Organizational informal behaviors are not originated from orders but are beneficial for the organization. These behaviors are specified under various names and the most widespread one is the organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB). OCB facilitates the renewal, environmental orientation, resource transfer and savings of the organization. It also improves the quality of service, increases the efficiency and the performance of the organization whereas it reduces the costs. An increase of willingness to participate in decision making, the tendency of collaboration, interdependence, responsibility and satisfaction from work has been observed among employees who display high level organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. Similarly, OCB increases the ability of attracting and using the employees of the organization by generating favorable feelings among employees towards their organizations. A decrease in intention of quitting, handing over and absenteeism of job has been observed in high level OCB displayed organizations. As the consumer satisfaction increases, this reduces the number of the complaints. Hence there is need to study OCB in Telecom Industry.
Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) is an important factor in an organization because OCB can increase the productivity of work relations between superiors and subordinates, facilitate effective coordination and tasks carried out without wasting much time (Organ, 1988). The level of loyalty required by the individual will support the effectiveness of organizational functions. The higher organizationalcitizenshipbehavior means the higher the participation of budgeting, this is related to the individuals involved in always participate and well cooperated in the budgeting process, so it will affect managerial performance through a high level of loyalty in the process of achieving organizational goals and optimal budget realization. In other words, the higher the budgetary participation, the better managerial performance especially individuals who have high organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. This study in line with Annisa (2015) and Intan & Wirawan (2017) which states that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior supports the positive reinforcement of budgeting participation on performance. Based on this description, the hypothesis can be formulated as follows:
Job satisfaction is one of the factors ltaht affect employe performance because most of the people time is spent at work. Gibson (2000) explain job sastisfaction is someone attitude toward his job. Job satisfaction is also related into the emotional reaction of someone toward his job, it can be seen in job This study aimed to examine and analyze the effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment with OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) as moderating variable toward teachers in SMAN 1 Tilatang Kamang. This study was explanatory research and used quantitative method. The sampling technique was census method and the sample size was 57 samples. The data was analyzed by using Partial Least Squares – Structural Equations Modeling (PLS-SEM) and smartPLS application. The result showed job satisfaction had positive significant correlation with teacher performance, organizational commitment had positive significant correlation with teacher performance, organizationalcitizenshipbehavior not moderate job satisfaction and organizational commitment toward teacher performance in SMAN 1 Tilatang Kamang.
Since high committed employees have strong desires to endeavor on achieving organizational goals and they would have higher job satisfaction and job involvement , recruiting and retaining high-qualified, committed human resource is very crucial for a company to compete and win in the keen business competition. In addition, employees with high job involvement or high organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) also will make more contributions to their companies.
http://ijessr.com Page 339 mediates its influence on OCB-I partially and on OCB-O fully. This finding provides strong support for the theory that organizational commitment is an inclusive construct of job satisfaction. In conclusion, job satisfaction has a positive impact on commitment to school and OCB, and commitment mediates the relationship between job satisfaction and OCB. Whereas Purba et al. (2015), examined the mediation of organizational commitment on the relationship between personality and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB). The study was conducted in Indonesia with a sample of 300 foreign employees at cement plants located in 7 different places in West Java. In this study found affective commitment to mediate the relationship between extraversion and emotional stability and OCB (with a relationship between emotional stability and OCB-I after controlling extraversion as the only exception).
Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) is a particular type of work habits which defines nurses’ behavior as highly favorable to the organization and freedom of choice, indirectly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system. OCB has the characteristics of extra-role behaviors that are not included in the job description, spontaneous behavior, without specific suggestions or commands, cooperative behavior, and behavior, which are not readily visible and assessed through performance evaluation. Behavior helps employees with work when the employee is absent, and orientation helps new employees in the department where they work, the supervisor's assistant with tasks, as well as supervisors coming early or staying late. So, it can be concluded that OCB is willing to cooperate outside individuals without expecting rewards (Shahab et al., 2018).
