The suggestion that stress and strain should be inversely related to measures of P- E fit (Tziner & Dawis, 1988) now has some empirical support. The fact that the measure of P-E fit was obtained from Holland’s model of career interests also reflects favourably upon that theory. The relation between congruence and stress may not be as strong as at first thought, but it is present. In reviewing this study and its findings, however, it must be acknowledged that this work is still in the exploratory stage. Some of the outcomes of the present study were not anticipated and further studies will have to be conducted to determine the value of the present approach. One question that needs to be considered is the choice of the OSI to operationalise the stress construct. Any measurement error in that area would weaken the relation between congruence and stress. The OSI has appeal because it employs subscales which might be expected to have differing relations with constructs such as congruence. Osipow and Spokane (1987) identified studies of P-E fit and stress as being particularly important for the further validation of their model. Table 1 suggests that the data obtained with this sample were in agreement with those reported in the OSI manual. The means for both sexes were much the same as those reported in the manual and the reliabilities for the individual subscales were also much the same. The only noticeable difference occurred with the reliabilities for the ORQ (stress) and PRQ (coping resources) major scales where figures reported in the present study were noticeably lower. These considerations aside, there is no reason to believe that the findings would have been any different with another measure of occupationalstress.
In the present study, the occupationalstress level of secondary school teachers is determined by making a comparison between occupationalstress level of male and female, secondary school teachers.50 number of secondary school teachers, having equal number of male and female teachers are selected as sample of the study. A self made occupationalstress inventory is being used for data collection. .The study reveals teaching is a considerably stressful occupation for secondary schoolteachers. Male and female secondary school teachers do not differ significantly with reference to their level of occupationalstress.
breath drawn, an individual is invariably exposed the various stressful situations. Stress is a common occurrence among people causing health, hazards, laziness, disinterest and lack of physical and mental vitality, Stress in elementary form may not be dangerous but its prolongation cause worry, loss of interest in life and tendency to do no work. The term „professional stress‟ refers the difficulty experienced by the teachers working in primary schools in relation to their professional situations. Professional stress can be defined as the physiological and emotional responses that occur when worker perceive an imbalance between their work demands and their capability and resources to meet these demands. Importantly, stress responses occur when the imbalance is such that the worker perceives they are not coping in situation. Professional stress is often associated with overachievers. Hence the investigator in very much interested on constructing and validating the occupationalstress scale.
Our aim was to study how significant psychosocial factors are in occupationalstress and cardiovascular diseases evolvement in workers employed at petrochemical production; we also intended to work out a set of preventive measures. Our hygienic and social-psychological research enabled us to detect factors causing stress evolvement in workers employed at petrochemical production. These factors included chemical impact, noise, unfavorable microclimate, labor hardness and labor intensity. High level of risk for their own lives and respon- sibility for safety of others, as well as work under time deficiency conditions with increased responsibility for the final results, were the most significant psychosocial factors for workers. In the course of questioning we detected that 74 % machine operators, 63 % tool men working with controllers and automatic devices, and 57 % repair- men mentioned having stress at work. Here 38 % workers gave a subjective estimation of their professional ac- tivity as having apparent "stress nature". The questioning revealed that 48 % workers with various occupations had increased parameters as per anxiety scale (HADS); 23 % workers had increased parameters as per depres- sions scale (HADS). Primary hypertension was the most widely spread nosologic form among chronic non- infectious diseases; it was found in 46.1 % operators and in 45.2 % repairmen dealing with processing stations repair. 30.1 % tool men working with controllers and automatic devices had average occupational causation of primary hypertension by production factors. We detected direct relation between hyperlipidemia and age and working period.
