Ocimum sanctum Linn.

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A review on Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.)

A review on Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.)

Ocimum sanctum Linn is one of the important medicinal plant; known as holy basil. It is commonly available and cultivated across the India and it is having many therapeutic usages. And it is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various disorders. It is extensively used as antioxidant, immune-modulatory, antipyretic, anticancer, chemo-preventive, radio-protective, anti-hypertensive and cardio protective and antimicrobial activity etc. The present article provides all necessary information regarding its classical literature and research updates on Phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities.
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Effect of Ocimum Sanctum (Linn) Extract on Restraint Stress Induced Behavioral Deficits in Male Wistar Rats

Effect of Ocimum Sanctum (Linn) Extract on Restraint Stress Induced Behavioral Deficits in Male Wistar Rats

Ocimum sanctum (Linn) (OS) is an herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae. This herbal plant is known for its medicinal value in various traditional medicines in India and other Asian nations, particularly Ayurveda and Unani type of medicine (1). The leaves of OS are commonly used in cough, cold, fever, respiratory disorders, non- healing ulcers etc The important bioactive constituents of Ocimum sanctum are ursolic acid,-a triterpenoid and rosmarinic acid a phenylpropanoid. It contains volatile oil comprising mainly of eugenol and β-caryophyllene with minor terpenes like bornyl acetate, β-elemene, methyl eugenol, neral, β-pinene etc (2, 3, 4, 5).
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A STUDY ON THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF CRUDE PRINCIPLES EXTRACTED FROM PIPER BETLE LINN  LEAF STALKS AND OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN  LEAVES

A STUDY ON THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF CRUDE PRINCIPLES EXTRACTED FROM PIPER BETLE LINN LEAF STALKS AND OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN LEAVES

ABSTRACT: The nature harbours a huge source of active principles possessing antimicrobial property. This phenomenon provokes microbiologists, ethnopharmacologist and natural product chemists to perform extensive research on phytoprinciples. The extensive use of these principles in phytotherapy is becoming an excellent alternative strategy against the occurrence of microbial resistance due to some conventional medicines. The current research article dealt with ethanolic crude extractives from the dried leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn. and fresh Leaf stalks of Piper betle Linn. were screened for its antimicrobial activity using the agar-well diffusion method. The sample of the mentioned herbs could be easily found in large amount from the environment of north east region in India. In our present study with Ocimum sanctum L. (tulsi) leaf extract showed marked inhibitory effect on Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E.coli, Vibrio cholerae where a highest zone of inhibition estimated was 30 mm against E. coli. Tulsi extractive possess partial inhibition against Candida albicans. Crude ethanolic extractive of Piper betle Linn. (Paan) stalk remarkably inhibited. A. niger, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans where the highest inhibition zone was 27 mm against Aspergillus niger. This study has also focussed about the microbiostatic nature of the crude extracts isolated from the mentioned herbal parts. This work also emphasizes on the strategy for recycling or reusing betle stalks thrown as a waste materials beside many paan shop and tulsi leaves as thrown outside many temples after worshipping .
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  OCIMUM
 SANCTUM Linn. ATTENUATES HALOPERIDOL INDUCED TARDIVE
 DYSKINESIA AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIOURAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL CHANGES IN
 RATS

  OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. ATTENUATES HALOPERIDOL INDUCED TARDIVE DYSKINESIA AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIOURAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL CHANGES IN RATS

Ocimum sanctum Linn (OS), commonly known as Holy Basil, is considered as a sacred plant in India and grown in every rural household. Traditionally, fresh juice or decoction of OS leaves are used to promote health and in the treatment of various disorders as advocated in Ayurveda, the Indian System of Medicine. Indian Materia Medica describes the use of aqueous, hydroalcoholic and methanolic extract of OS leaves in a variety of disorders, like bronchitis, rheumatism and pyrexia (Nadkarni, 1976; Kritikar and Basu, 1965). Several recent investigations using these extracts have indicated that OS possesses significant anti-inflammatory (Singh et al., 1996), antioxidant (Maulik et al., 1997), immunomodulatory and antistress (Sen et al., 1992) properties. In addition, it has been reported to have radioprotective and anticarcinogenic property (Devi, 2000).
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EVALUATION OF ANTI DIARRHOEAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN  IN EXPETIMENTAL RATS