library reference to university libraries and information centers and search the database of the latest studies and research available has been used.To collect the basic data required to test the research hypotheses of the questionnaire used. To formulate hypotheses every researcher needs conceptual model to identify variables based on assumptions, to explain the conceptual and operational definitions of the variables and the relationships between them (Fattahi, 95:2008). This research is trying to answer a questionnaire survey of a sample and its generalization to the population, the type and extent of customer satisfaction and citizenshipbehavior of employees must be examined. "Cohen and Vigoda" has stressed the importance of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior on organizational forms and all have pointed out that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, ways to improve the organizational effectiveness (Sobhaninejad, 58:2010). "Artourk" in this connection is that, OCB as new patterns of employee behavior in organizations today as the modern approach of the modern management of human resources has been used in many organizations (Alizadeh, 49:2008). Researchers have identified components in a variety of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. The most widely used and accepted organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, most researchers rely on their own research, including: Altruism, sportsmanship, work ethics, attitude and respect for civil and polite. "Organs" of the five dimensions proposed in 1988. "Poudsakof et al" in 1990 with the help of factor analysis for each of the five dimensions, the standard measures that assess OCB Over the years the use of many of the (spector, 2002: 269-292). Among these dimensions conscience "work"
Dependent variable : The dependent variable in this research is the organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. It is so because in this research the organizationalcitizenshipbehavior of the employees is studied. Organizationalcitizenship behaviours was measured with manager responses to a 24-item self-report scale adapted from Podsakoff et al. (1990; see appendix C). Each of these items was measured using a seven-point Likert scale ranging from (1) Strongly Disagree to (7) Strongly Agree. The scale measures five facets of OCB identified by Organ (1988): altruism (ALTR), conscientiousness (CONSC), sportsmanship (SPORT), courtesy (COURT), and civic virtue (CIVIC). The altruism subscale consists of five items. A sample item from the altruism subscale is "I am always ready to lend a helping hand to those around me." A total score for Altruism was derived by averaging across the five items. The conscientiousness subscale consisted of five items. A sample from the conscientiousness subscale is "My attendance at work is above the norm." A total score for conscientiousness was derived by averaging across the five items. The sportsmanship subscale is made up of five items such as "I always focus on what's wrong, rather than the positive side." For ease of interpretation, all five of the sportsmanship items were reverse scored. A total score for sportsmanship was derived by averaging across the five items. The courtesy subscale has five items such as "I try to avoid creating problems for my co-workers." A total score for courtesy was derived by averaging across the five items. The civic virtue subscale consists of four items. A sample from the civic virtue subscale is "I keep abreast of changes in the organization." A total score for civic virtue was derived by averaging across the four items. An exploratory factor analysis of the OCB scales was conducted.
Since the last decade, attention of organizational psychologists has been mainly centered on positive psychological constructs and their outcomes in organizations. According to Friedman (2005), one of the significant characteristic of modern organizations of today’s world is fluidity after globalization. The business environments are changing rapidly, the policies of organizations are becoming more and more flexible, and the internal boundaries of those organizations are becoming unclear, which results in uncertain job demands for the employees. In these circumstances of uncertainty and malleability, behavioral scientists should focus on positive human strengths that can be developed and effectively managed for their performance impact. Psychological capital is a viable positive resource in this context because it encompasses strength and ability to swiftly counter an upcoming problem with a positive mental set comprising of self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience. Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior is certainly not recognized by the management but it serves to develop effective organizational functioning and creates a sustainable environment for the employees, consequently enhancing their performance. Perceived organizational support and PsyCap are linked to diverse advantages for the employees and organizations which includes extra role behaviors or organizationalcitizenship behaviors (OCB). These behaviors are not necessary for the job but help develop organizational effectiveness (Lee & Allen, 2002).
The purpose of this paper is to support OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) as an essential area of study in the field of business education that is often neglected. OCB has been defined as individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization (Organ, 1988). The inclusion of OCB in business education could be beneficial to both managers and organizations by educating the manager, as well as by developing employees. OCB is typically discussed in OrganizationalBehavior (OB) courses; however, it is often a relatively small part of the coursework. There are also several other relevant areas of management that fail to include OCB as part of academic content.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to knowing the Effect of Organizational Culture, Rewards, Competence, and OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) on the Performance of Hotel Employees in Batam City with Organizational Commitment as Intervening Variables. Respondents used in this study were four-star hotel employees in Batam City with a total of 221 respondents. The method of data analysis uses multiple linear data analysis and by using the Amos SEM program. The results of the study concluded that organizational culture has a significant effect on performance. Organizational culture has a significant effect on organizational commitment, the better the organizational culture, the stronger the organizational commitment of employees, the reward system has a significant effect on organizational commitment, the better the reward system the stronger organizational commitment of employees, the better the organizational commitment, the stronger employee organizational commitment, OCB influences towards organizational commitment, the better the OCB behavior of employees, the stronger the organizational commitment of employees, OCB affects employee performance, the better the behavior of OCB employees, the higher the performance and organizational commitment influences employee performance, the better organizational commitment the better performance of hotel employees four stars in Batam City.