Researchers have outlined negative consequences of work stressors for organizations and employees and have investigated factors that may moderate or buffer their negative effects (e.g., Cohen & Edwards, 1989; Theorell & Karasek, 1996). Such moderation effects occur via a 2-way interaction in which an additional variable buffers the negative effects of work stress on employee adjustment by allowing the employee some means of coping with the demanding situation. The stress-buffering hypothesis is commonly used to describe the effects of a range of different variables that may protect individuals from the negative effects of stressful life events (Cohen & Edwards, 1989). Indeed, several stress-buffering models have been proposed in the occupationalstress literature. For instance, the Job Demand- Control Model (JDCM: Karasek, 1979) proposes control over daily tasks mitigates the negative impact of job demands on levels of employee adjustment. This model was later extended by Karasek and Theorell (1990) and Theorell and Karasek (1996) to include
The present study was intended to find out effectiveness of psycho education module in reduction of occupationalstress among staff nurses working in intensive care unit Raji Gandhi Government Hospital at Chennai. The conceptual framework is based on Betty Neumann’s health care system model. According to this model affords a total person approach (or) holistic client approach by providing the multidimensional view of a person as an individual. This model includes holistic client approach, open system, basic structure, environment, and stressors, line of defence and resistance, degree of reaction, three levels of prevention as intervention. Holistic client approach mainly focuses dynamic and constant interaction between client and environment. Betty Neumann’s model focuses on stress and stress reduction is primarily concerned with the effect of stress on health.
In this research paper, reviews had been taken from the work of various researchers at national and international level. The researchers have taken a keen interest in reviewing only occupationalstress. However, it is indispensable to review all related material which has a bearing on the topic selected. Because, employees in majority of organization is subject to occupationalstress. Researchers have reviewed the literature of occupationalstress in different fields and their findings and conclusions are listed below. These reviews of related literature gives an overview to the researchers in the theoretical analysis of the topic and for framing goals, assumptions and variables. Overall 59 literatures were collected from various resources such as books, journals, website, etc., for the review purpose.
Role ambiguity is experienced when the message those evaluators send are not clear or they give incomplete information (Vecchio, 2006). This is one of the factors contributing to occupationalstress. Role ambiguity means employees are not clear about their roles and responsibilities. Tension is created when the demands of a job or job environment exceed the capacity of the person to respond effectively (Schwab, 1996). This means that when employee exceeds their capability, they get easily stressed or tense. Other studies have identified heavy workloads, the urgency of work to be performed and role conflict, lack of social support, poor job fit, insufficient knowledge base and unsafe workplaces as potential factors. According to Lee and Mowday (1987) the lack of job satisfaction is one of the variables that is strongly related to employee leaving a company. Other variables include a lack of organizational commitment and job involvement.
In our study, the mean occupationalstress in nurses working in CCU was moderate to high. The highest and lowest mean of occupationalstress, were related to the subscales of role overload and physical environment, respectively. In regard to the level of occupationalstress in nurses, the results of some studies are consistent with the findings of our study [13–16]. In this regard, the results of a study showed that Chinese nurses had high level of occupationalstress . Also, in a study done on Botswana nurses, a high percentage of nurses had occu- pational stress . The high mean of occupationalstress in nurses in this study can be due to the sensitive condi- tion of CCUs. In the CCU, nurses experience a high level of stress because of the critical condition of patients, and CCU nurses are required to have flexibility and capabil- ity to respond quickly in critical situations as compared with other nurses. Also, alertness is another feature that nurses in the CCU should have. In addition to the char- acteristics and conditions governing the CCU, other factors can also contribute to the occupationalstress of CCU nurses. In this regard, evidence suggests that factors such as workload, physical environment, and ambiguity of duties can also contribute to the high level of occupa- tional stress among CCU nurses . In this study, the highest mean of occupationalstress was related to the role overload. Therefore, reducing workload and improv- ing nurses’ environmental condition can play a significant role in reducing their job stress .
The analysis of data demonstrates that emotional intelligence is an influencing and determining variable of occupationalstress. It shows that there is a significant difference in occupationalstress of employees having high emotional intelligence moderate emotional intelligence and low emotional intelligence. In this connection, the finding of the study show that high emotional intelligence subjects having least occupationalstress comparing than moderate emotional intelligence subjects and low emotional intelligence subjects. Here the question, which is more significant and important at this juncture is: why do the subjects of high emotional intelligence, moderate emotional intelligence and low emotional intelligence subjects differ in occupationalstress? A possible explanation can be put forward to account for these differences with the help of theoretical informational framework. Occupationalstress is probably more a relationship between an individual‟s ability and work demands. It is the relationship between work characteristics and individual‟s ability to manage the environment which may be needed to the explanation of occupationalstress.
