Organ donation

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Organ donation and transplantation

Organ donation and transplantation

STEPS IN THE ORGAN DONATION PROCESS Injury or disease resulting in irreversible loss Identification brain injured of Referral to local Offering the and brain stem function donor organ pr[r]

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The Influence of Personality on Organ Donation Attitudes and Behaviours.

The Influence of Personality on Organ Donation Attitudes and Behaviours.

Participants’ organ donation attitudes were assessed with a slightly modified Organ Donation Attitudes Scale (Appendix A) (ODAS; Rumsey, Hurford, & Cole, 2003). The ODAS is a 20-item questionnaire that includes a series of questions regarding demographics, religious views and perceptions, previous organ donation knowledge and experience, and attitudinal questions. This scale was modified by the experimenter to include five additional questions related to organ donation framework (socially responsible versus altruistic). For example, I believe It is my civic duty to register as an organ donor was included to examine attitudes towards organ donation as a socially responsible behavior rather than an altruistic behavior. Participants responded to each item on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). The possible range of scores was 20-80, with higher scores expressing more positive organ donation attitudes. Rumsey et al. (2003) reported adequate validity and reliability for the original ODAS.
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Trends in Pediatric Organ Donation After Cardiac Death

Trends in Pediatric Organ Donation After Cardiac Death

In this article we present data on the pediatric DCD donor experience in the United States, with particular attention paid to the possible direct impact on pediatric solid organ transplantation. In addition, we present cen- ter-specific pediatric DCD donation data. Because of the potential for a conflict of interest, many of the individ- uals charged with the development of institutional DCD organ donation policy have no specific affiliation with organ transplantation. As such, they approach this com- plicated process from a relatively naive position. The purpose of this report is to provide important historical perspective for medical centers as they implement DCD protocols. It also sets the context for the development and sharing of evidence-based best practices.
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An update on initiatives to increase organ donation: A UK perspective

An update on initiatives to increase organ donation: A UK perspective

respondents, agreed with the statement that a person is dead only when the heart has stopped beating. Therefore the argument goes that family members may be more comfortable with the procedure of non-heartbeating donation as it fulfils their social expectations of death in that family members can observe the last breath and cessation of the heartbeat [not an option if the deceased is a heartbeating donor] if they wish. But could this use of the newly dead impact on donation rates, in the opposite way to which it is intended? So far the PDA indicates that for the 27 months from 1 st January 2004 to 31 st March, 2006 the refusal rate for non- heartbeating organ donation was 45% of 518 35 potential non-heartbeating donors, suggesting that there are also barriers to this means of increasing organ donation. As there has been no research carried out exploring families’ experiences of participating in non-heartbeating organ donation it is perhaps premature to suggest that this will have a major impact on the number of organs available for transplantation as there are many questions arising from this initiative, which have implications for both family members and health care professionals.
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Organ procurement organizations Internet enrollment for organ donation: Abandoning informed consent

Organ procurement organizations Internet enrollment for organ donation: Abandoning informed consent

The salient differences between the process of organ dona- tion after cardiac or imminent death and organ donation after brain death have not been emphasized in the public domain since its integration into transplantation practice [18]. We have expressed concern that consent forms for organ donation do not disclose or distinguish between brain and cardiac death criteria and processes. It can be argued that this information is improper to disclose at the time of registration for organ donation. The argument can be made that the disclosure of types of organ donation should be the domain of the health care professionals involved with the potential donor during the time leading to the declaration of death. However, the current practice and federal guidelines designate the OPOs and affiliates rather than the health care professionals to explain and obtain consent for different types of organ donation [8,9,15]. Therefore, the OPOs have the primary responsi- bility for the disclosure of information pertaining to the types of organ donation in order for the donors and fam- ilies to make informed choices. The President's Council on Bioethics have expressed concerns similar to ours that certain issues pertinent to cardiac or imminent death organ donation have not been addressed explicitly by hos- pitals and OPOs in their donation consent process and
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Organ donation and Muslims in the Netherlands: A transnational fatwa in focus