Another striking and significant feature of today’s organizations is organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. Orga- nizational citizenshipbehavior (OCB) is a behavior which is formed based on personal discretion and is not a part of job requirements; however, it increases an organization’s effectiveness on satisfying the interests of stakeholders (Robbins, 2007). This is a wise behavior which aids colleagues, supervisors and the organization. Assisting new colleagues, not abusing colleagues, not exploiting colleagues, not using too much time to rest, participating in organizational meetings voluntarily, and withstanding some pressures caused by the organization are some manifestations of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (Bennett & Masholder, 1997). Employees com- mitted to organizationalcitizenshipbehavior display some behaviors including aiding behaviors, magnanimity and forgiveness, organizational faithfulness, following the instructions, individual innovation, conscientiousness, personal development, politeness and consideration, civil behaviors and altruism (Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Paine, & Bachrach, 2000). Employees who have organizationalcitizenshipbehavior like committed citizens attempt to promote the organization and work for it without any expectations. Naturally, if an organization has benefited from such employees, it does not have any concerns about its effectiveness and can compete with peace of mine and invest in other areas affecting its effectiveness. When benefiting from such employees, managers spend most of their time to matters other than those related to the duties of their subordinates (Organ, 1998). Teachers’ organizationalcitizenshipbehavior can play a significant role in helping students, other teachers, school as a whole, competence and personal growth, classroom management, managers, and parents (Zeinabadi et al., 2008).
To create a model describing the variable OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior that using other variables there has been used a multiple regression, using the method of stepwise regression. In the group of volunteers to the regression model variables were selected as follows: Activity (AK - Temperament), Agreeableness component of the Personality – Straightforwardness (A2), and the component of Neuroticism – Self-Consciousness (N4), also the component of Conscientiousness – Deliberation (C6) and a component of Openness to Experience – Fantasy (O1) and the Organizational Climate subscale OA – Career (Assessment and Promotion). The created model can explain 65% of the variability of the variable OCB. We can reject the hypothesis of no linear relationship between variables in the model and the explained variable OCB.
http://www.ijmr.net.in email id- firstname.lastname@example.org Page 154 management paradigm having multifarious outcomes and implications in individual context and organizational functioning. Neeta (2013) identified a link between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee engagement with organizationalcitizenshipbehavior among faculties in private engineering colleges. Qamar (2012) explored the relationship of job satisfaction and organizational commitment with organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) in banking sector among 96 employees working in banks in Lahore, Pakistan. It was found that job satisfaction had positive moderate relation whereas organizational commitment has significant strong relation with OCB. Ahmed et.al (2012) proposed a model to explain OCB and its relation with job satisfaction, commitment, employee engagement and human resource development climate (HRDC). It was found that well established predictors of OCB may lead to promote required behaviors among employees for improved performance and negative voluntary intentions. Ye (2012) studied OCB under the background of Chinese culture with a sample of 201 employees in Chinese enterprises. The results indicated that organizational values have significant and direct impact on employees’ organizationalcitizenship behaviors by the medicating effect of organizational identification and organizational based self esteem (OBSE). Akinyemi (2012) studied about Climate as a predictor of CitizenshipBehavior and Voluntary Turnover Intentions in the commercial banks in South Western Nigeria. Analysis showed a positive relationship between HRDC and OCB and inverse relationship with turnover intention and absenteeism. Becton & Field (2009) identified the difference in the perceptions of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) between 393 Chinese and American employees. Analyses showed that Chinese and American employees reported similar levels of personal support and conscientious initiative in their organizations but Chinese employees reported higher level of organization support than American employees. Chinese culture was found more close to the (OCB) because it emphasizes more on collective self-discipline and commitment to moderation, stability and humanitarian.
OCB and organizational justice dimensions among 300 Rasht public sector employees in Iran. Young (2010) has also outcomes showing the positive relationships between organizational justice and citizenship behaviors among 454 private sector workers in Korea. Among the studies in Turkey, Arslantas (36) found a significant effect of perceived justice on OCB among white-collar workers of a communication and foreign trade firm in 2005. Erkutlu (2008) determined a positive and significant relationship between interactional, procedural and distributive justice and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior among academicians in 10 public universities in Turkey. The positive emotions of individuals toward procedural justice bring about higher performance and increase in OCB (Abu Elanain, 2010). When the employees perceive the managerial and organizational procedures such as wage distribution and decision making fairly, they perform more effort to improve their organization and obey the rules about working hours voluntarily (Colquitt and Chertkoff, 2002). Blakely et al. (2005), in a research done in different organizations, found that when employees have a positive perception of their superior’s fair behavior, the possibility of OCB increases.