This prejudice may be aggravated with the presence of many students discussing in class, or even trying to argue with a student that does not agree with him or lacks respect for him in front of the class. These situations increase the teacher's level of stress, enabling a possible disorder that may reach an even higher level of stress: the burnout syndrome (OLIVEIRA et al., 2013). The burnout syndrome is an exceptional type of occupationalstress that characterizes itself by a deep feeling of frustration and exhaustion in relation to the developed job, a feeling that, little by little, can extend itself to all moments of a person's life, leading the individual to a number of symptoms, such as: thwart towards the job, indolence, psychic wear, guilt, among others, and thus developing difficulties in doing his job. This phenomenon was researched and studied regarding teachers in general, and to teaching situations above any other professional area, which maybe shows that the work of a teacher is seen as more psychologically stressful than other professions and it offers favorable conditions to the syndrome's development (MIRANDA et al., 2009). All these risk factors are closely associated with the drudgery about occupationalstress regarding the teaching nurse from universities. Following what has been exposed in this study, the quality of life a complex condition, that varies accordingly with each individual's culture and perspective of life. In
This study showed that younger care attendants experienced higher levels of occupationalstress, as found in similar research [20, 21]. Those who graduated from college experienced greater occupationalstress than did those from middle, high, and vocational schools because of the higher job expectations and aspirations, which corresponded closely to the results of Lin (2000) . Furthermore, those working two years or more experienced more occupationalstress than did their counterparts. Those who had performed similar nursing care duties in Taiwan, had not received nursing care training courses in Vietnam, and had had on-the-job training in Taiwan experienced higher levels of occupationalstress. Those who worked 11- 12 hours a day experienced greater occupationalstress than did those working 8-10 hours. Those working longer shifts generally experienced more occupationalstress. These results are comparable to those obtained from previous research [4, 8, 9, 20]. In this study, the Vietnamese care attendants provided an average of 10.58 hours of nursing care daily, and the long work hours easily transformed into an additional load on the body. Those working without lunch breaks, having fewer non-work days in a month, and who cared for more than 16 patients experienced higher levels of occupationalstress, as did those who took shelter next to patients and lived in loud and unclean environments. Living in affixed compartments built by the institution or beside the patients also created higher levels of occupationalstress because of the lack of space, poor soundproofing, and noise from open spaces. These results are comparable to those of previous research [6, 8, 9].
The result of the Chi-square test indicates that the factors such as Sex Group, Age Group, Marital Status, Employment Status of Spouse, Literacy Level, Size of the Family, Type of the Family, Average Monthly Family Income, Average Monthly Family Expenses, Average Monthly Family Savings, Area of Residence, Distance Between Workplace and Home, Nature of Job, Total Work Experience, Experience in Present Organization, Shift Pattern, Permanency of Job, Remuneration Period, Opinion on Monetary Benefit, Opinion on Non-Monetary Benefit, Mode of conveyance, Level of Workload and Job Satisfaction significantly influence the perception of the respondents on the OccupationalStress that has been experienced by them.
Demand–Control theory of occupationalstress - Karasek (1979) drew attention to the possibility that work characteristics may not be linearly associated with worker health, and that they may combine interactively in relation to health. He initially demonstrated this theory through secondary analyses of data from United States and Sweden, finding that employees in jobs perceived to have both low decision latitude and high job demands were particularly likely to report poor health and low satisfaction. Later studies appeared to confirm the theory. For example, a representative sample of Swedish working men was examined for depression, excessive fatigue, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Those workers whose jobs were characterized by heavy workloads combined with little latitude for decision making were represented disproportionately on all these outcome variables. The lowest probabilities for illness and death were found among work groups with moderate workloads combined with high control over work conditions.