Organ donation and Muslims in the Netherlands: A transnational fatwa in focus

The second section explored the arguments of Muslim religious scholars who did not permit organ donation (opponents) and the counterarguments of those who did (proponents). Ben Ḥamza supported the latter group and refuted the arguments of those who did not permit organ donation. He also argued that the number of Muslim scholars who permit organ donation do exceed that of those who forbid it and that the number of the proponents also increase by time. The first argument against organ donation is based on the concept of the sanctity (ḥurma) of human life and concurrently all his/her organs. Thus, no one is entitled to infringe upon this sanctity whether the person in question was living or dead. Concerning the dead in particular, the opponents referred to the Prophetic tradition which stated, “Breaking the bone of the dead is as [grave as] breaking the bone of the living.” In response to this argument, Ben Ḥamza said that removing someone's organs for the sake of transplantation cannot be equated with violating the sanctity of human life. This act is rather closer to altruism and the earnest desire to save other people's lives. As for the aforementioned Prophetic tradition, Ben Ḥamza argued that this tradition implies nothing more than the prohibition of exhuming graves for the sake of blundering them, a practice which mostly involved breaking the bones of people buried there. In support of this interpretation, Ben Ḥamza referred to the well-known early scholar of the Mālikī school of law, al-Mawwāq (d. 1491), who commented on this tradition by saying, “This holds true in case it is done out of abuse.” In reference to another counterargument,
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KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS ORGAN DONATION

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS ORGAN DONATION

Out of 172, 144 replied that organ donation should be promoted. The belief of 71.5% was that their basic objective of organ donation is to save someone life, remaining on basis of sympathy (15.2%), financial basis (1%) and others (22%) respectively. Regarding attitude towards donating their own organ 33.7% respondents said that it will depend upon circumstances, 23.8% respondents would opt to donate their organ to the family members only and 15.1% individuals said that they will never donate their organ.

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Persuasive speech on organ donation >>>CLICK HERE<<<

Persuasive speech on organ donation >>>CLICK HERE<<<

speech, it is properly quoted in case of using some source and all the information about that speech is given on the references page. The optimal pricing policy and are really proud of that, organ donation. Rather than persuasive donation how a donation feels,

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An Android Application for Blood and Organ Donation Management

An Android Application for Blood and Organ Donation Management

It is said that on an average day, more than 10 people are in deficit of a proper organ donor, and that closely about 121,000 for an year await a donor in the US, in India the statistics are even worse as more than 8000 people suffer every year without the proper acquisition of a donor, why do these fallacies occur? , these mistakes occur as a lack of proper connection between a willing donor and a needful patient, however this also hasn't stopped the illegal processes of organ transplants , where certain organizations kidnap people and perform organ trafficking, there has always been a need to put a check of control on all these issues, The Transplantation of human organ act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to monitor and coordinate organ donation and transplantation activities, there are certain higher authority bodies that were commissioned under it, Appropriate Authority (AA): inspects and grants registration to hospitals for transplantation, Advisory Committee (AC) : consisting of experts in the domain who shall advise the
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Organ donation as an 'altruistic gift': Incentives and reciprocity in deceased organ donation from a UK Polish migrant perspective

Organ donation as an 'altruistic gift': Incentives and reciprocity in deceased organ donation from a UK Polish migrant perspective

The terms ‘gift’ and ‘altruism’ are unclear in policy and among medical professionals therefore it is no surprise that there is little consensus among the public as to whether organ donation should be reciprocated or not [60,61]. In the present study, defining the ‘gift’ in the context of de- ceased organ donation was problematic and was conflat- ed with altruism, also found by Ben-David [59]. Language was used among the participants such as the ‘gift of life’, which is part of the gift rhetoric of deceased organ dona- tion and may be used without the intention of Maussian connotations of reciprocity but reciprocation was accepted, similar to that of giving gifts in everyday life. Titmuss [13], who studied voluntary and paid blood collection, suggest- ed that there was no pure altruism but did find that non- paid donation produced better blood but this is contested [63]. Donors who gave blood voluntarily did so for a num- ber of reasons, such as a ‘sense of obligation, approval and interest’ (p. 306) also evidencing that reliance on altruistic
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The potential impact of an opt out system for organ donation in the UK. An independent report from the Organ Donation Taskforce

