Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of childhood mortality in India and is responsible for 13% of all deaths/Year in children under 5 years of age. It is both Preventable and treatable. Diarrhoea is a leading killer of children accounting for 9% of all deaths among children under age 5 worldwide in 2015. This translates to over 1400 young children dying each day or about 526000 children a year despite of availability of simple effective treatment. OralRehydrationsolution plays a major role in it. The aim of the study is to find out the knowledge and attitude of mothers regarding use of ORS in management of diarrhea in selected villages of Haryana. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among mothers of underfive children to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding role of ORS in management of diarrhea. A purposive Sampling technique was adopted to select 100 Samples. The knowledge questionnaire on Immunization was used to collect the data.
Purpose: The safety of oralrehydration therapy before endoscopic screening with respect to vital signs and complications after the screening procedure was assessed in patients undergoing en- doscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods: A total of 107 patients sche- duled for ERCP were assigned to either the intravenous drip injection (DIV) group during fasting (56 patients) or ORS group given oralrehydrationsolution (51 patients) prior to endoscopy. Vital signs after ERCP, including blood pressure and temperature, blood biochemical data and the inci- dence of post-ERCP complications were compared between the groups. Results: No cases of aspi- ration pneumonia were detected in either groups. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences between the DIV group and ORS group in terms of the biochemical data and vital signs after ERCP. The intergroup difference in the development of pancreatitis after ERCP was 2.3% [95% CI: −5.7, 10.3], which was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The safety of oralrehydration therapy was found to be equivalent to that of the customary practice of infusion as a method for managing hydration and replenishing electrolytes in patients receiving ERCP. Oralrehydration therapy may be easily utilized as rehydration therapy prior to endoscopic screening for ERCP and other procedures.
This study was conducted with the objective to find out the effect of polymer based oralrehydrationsolution for the management of diarrhea among children. Polymer based oralrehydrationsolution improves the rehydration status and also reduces the frequency of stool output. Initially children who came to the hospital with diarrhea were assessed for the severity of dehydration using Duggan scale for dehydration assessment and those children who fell under the category of mild and moderate dehydration were selected as samples. Caretakers were detailed about the procedure and a consent was obtained. Polymer based ORS was prepared and administered for the children by the researcher followed by which the caretakers were taught how to feed the child thereafter. Dehydration status and frequency of stool output were reassessed the next day.
Background: Children under five experience an average of three episodes of diarrhea each year in developing countries. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, therapy for acute diarrhea is oralrehydration fluid and zinc to treat fluid and electrolyte loss. But unfortunately, this therapy does not reduce the duration of diarrhea without the intestinal barrier function of pathogenic microorganisms. The ability to inhibit pathogens is one of the three main mechanisms of probiotics. This study aims to examine the efficacy of using probiotics compared to oralrehydrationsolution (ORS) in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children under five in developing countries.
An oralrehydrationsolution (ORS) with a water- supplementing ability equivalent to that of intravenous electrolyte maintenance infusion was available to address dehydration due to a variety of conditions, including diarrhea. The pharmacologic effect of ORS is based on the cotransport of sodium and glucose in the small in- testine. This results in effective water absorption based on the physiological movement of sodium during this cotransporting process . ORS is characterized by an abundance of electrolytes and lower levels of glucides than would be found in similar sports drinks. The effect- iveness and safety of ORS in dehydration and in postop- erative recovery have been confirmed and demonstrated equality with an intravenous maintenance infusion medium in humans [3, 4]. However, there have been no reports regarding the application of ORS as a form of oral hydration to facilitate renal drug excretion. We hy- pothesized that application of ORS in addition to chemotherapy, including CDDP administration, in out- patients may shorten infusion times and allow for safety improvement when ORS was used as a substitute for intravenous hydration, or added as a supplement to intravenous hydration. Regarding the possibility that ORS was more effective than normal oral water in- take in the hydration accompanying CDDP adminis- tration, we performed our primary examination using animal models. Our results indicated that ORS drink- ing reduced renal dysfunction as compared with nor- mal oral water in a CDDP-induced renal dysfunction rat model .
environment to maintain physiological pH . Because RPMI 1640 is very complex, expensive, very sensitive to acidic, and it is not available in the local market, Therefore, the study aimed to finding substitutes medium for RPMI 1640, locally available, inexpensive, easy to preparation and use, highly efficient and highly stable pH therefore used oralrehydration salts (BP), which is used to treat severe diarrhea in children and is composed of very simple components and is available and can be prepared easily and without any cost material comparative to the RPMI medium and can be used for the same purposes and the same effectiveness.
In this multicenter prospective trial, we demonstrated that OS-1 oral post-hydration was successfully conducted without resulting in a grade 2 or higher creatinine elevation in 97.8% of the trial participants and was an adequate substitute for conventional intravenous posthydration. By combining short term and lower volume hydration with oral posthydration, CDDP-based chemotherapy could be administered in less than 3 hours of intravenous infusion. Oral posthydration did not appear to have significant effect on either the treatment delivery (median four cycles) or the response (45% (95% CI 24.4 to 67.8) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with target lesions).