Community physiotherapists are under increasing pressure and managing their time for working with small amount of resources and management skills. This situation is very dangerous and due to the physical discomforts in the workplace the physiotherapists are experiencing the stress. This seems to be that the physiotherapists are in a specific risk themselves from physical work pressure that is the source of the musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). The aim of this study is concentrates the musculoskeletal injury for finding the occupationalstress factors over sixty five physiotherapists in top ten hospitals using subjective scale study. Two groups were formed using the participants, i.e., physiotherapists from government hospital (GH) and physiotherapists from private hospital (PH). It is clearly stated that GH physiotherapists were in low risk compared to PH physiotherapists significantly (p < 0.05). This because of the communication between the personal factors and worst environmental factors created by patients strength, which is used to disturb the nature of care and working life.
Ex-post facto research design was used for this study. Multi stage random sampling technique was followed in the present study. The present study was conducted in different areas of Lucknow city. The independent variables considered for the study were Hierarchy, Work experience, Type of bank. With the aid of occupationalstress index (Srivastava & Singh, 1976) data was collected from 120 bank employees who were randomly selected from private bank 40 employees (20 male, 20 female) and from nationalized bank 80 employees (40 male, 40 female). The employees were selected randomly, due to the busy schedule of respondents.
All of these stressors are to be assessed as "risk factors".It is important to note that these same factors can, when properly evaluated, be important regulators of protection against stress at work, or which allow to maintain a certain balance in the face of tensions.The NAALC classifies them into four main categories, at the centre of which is the actual work activity:
Strategies for overcoming occupationalstress: Individuals and organisations can not remain in a continuous state of tension. They adopt one or another sort of adaptive behaviour to deal with stress which is called coping . The coping process refers to any attempt to deal with a successful situation which a person feels he must do something about, but which exceeds his existing adaption response patterns. Stress Management means the interventions designed to reduce the impact of stressors in the work place. The aim of stress management is to manage the stress of everyday life among employees. Work plays a critical role among the individuals which has contributed to stress for both individual employees and the organisations. Stress at work is one of the threats in providing a healthy platform of work to employees.
Emotional intelligence has been a popular topic in the field of management. This study aimed to examine the impact of emotional intelligence on occupationalstress among executive employees in Bank of Ceylon. Emotional intelligence is as independent variable and occupationalstress is as dependent variable in this study. 150 executive employees were conveniently selected from Bank of Ceylon. 104 questionnaires were retrieved from executive employees of Bank of Ceylon at the response rate of 69%. This study found that emotional intelligence has an impact on occupationalstress in Bank of Ceylon. The Bank needs to maintain higher level of emotional intelligence that will reduce the occupationalstress of executive employees.
Lima et al. (2015) found that because firefighters perform activities where they are exposed to traumatic events, related to the physical or psychological nature of the victims, firefighters already receive a negative influence after performing at the event, which causes changes in their mental health, with reports of symptoms such as insomnia and anxiety. Paschoal and Tamayo (2005) constructed an instrument based on organizational stressors of a psychosocial nature, and elaborated items that also contemplate a reaction to the stressor, seeking to serve a assorted group of occupations and that could be applied in several organizational environments, which was identified as the Work Stress Scale (WSS). Occupational exposure to the aforementioned events increases the probability of depression in subjects exposed to the mentioned situations (Ginzburg, 2010). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Beck et al., 1961) was developed and standardized to be used as a self-assessment measure of depression, applied to the general or specific population without any diagnostic pretension, and may be used in the clinic and research. It was validated for the Brazilian Portuguese (Gorestein and Andrade, 1998). Based on the recognition of scholars such as Sato (1991), Murta and Tróccoli (2007), Carvalho and Malagris (2007) and Monteiro et al. (2007) of how firefighters and other professionals that deal with emergency health situations are more susceptible to the development of disorders, such as depression. Also considering the specificities of the firefighter's work, classified as highly stressful (Szubert and Sobala, 2000, Murta and Tróccoli, 2007, Monteiro et al., 2007). Based on these studies and in the experience of one of the authors who works for 20 years in the Fire Department of Mato Grosso do Sul, the question of the present research has arisen: can stressors at work develop symptoms suggestive of depression in firefighters of the operational service?