to those from Sub- Saharan African countries. In contrast, a decrease in self-esteem was observed among the women from Morocco. Participants with responsibility for dependent family members experienced a decrease in the mean value of perceived stress. Women younger than 35 years increased their mean physical QL score, while the older participants showed a decrease. In contrast, the younger women reported a decrease in the mean quality of men- tal health, while participants older than 35 years reported an increase.
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Drug problems and social exclusion: the development of heroin careers in risk environments.

Drug problems and social exclusion: the development of heroin careers in risk environments.

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD). Drug misuse and the environmen. Speaking of ethnograph. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage. The professional stranger An Informal Introduction [r]

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Literacy as a social practice in pre-school education: a case study in areas at risk of social exclusion

Literacy as a social practice in pre-school education: a case study in areas at risk of social exclusion

A co-analysis approach was taken in which both the researcher and participant children were involved. This type of analysis aims to achieve a shared interpretation from a two-stage process. The first stage was mainly preparatory, its purpose being to establish a familiar relation- ship between the researcher and participants, who had previously shared spaces, activities and informal conversations. As a result of this personal relationship, each party knew their previous ideas and their personal perspective on the literacy process. The second stage was based on the creation of a graphic organization of the information collected through photographs or other artefacts (Cornish, Gillespie & Zittoun, 2014). In our study, a template was used in the form of a coordinate axis in which the four domains considered (home, school, neighbour- hood, organisations/church) were identified in the quadrants. Children placed photographs and artefacts in the different quadrants as they saw fit. In the same way, when they considered it necessary, they drew, wrote in the quad- rants, or identified sounds and colours related to these domains. Similarly, researchers asked questions such as those listed in table 2 for each domain analysed. The information obtained from these questions allowed the researchers to obtain a first draft with children’s interpre- tations. Finally, this version was shared with children up to the point of getting a shared level of interpretation of literacy in the different domains (Clark, 2011).
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Preventing social exclusion of disabled children and their families : literature review paper produced for the National Evaluation of the Children's Fund

Preventing social exclusion of disabled children and their families : literature review paper produced for the National Evaluation of the Children's Fund

of families with younger disabled children, aged under-five, and older disabled young people facing transitions to adulthood. Discussion of inclusion and disabled children of school age is often restricted to exploring education and the school inclusion agenda. Within this review there is not the space to do justice to the extensive evidence available here, and by having a primary focus on the child’s experience of family alongside non-educational community services I have attempted to redress the balance. For example, I have tried to ensure a focus on understanding children and families’ experiences with close reference to social contexts and have not followed a developmental or individualising approach. It has remained important to acknowledge that education- based provision is central for services developed for disabled children, and so this has also been included to identify some key messages from research.
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Road user charging and social exclusion: The impact of congestion charges on at-risk groups.

Road user charging and social exclusion: The impact of congestion charges on at-risk groups.

As an alternative to the provision of exemptions for at-risk groups, a more positive option might be to ensure that alternative modes are available. Cycling and walking might be relevant in some circumstances and improvement of facilities for cyclists and pedestrians may make these modes feasible options for some drivers affected by the introduction of charges. More generally it is likely that improving the public transport service and making it more accessible for the at-risk groups will be a more efficient use of resources. Given the profile of the at-risk groups, the improvements might include increased provision of early- morning and late-night services, increased penetration of services – perhaps involving the expansion of demand-responsive services, more disabled-friendly vehicles, more generous concessionary fares for elderly, disabled or unemployed people, and improved information about services in all relevant languages. Where public transport is not a viable option then thought might also be given to the encouragement of other alternatives such as car sharing and community-based transport. The London scheme included considerable investment in improved public transport services – particularly through an expansion in capacity and operating hours.
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Social Exclusion and HIV A Report

Social Exclusion and HIV A Report

Some employers, aware that they may face difficulties if they openly mistreat an employee with HIV, attempt to cover this by forms of constructive dismissal. In the experience of Terrence Higgins Trust employment advisors, this has included drastically altered and unacceptable shift patterns and requests to wear inappropriate clothing such as gloves or masks which would mark the person out. Some employers have simply failed to stop victimisation by other staff, making continued work impossible. Although the majority of employers do not behave in this way, many people are unwilling to risk their jobs to find out. This secrecy, in turn, excludes them from a potential source of support, contributes to isolation and exclusion and may lead to difficulties if they become ill or need time off to cope with new treatments.
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Effects of exclusion on social preferences

Effects of exclusion on social preferences

More generally, downsizing is a form of ostracism (see, for instance Masclet, 2003; Cinyabuguma et al., 2005; Kerr et al., 2009; Maier-Rigaud et al., 2010). What is, however special is that ostracism is usually seen as a form of punishing norm deviators whereas downsizing is just an attempt to improve a firm’s profitability and not at all a sanctioning of underperforming agents. The exclusion of innocent parties from payments is, however, also true for experimental studies where one party dictatorially decides whether or not another party keeps or obtains its payment (see, for example, Brennan et al., 2008). Here the major finding is that, in spite of some other regarding concerns, most participants are very much self-centered in that they are bothered by own risk or delay but hardly ever by similar complexities of other’s payoffs.
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Missing Persons and Social Exclusion

Missing Persons and Social Exclusion

changes to the nature and type of work that is available as well as the number of able bodied adults in a family unit who are able to secure employment are vital in understanding which groups are at risk of exclusion. The concept of social exclusion recognizes that people and groups are situated unequally in relation to important institutions and resources and benefit unevenly from them. For example, household income is an important dimension of subsistence and permits participation in social life. However, women and children often lack the power within a household to control, or even access this income. As a result, the well-being of these groups is often tied to the primary income earner in the household. Moreover, access to well-paid employment also varies between groups. For example, women, immigrants, and visible minorities are most likely to experience precarious employment, meaning low paying temporary work (Cranford et al. 2003). In other words, power dynamics in families and societies are vital in understanding which groups and people will have access to valued resources and opportunities. The concept of social exclusion considers power dynamics, discrimination, and other forms of systemic disadvantage and is well suited to exploring which groups have access to, and benefit from, a particular resource (Bambra 2007). The group dimension of social exclusion is discussed in greater detail later on.
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Policies, Social Exclusion, and Social Wellbeing in Indonesia and Malaysia

Policies, Social Exclusion, and Social Wellbeing in Indonesia and Malaysia

The above objective data demonstrates the different welfare conditions of the two nations, that among others, influenced by its geographical conditions, the demographic structure and social and economy conditions. These conditions of Indonesia are indeed more challenging than Malaysia. The larger territory, dense population and wide social and economy gaps among regions have been the main constraints faced by the Indonesian government to bring welfare for all citizens. While, the smaller teritory and less dense population allows the Malaysian government to evenly manage the welfare of the population throughout the country. Consequently, there is inequality and gaps between regions in Indonesia. Accordingly, social exclusion in Indonesia is relatively higher compared to Malaysia since the gaps of HDI and GDI and other economic, health and social objective measurements between regions are relatively wide. In this context, the state’s inclusive economic and social policies could principally facilitate the needs of and reduces the gaps among its citizens to achieve the nation prosperity and welfare. The discussion on economic and social policies of the two countries will presented in the next section.
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