EVALUATION OF ANTI DIARRHOEAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN IN EXPETIMENTAL RATS

INTRODUCTION: The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc.
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Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Leaves

Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Leaves

The phytochemicals present in plants are responsible for preventing disease and promoting health have been studied extensively to establish their efficacy and to understand the underlying mechanism of their action. Such studies have included identification and isolation of the chemical components, establishment of their biological potency both by in vitro and in vivo studies in experimental animals and through epidemiological and clinical-case control studies in man. Study findings suggest that phytochemicals may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by preventing the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, reducing the synthesis or absorption of cholesterol, normalizing blood pressure and clotting, and improving arterial elasticity. Phytochemicals may detoxify substances that cause cancer. They appear to neutralize free radicals, inhibit enzymes that activate carcinogens, and activate enzymes that detoxify carcinogens. They observed that, the Ocimum sanctum Linn has also been suggested to possess, anticancer, anti- diabetic, anti-fertility, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardio protective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2methoxy-4-allylbenzene) is the active constituents present in Ocimum sanctum Linn. Indian traditional shrub tulsi (Ocimum sanctums): They unique medicinal plant. They observed that, Ocimum sanctum heals many diseases chronically due to its chemical constituent and believes that it has anti- ageing, immunomodulatory property along with antimicrobial and anticancer property . Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum. They observed that, the plant is known to possess antiseptic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antistress, immunomodulatory, hypoglycemic, hypertensive and antioxidant properties. The dried powder of Tulsi (100g) was placed in the thimble of Soxhlet apparatus.500 ml of distilled water was used as a solvent.
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SODIUM FLUORIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LIVER OF SWISS ALBINO MICE AND AMELIORATION BY OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN

SODIUM FLUORIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LIVER OF SWISS ALBINO MICE AND AMELIORATION BY OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN

The liver is the active site of metabolism and prone to fluoride intoxication. Too high amount of fluoride may disturb liver functioning and homeostasis [6] and produce abnormalities such as degenerative and inflammatory changes [7]. The high amount of fluoride exposure is known to trigger hepatic cellular hyperplasia and dilatation of sinusoids [8]. Several types of metabolic enzyme changes and histopathological changes have been reported in calves, sheep, and rats by several researchers [9-11]. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is a small herb, native to tropical and subtropical regions and possesses medicinal properties such as anti-ulcer, analgesic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, anti-asthmatic, gastroprotective, and anti-diabetic activities [12-19]. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on antioxidative enzymes and hepatic histological architecture in adult mice and its amelioration by O. sanctum Linn.
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A Study on the Effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) Leaf Extract and Ursolic Acid on Spermatogenesis in Male Rats

A Study on the Effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) Leaf Extract and Ursolic Acid on Spermatogenesis in Male Rats

Ocimum sanctum L. leaf extract has been reported to possess antifertility. This plant is a rich source of various components that include eugenol, carvacrol (3%) and eugenol-methyl ether (20%). It also contains caryophyllin, ursolic acid, rosmaric acid, thymol, methyl chavicol, citral, carvacrol and β-caryophyllene. It has also been reported that the antifertility property was due to the presence of ursolic acid. Hence, in the present study rats were treated with O. sanctum L. leaf extract and ursolic acid. Administration of O. sanctum leaf extract caused significant decrease in sperm count and motility of spermatozoa by modulating testosterone levels. The extract caused androgen depletion at the target level, particularly in the cauda epididymis thereby affecting physiological maturation of the sperm. Ursolic acid, probably due to the low dose, it does not showed much effect on sperms and also on testosterone follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels.
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Study of wound healing activity of topical Ocimum sanctum Linn in albino rats