OCB is related to a difference between what is considered compulsory (job duty) and what is an extra role behavior (LePine et al., 2002, Organ, 1997). OCB is a voluntary behavior, and actions related to OCB are not included in formal duties of workers (Murphy et al., 2002, Organ, 1988). The important question is, ―why do employees involve in OCB?‖ The answer is given in many previous studies that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior may be connected with job satisfaction, fairness, and leader’s support (Chiu and Tsai, 2006, LePine et al., 2002). When employees get satisfaction and perceive fairness, receive appreciation, and have equality, they tend to involve in extra role performance. There is also a reason for involvement of employees in OCB, and that is the happy, and fresh mood of workers (Baron, 1991). According to Organ and Konovsky (1989), pay and cognition play a role in the prediction of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior without taking effect of positivity and negativity. A central point regarding OCB is that employees involved in organizationalcitizenship activities offer help to others without expecting anything in reward (Khurshid et al., 2017b, Mehmood et al., 2017b). One important thing commonly seen in all definitions is that OCB is beneficial for the organization. Irrespective of the extra role nature, if these activities are harmful to the firm, they cannot be included in OCB. Examples of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior include helping colleagues, attending seminars that are not compulsory and so on. According to Organ (1988), there are five kinds of OCB. These dimensions include altruism (behavior related to help someone), civic virtue (participating in all matters that are important for the organization), conscientiousness (careful behavior), sportsmanship (not protesting/complaining), and courtesy (giving respect to others).
Human resource is considered as one of the most valuable organizational capitals and rarest source in the know- ledge-based economy. This worthwhile capital has outdistanced other organizational capitals in terms of impor- tance due to its great effect on organizational effectiveness. Accordingly, nowadays, organizations and managers apply various methods and strategies to recruit most skillful human forces. One of the worthwhile properties of human forces highly regarded is OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (henceforth referred to as OCB) (Belcourt, Bohlander, & Snell, 2008). Although the term was first proposed by Chester Barnard, Katz and Kahn, it was first used by Bittman and Organ (1983) investigating the relationship between job satisfaction and performance (Hossam, 2008). In the Organ’s first definition of OCB, despite no compulsory burden from the organization to perform a certain behavior, if the behavior is performed, interests occur to the organization. According to Organ, OCB is a behavior that is voluntarily performed based on desire and determination and is not directly and clearly appreciated through formal organizational reward system; however, overall, it enhances effectiveness perfor- mance of the organization (Bolino & Turnley, 2003).
Organizational performance needs to be improved by taking into account the pressures of work, organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, and organizational commitment. Work pressure caused by an imbalance between the employee personality characteristics with the characteristic aspects of his work and can occur in all working conditions. Pekerjaa pressure that is too large can cause employees to work completed will reduce the quality and quantity. It can be anticipated with regard to psychological factors, physiological and behavioral symptoms caused.
Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between servant leadership with job satisfaction, organizationalcitizenshipbehavior and organizational commitment by considering the mediating role of psychological empowerment and organizational justice in an industrial company. Methods: This study used a correlative research method through structural equation modeling (SEM). For this study, 232 employees were selected by the Multi-stage sampling method. The measures of this research included the Servant Leadership Questionnaire, Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, Organizational Justice Questionnaire, Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and intermediate analysis. Analyses of the structural equation modeling supported the fitness of the proposed model with the data.
It is clear from this research that students with certain demographic characteristics are more inclined to exhibit OCB. As faculty and others involved in the development of college students, what can we do to both identify and encourage OCB? We can begin by acknowledging the influence women are having and will continue to have on college campuses as they are currently at or near 60% of traditional undergraduate students. This means that future work organizations will be infused with women who are college graduates. As such OCB, which is more strongly exhibited by women more than men, will become that much more integrated into work organizations. This has the potential to significantly alter those work organizations that have been traditionally male dominated. Colleges will then need to integrate more fully into their classrooms and dormitories, along with many other parts of college life, a more full understanding of OCB and its affect on individual performance and organizational success. Women will need to be provided the opportunity to practice OCB in a learning environment that will nurture and strengthen their already very positive OCB characteristics.