Objective: To perform cost utility (CU) and budget impact (BI) analyses augmented by sce- nario analyses of critical model structure components to evaluate racecadotril as adjuvant to oralrehydrationsolution (ORS) for children under 5 years with acute diarrhea in Malaysia. Methods: A CU model was adapted to evaluate racecadotril plus ORS vs ORS alone for acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years from a Malaysian public payer’s perspective. A bespoke BI analysis was undertaken in addition to detailed scenario analyses with respect to critical model structure components.
The expert panel noted that the majority of deaths, hospitalization, and visits to emergency departments could be prevented by the appropriate use of ORT. They generated guidelines for the treatment and prevention of dehydration secondary to diarrhea. These measures, to- gether with training providers, could substantially re- duce diarrhea mortality and decrease hospitalizations of children by 100 000 per year in the next 5 years. Pediatrics 1997;100(5). URL: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/ full/100/5/e10; oralrehydration therapy, oralrehydrationsolution, diarrhea.
Adjuvant therapy to ORT, based on oral administration of live probiotic bacteria aimed to improve recovery of infants from acute watery diarrhea, has been under active investigation . These studies, done in the developed world, have shown a benefit only for viral mild gastroen- teritis. Isolauri et al have shown that oral bacterial therapy with Lactobacillus casei strain GG (LGG) reduces both the severity and duration of acute non dehydrating rotavirus enteritis . Another trial in Karelia republic, LGG was shown to decrease the duration of acute diarrhea in chil- dren with viral acute diarrhea but not in those with bacte- rial diarrhea . In a multicenter study carried out in Europe, LGG was administrated in a hypotonic oral rehy- dration solution to children with acute diarrhea, showing that it was safe and resulted in shorter duration of diarrhea, less chance of a protracted course, and faster dis- charge from the hospital .
OBJECTIVE: Despite evidence supporting its use, nasogastric rehydra- tion is rarely used in North America. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, 3-phase study to evaluate current perspectives. METHODS: We compared the proportions of respondents in favor of naso- gastric (as opposed to intravenous) rehydration, should oralrehydration fail, between clinicians and caregivers. Phase 1: caregivers of children aged 3 to 48 months, who presented to a Canadian pediatric emergency department with symptoms of gastroenteritis, were invited to complete a survey. Phase 2: phase 1 participants administered intravenous or nasogastric rehydration had the procedure observed and outcome data recorded. Phase 3: pediatric emergency medicine physicians, fellows, and nurses completed a survey. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty- ﬁ ve children-parent dyads and 113 health care providers participated. If oralrehydration were to fail, 10% (47 of 435) of caregivers and 14% (16 of 113) of clinicians would choose naso- gastric rehydration (difference = 3.4%; 95% con ﬁ dence interval: 2 2.8 to 11.4). Caregivers were more familiar with the term intravenous than nasogastric rehydration (80% vs 20%; P , .001). Sixty-four children (15%) received intravenous rehydration; none received nasogastric re- hydration. Participating nurses have inserted 90 (interquartile range: 25 – 150) intravenous cannulas compared with 4 (interquartile range: 2 – 10) nasogastric tubes during the preceding 6 months (P , .001). After a brief educational intervention, the proportion recommending nasogastric rehydration increased to 27% (117 of 435) among caregivers (P , .001) and 43% (49 of 113) among health care providers (P , .001). CONCLUSIONS: In keeping with caregiver desires, health care providers in a Canadian emergency department employ intravenous rehydration when oralrehydration fails. Enhanced change management strategies will be required for nasogastric rehydration to become adopted in this environment. Pediatrics 2012;130:e1504 – e1511
The survey instrument consisted of a 32-item self-completion questionnaire, previously piloted and modified. The survey elic- ited the characteristics of the respondent and his or her year of graduation from medical school and experience with medical practice in a developing country. Respondents were asked about their familiarity with AAP practice parameters regarding oralrehydration. Response choices included the following: very famil- iar, somewhat familiar, and unfamiliar. On the basis of these responses, participants were categorized into a familiar and an unfamiliar group. The familiar group consisted of participants who reported that they were very familiar with the AAP practice parameters; all other participants were classified as unfamiliar. Scenarios involving a child ⬍2 years of age with mild (⬍5%), moderate (6%–9%), and severe ( ⬎ 10%) dehydration were pre- sented. Respondents were asked about their customary practices for each scenario, including the use of intravenous, nasogastric, and oral hydration. To assess the potential factors that influence the decision between intravenous and oral hydration, we asked participants to rate how their decision was affected by the follow- ing: vomiting as the major symptom, diarrhea as the major symp- tom, child older than 3 years, ketonuria, elevated urine specific gravity, refusal to drink fluids, no urine output in the ED, parental concern, crowded ED, desire to minimize pain/discomfort, and desire to minimize costs. The format of question responses in- cluded Likert scale, yes-no, and open-ended.
PATIENTS AND METHODS. Six clusters of 30 000 people each in Haryana, India, were ran- domly assigned to intervention and control sites. Government and private providers and village health workers were trained to prescribe zinc and oralrehydration salts for use in diarrheal episodes in 1-month-old to 5-year-old children in intervention communities; in the control sites, oralrehydration salts alone was promoted. In 2 cross-sectional surveys commencing 3 months (survey 2) and 6 months (survey 3) after the start of the intervention, care-seeking behavior, drug therapy, and oralrehydration salts use during diarrhea, diarrheal and respiratory morbidity, and hospitalization rates were measured.