Study of wound healing activity of topical Ocimum sanctum Linn in albino rats

system for the treatment of diverse aliment like infectious skin diseases herpetic disorder and as an antidote for snake bite and scorpion sting [2]. A methanol extract and an aqueous suspension of O sanctum leaves were found to have antiinflammatory, analgesic and immunostimulatory properties [3]. Flavonoids isolated from O sanctum scavenged free radicals in vitro and showed anti lipoperoxidant activity in vivo at very low concentration [4]. The free radical scavenging activity of plant flavonoids help in the healing of wounds [5]. Low levels of antioxidants accompanied by raised level by markers of free radical damage play a significant role in wound healing in rats [6]. Free radical scavenging activity is a major mechanism by which O sanctum products protect against cellular damage [7]. It acts on various levels of immune system and is an immunomodulator [8]. It has antibacterial, antifungal activity [9].
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NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM, LINN  EXTRACT ON MPTP INDUCED OXIDATIVE AND NITROSATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN MALE MOUSE BRAIN

NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM, LINN EXTRACT ON MPTP INDUCED OXIDATIVE AND NITROSATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN MALE MOUSE BRAIN

Ocimum sanctum L. is also known as Ocimum tenuiflorum or Tulsi. It belongs to the family Lamiaceae, and is known for its healing properties. O. sanctum is an adaptogen, which can balance different processes in the body, and is considered helpful in adapting to stress 7 . Substantial evidence for Ocimum sanctum, L‘s (Os) antioxidant properties provides an approach to serve as nerviness 8 in the prevention and treatment of stress-related degenerative diseases 9 . Evidence presented from both in vitro and in vivo studies support that amongst various neurotoxins that are used in animal models, (1-methyl -4 –phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine) MPTP exposure generates ROS resulting in oxidative stress 10 .
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IMMUNOSTIMULATORY EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN   LEAF EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS LINN

IMMUNOSTIMULATORY EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN LEAF EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS LINN

Invariably there is an increasing RBC and WBC contents of Clarias batracus treated with aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum at both the groups (Gr.B and Gr.C). It may be due to the effect of this bioactive principle of Ocimum sanctum and ascorbic acid to protect murine peritoneal macrophage from deleterious effect of nicotine and, simultaneously, help to restore their normal functions. In agreement with the present findings, Sahu et al. [45] reported that WBC and RBC counts were higher in Labe rohita fingerlings fed Magnifera indica kernel when compared to control. Gopalakannan and Arul [46] also reported that there was an increase in the WBC count after feeding the common carp with immunostimulants like chitin. Similar results were obtained by Dugenci et al. [47] who tested the immunostimulatory effects of various medicinal plant extracts, such as mistletoe (Viscum album), nettle (Urtica dioica) and ginger (Zinger officinale), in rainbow trout, Withania somnifera in Babl/c mice [48] and Ficus bengalensis in rats [49] were found to stimulate immunological activities. The ginger extract was found to be very effective in enhancing phagocytosis and extracellular burst activity of the blood leukocytes. Thus significant increase in the total leukocyte counts can be considered as an indicator for improvement in general resistance. Increase in neutrophils in control fed fishes may be a non-specific immune response and increase in lymphocyte counts in herbal dose prepared diet fed fishes can be attributed to the specific immune response. In 15 days of Ocimum sanctum extract treatment the lymphocyte and phagocyte counts were increased in all experimental groups as compared to control group. The major reason for this enhanced concentration of lymphocytes and phagocytes in the experimental groups may be their participatory role in immune functions as observed by Kollner et al. [50]. However the counts of these cells in Gr.B and Gr.C decreased at 30 days treatment in comparison to the control group which is supported by the findings of Ephraim et al. [51].
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ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM (LINN) IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM (LINN) IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

Ocimum sanctum (L.) is popularly used as herbal remedy for various ailments. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use especially in pain and inflammation remains unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum in laboratory animals. The ethanol extract of the leaves of O. sanctum was used to investigate the acute effect on analgesia by Hot- plate test in mice and on inflammation in rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The extract showed a significant (p<0.05) dose dependent increase in reaction time in mice in the hot-plate test at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The extract also exhibited promising anti-inflammatory effect as demonstrated by statistically significant (p<0.05) inhibition of paw volume by 43.33% at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight at the fourth hour of study. This study suggests that the ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum have both analgesic and anti- inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner which supported its use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in folk medicine. This plant may be a useful source of lead components in the treatment of pain and inflammation.
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CNS Activity of the Methanol Extract Obtained from the Roots of Ocimum Sanctum Linn.