The potential impact of an opt out system for organ donation in the UK. An independent report from the Organ Donation Taskforce

1.9 The clinical Working group heard persuasive arguments from health professionals about the potentially negative implications for clinical practice, especially the potential to damage the vital relationship of trust between clinicians caring for people at the end of life, their patients and their families. some intensive care staff in particular fear that a move to an opt out system would make critical care more difficult and could lead to some intensive care practitioners themselves opting out of participation in donation programmes. This would be disastrous for the future of organ donation in the uK since many of the recommendations made by the Taskforce in its earlier report, organs for Transplants , are dependent on the active support of intensive care practitioners. 1.10 The working group considering clinical implications also heard powerful evidence from recipients of organs who stressed their need to know that organs had been freely given by donors and their families, and from donor families who often find great comfort in being an active part of the decision to donate.
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Factors influencing decisions on organ donation in brain death patients

Factors influencing decisions on organ donation in brain death patients

Depending on the level of knowledge and awareness about the concept of brain death, patients’ families have different attitudes regarding organ donation. Decisions on organ donation are directly related to the families based on their voluntary action and if they accept the death of their loved ones. This can be facilitated if they observe the abnormal vital signs in their patients. This plays a role in their belief to accept the brain death in order to make decisions and give consent for donation. Additionally, the observation of critical medical tests can be considered as another fac- tor that simplifies decision-making (2). In a study by Sque et al (12), observing visible signs of brain death patients had an important role in dealing with the request of organ donation for families. It seems that for some families, their background and previous knowledge is the reason for vol- untary decision regarding donation. If they have an appro- priate understanding of brain death, then the resultant is the facilitation of decisions. Regarding this matter, studies highlight that if families accept the brain death, they will agree with organ donation (2,9). Similarly, Zohour et al (3) stated that 93% of the people who considered brain death as irreversible could easily accept organ donation. Other studies also show that knowledge and attitude are the effective factors on decisions regarding organ dona- tion (10,14).
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Intimacy or utility? Organ donation and the choice between palliation and ventilation

Intimacy or utility? Organ donation and the choice between palliation and ventilation

Recent multi-year analyses of deceased donor data from both the Council of Europe and the International Regis try of Donation and Transplants have shown that there is a clear division in deceased organ donation performance between those countries that have the highest donation rates and those with lower deceased donation perfor- mance [13-15]. Th is division occurs at approximately 20 deceased donors per million population per year. Th ere are nine countries that consistently achieve donation rates above this level despite having dramatically reduced death rates from the types of rates of trauma that are most commonly associated with organ donation [13]: Spain, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Croatia, the USA, France, Austria, Belgium and Italy (Figure  1). Crucially, each of these countries’ high donor rates is due to the high rates of donation after brain death (DBD) and not due to the high rates of donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) [16-22] (Figure 2).
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Evaluating the process for deceased organ donation: a programme theory approach

Evaluating the process for deceased organ donation: a programme theory approach

A key feature of the programme theory approach is that it allows inspection of the implementation process to drill down from macro to meso to micro levels (Funnell and Rogers, 2011). A macro model such as Figure 1 allows inspection of the integrity of the entire implementation chain and permits the identification of the strategic flows and blockages. It is equally possible to narrow focus to any step in the chain and use a logic model to explore the delivery of component process. As an example of how micro processes can be modelled, we take the family interview, one of the key phases of obtaining consent to deceased organ donation for transplantation, with some identifying it as the stage at which most potential donors are lost. It is our families who have the power to make the ultimate decision of whether to grant the ultimate gift of recyclable organs. It is their altruism and not ours that is the key element here. Their views on body integrity, their understanding of death, their relationship with healthcare staff are all at stake and this is the point in the process where they come to the fore.
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Problematising the ethics of organ donation after circulatory death in the UK

Problematising the ethics of organ donation after circulatory death in the UK

In this commentary I have used Foucault’s problematisation approach as an analytical framework to examine the construction and potential implications of ‘the ethics of DCD’ in the UK. In so doing, I have moved away from bioethical and clinical debates, which are polarised around an understanding of what is ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ about DCD, to draw attention to the particular contexts in which the policy version of ethics for DCD has emerged. By tracing the production of the Ethical Framework to institutional changes around organ donation in the UK, I have shown that ‘ethics’ in this context is a constituent of (and constituted by) the efficiency drive by transplant medicine to make routine, and thus optimise, the potential for organ donation at the end of life. Indeed this phenomenon is not unique to the UK. In other contexts, such as the US and Netherlands, where controlled DCD is common, there have been similar policy responses involving the standardisation of ethico-legal frameworks which enable the ‘mainstreaming’ of DCD (Bernat, 2008, p. 669; Bos, 2005).
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At the heart of organ donation. Case reports of organ donation after cardiac death in two patients with successfully repaired AAST grade V cardiac injuries

At the heart of organ donation. Case reports of organ donation after cardiac death in two patients with successfully repaired AAST grade V cardiac injuries

Current literature on organ retrieval in donors with se- vere burns is limited. It mainly relates to brain-dead donors (DBD), who died as a result of associated anoxic brain in- jury [3–6]. Widdicombe et al. reported two successful cases of organ donation and transplantation after Maastricht category III cardiac death, in adult patients with non- survivable burn injuries. Good outcomes were achieved for both cases [2]. DCD in burn injured patients raises medical challenges related to the potential risks of splanchnic ische- mic injury following burn shock, together with a high risk of bacterial contamination and sepsis [2–6].
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Clarifying the paradigm for the ethics of donation and transplantation: Was 'dead' really so clear before organ donation?

Clarifying the paradigm for the ethics of donation and transplantation: Was 'dead' really so clear before organ donation?

Our ability to support organ failure with technology and transplantation raises important questions of when a dis- ease is irreversible, when further treatment is no longer effective and when death has occurred. Continuing scien- tific advance forces our communities to reflect on the con- cept and definition of death, and we continue to thoughtfully struggle in this regard. The practice of organ donation galvanizes these issues. In particular, the imme- diacy of procurement in donation after cardiac death (DCD) has incited scrutiny and ominous concerns. Observations and criticisms of existing and evolving prac- tices are indispensable, in order guard against erosions of
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After presumed consent: a review of organ donation in Singapore

After presumed consent: a review of organ donation in Singapore

This consideration of familial bereavement, however, differs from the process of informed consent, which, as part of HOTA, happens at the age of 21 when the person receives a packet with information on the Act and necessary forms for opting-out. Persons who do not register an objection to removal of organs under the HOTA are presumed to have consented to organ donation on an informed basis. Families although lacking a legal right to stop the retrieval of organs, are appropriately given due concern for their bereavement. The doctor’s reluctance to press the issue can be better managed as mentioned in point 7 under proposals in Table 3.
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NHS BLOOD AND TRANSPLANT ORGAN DONATION & TRANSPLANTATION DIRECTORATE

NHS BLOOD AND TRANSPLANT ORGAN DONATION & TRANSPLANTATION DIRECTORATE

ODR at ODT are communicating with the AD of Transplant Support Services to drive forward organ donation which will cover the current GMS1 form not including the option for bowel donation. Dates have been requested of when the forms will be reviewed and updated but none have been given.

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Issues of organ donation : an interactive multimedia program

Issues of organ donation : an interactive multimedia program

Issues of Organ Donation An Interactive Multimedia Program Hsiao Chi Chen May,1997 { ,,; I I I A subthesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Scie[.]

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