CNS Activity of the Methanol Extract Obtained from the Roots of Ocimum Sanctum Linn.

From the literature survey it has been found that the leaves of Ocimum sanctum have been used extensively in various mental illnesses in India. To substantiate this claim the present study was undertaken to evaluate various psychopharmacological effects of methanol extract of Ocimum sanctum roots (MEOS). The effects of the root extract on general behavioral pattern, potentiation of phenobarbitone sleep, exploratory behavior and muscle relaxant activity were studied on different animal models in rats and mice.

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ALLEVIATION OF ARSENIC INDUCED LUNG TOXICITY BY OCIMUM SANCTUM IN MURINE MODEL

ALLEVIATION OF ARSENIC INDUCED LUNG TOXICITY BY OCIMUM SANCTUM IN MURINE MODEL

The polyphenol extract of the phytochemicals was found to attenuate As-induced lung injury through free radical scavenging mechanism 13 . Great efforts have been made in an attempt to find safe and potent natural antioxidants from plant sources. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae), commonly known as holy basil, is a well documented Indian traditional medicinal herb used for the treatment of various stress-related conditions and is distributed worldwide. O. sanctum is an ‘‘elixir of life’’ and has been demonstrated to possess diverse pharmacological properties like antioxidant 14 , genoprotective, anti-tumourrgenic and anti- inflammatory potential 15 . Eugenol, methyleugenol, orientin, vicenin, β- elemene, β- caryophyllene, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, flavonoids, tannins, luteolin, apigenin and ocimumosides are major bioactive phytochemical constituents of O. sanctum
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PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OCIMUM SANCTUM (TULSI): A REVIEW

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OCIMUM SANCTUM (TULSI): A REVIEW

In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and toxicological information on Ocimum sanctum Linn. (OS, Tulsi), a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. OS has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. It is pungent and bitter in taste and hot, light and dry in effect. Its seeds are considered to be cold in effect. The roots, leaves and seeds of Tulsi possess several medicinal properties. Ayurvedic texts categorise OS as stimulant, aromatic and antipyretic. While alleviating kapha and vata, it aggravates pitta. It has a wide range of action on the human body mainly as a cough alleviator, a sweat-inducer and a mitigator of indigestion and anorexia. OS has a variety of biological / pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antimalarial, anthelmentic, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, central nervous system (CNS) depressant, memory enhancer, antihypercholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antithyroidic, antioxidant, anticancer, chemopreventive, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, antifertility, antiulcer, antiarthritic, adaptogenic / antistress, anticataract, antileucodermal and anticoagulant activities. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with O. sanctum to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties.
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ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM AND  CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA OILS

ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM AND CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA OILS

Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae), commonly known as holy basil, is an herbaceous plant found throughout the south Asian region. The plant grows wild in India, but is also widely cultivated in homes and temple gardens. Apart from religious significance, it has a long history of medicinal use and is mentioned in Charak Samhita, the ancient textbook of Ayurveda. Other texts mention the use of basil leaves for a variety of conditions such as catarrhal bronchitis, bronchial asthma, dysentery, dyspepsia, skin diseases, chronic fever, haemorrhage and helminthiasis, and topically for ring worms 5,6 . Citrus aurantifolia swingle (Family:- Rutaceae) is commonly known as familiar food and medicine. The fruits are sour, bitter, astringent, thermogenic, laxative, appetizer, stomachic, digestive, anthelmentic and antiiscorbutic and are usefulin vitiated conditions of pitta and kapha.used in cough, bronchitis, nausea, colic, helmenthiasis, scabies and anemia 5,
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Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals

The study reveals that various secondary metabolites such as carbohydrate, tannin, flavonoids, saponins , glycoside, terpenoid, fatty acids and phenol are present in tulsi leaf extract. Leaves of Ocimum sanctum contain water-soluble phenolic compounds and various other constituents, such as eugenol, methyl eugenol and caryophylllene that may act as an immunostimulant. Saponins act as anti- hyperlipedemic, hypotensive and cardiodepessive properties (Bairwaet al., 2012). The phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, steroids, flavanoids, tannins, phenols and several other aromatic compounds of plants serve a defense mechanism against predation by many microorganisms, insects and other herbivore (Bonjar et al., 2004) Glycosides can act as cardiostimulants in cases of cardiac failure (Sood et al., 2005). Tannins have anti diarrheal and haemostasis
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EVALUATION OF HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA, OCIMUM SANCTUM AND PIPER NIGRUM

EVALUATION OF HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA, OCIMUM SANCTUM AND PIPER NIGRUM

Green leaves of O. sanctum suitable for extraction were plucked. Leaves of O. sanctum & stem of T. cordifolia were washed under running tap water followed by sterilized distilled water wash. The plant materials were dried in shade for one week & then powdered with the help of mortar & pestle and preserved in air tight bottles for further use. 5 g of powdered plant material was thoroughly mixed with 200 ml of various solvents (distilled water, ethanol, methanol and chloroform) in separate beakers and extracted using soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were filtered using muslin cloth followed by filtration with Whatman No. 1 filter paper to obtain a clear filtrate. The filtrate was concentrated using rotary vacuum evaporator (IKA model RV 10). Filtrate was evaporated to near dryness to obtain a final concentration of 25 mg/ml. For further studies, the extract was reconstituted with 10 ml of solvent. Each solution was stored at 4°C in sterilized tubes until further use.
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Synergistic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Ocimum Sanctum and Omega 3 Fatty Acid on Mice Infected With Plasmodium Berghei

Synergistic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Ocimum Sanctum and Omega 3 Fatty Acid on Mice Infected With Plasmodium Berghei

Ocimum sanctumleave was washed with distilled water and dried under shade at room temperature for two weeks. Using clean mortal and pestle, dried leave was ground to a fine powder. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves was prepared by soaking 200g of ground Ocimum sanctum leaves the sample in 2Litre of ethanol in a conical flask for 48hours.The resulting mixture was filtered using filter paper; the filtrate was further concentrated in a water bath at 45 to obtain a jelly-like substance; the extract was stored until when needed. About 5g was weight and dissolved in 100 ml normal saline to serve as stocks solution; the extract was administered at different concentrations accordingly to mice (Kolapo, et al., 2009).
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A MINE OF MEDICINAL USES: OCIMUM SANCTUM, THE HOLY BASIL

A MINE OF MEDICINAL USES: OCIMUM SANCTUM, THE HOLY BASIL

The medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites, which are potential sources of drugs and essential oils of therapeutic importance. One such plant of interest is Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae). Traditionally used since the times of ancient civilization in India and called as the “Queen of Herbs”. It contains 7.0% eugenol, carvacrol (3%) and eugenol-methyl ether (20%). It also contains caryophyllin, ursolic acid, rosmaric acid, thymol, methyl chavicol, citral, carvacrol, β- caryophyllene. It has been observed that eugenol and the essential oils possessed membrane stabilizing properties on synaptosomes, erythrocytes and the mast cells which account for the therapeutic potentials of Tulsi in management of neurological, inflammatory and allergic disorders. It was also pharmacologically evaluated and found to reduce raised blood sugar, cholesterol and triglyceride levels and activities of GPT, GOT, LDH and alkaline phosphatase in blood serum and thereby it is therapeutically used as cardioprotective, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic agent. There even more therapeutic uses of the holistic herb which are briefly discussed in this review.
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