Purpose: In this study, essential oil (EO) compositions of the dried and fresh aerial parts of Origanummajorana cultivated in the research field and collected from f from Mersin was investigated. Material and Methods: EO was distilled by using Clevenger type apparatus for 3 h and the chemical compositions were detected in GC-MS. While, the oil yields of the the collected marjoram was determined to be 2,5 ml both in dried and fresh aerial parts, the yields of the cultivated plants for fresh and dried parts were 3.6 ml and 5 ml, respectively. The cultivation of the plant had positive effects on the EO yield. Drying of the material also increased the oil yield in the cultivated marjoram. Results: While there were 42 and 35 of EO components were observed in the fresh and dried parts of the collected marjoram, respectively; in the cultivated plants there were 30 and 40 components detected. Besides EO yields, in this research the differences with respect to composition and components were determined between the cultivated and collected plants. On the other hand, in this study, it was determined that the EO compositions varied with respect to be fresh or dry of the plant parts. It was observed that carvacrol and linalool were the major EO contents. Conclusion: The aim of the study to compare of differences between the EO compounds and compositions varied according to be the plant fresh or dry and collected or cultivated.
Acute Oral Toxicity Study: Acute oral toxicity studies of ethanol leaf extract of Origanummajorana was carried out as per the guidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operationand Development (OECD) no. 423. As per OECD guidelines minimum number of animals should be used (3 animals per dose) for experiment to obtain the information as acute toxicity of test dose. Overnight fasted rats were orally fed with plant extract at a dose level of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight respectively. The animals were observed continuously for 2 hrs to investigate any sign of toxicity, occasionally for 4 hrs for their general behavior and after a period of 24 hrs, animals were observed for any sign of mortality till 7 days 23, 24 .
Origanummajorana has a wide use in traditional medicine in Jordan and other arebian countries. Origanummajorana tea (extract of its leaves and flowers) has been prescribed in folkloric medicine for relieving the symptoms of hay fever, sinus congestion, indigestion, asthma, stomach pain, headache, dizziness, colds, coughs, internal diseases, haemorrhoids, animal bites and poisons, and nervous disorders. The unsweetened tea can also be used as a mouthwash or gargle. Further, Origanummajorana leaves can be used in folkloric medicine as a poultice for the pain of rheumatism and for sprains. The oil from the leaves is also used to relieve toothache pain [5,6,2-4].
Origanummajorana essential oil was tested for its potency as botanical pesticide to protect stored food commodities from insect infestation. The oil was found to be an effective repellent against the beetle Tribolium castenium (L.). An inverse relationship was observed with between concentration of oil and oviposition.Treatment of 1000 and 500 ppm found maximum mortality while 5 ppm concentration can be considered good against oviposition of insect T. castenium.
Origanummajorana, known as sweet majorana, belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial herbaceous plant 19 . Origanum genus consists of 38 species among them 75% are restricted to the Eastern Mediterranean area. They are characterized by a wide range of volatile secondary metabolites. It is commercially used as a spice and condiment and also used in perfumes 19 . It is traditionally used to treat asthma, indigestion, headache, rheumatism, dizziness, gastrointestinal disorder and migraine 20 .
Marjoram (Origanummajorana) is an aromatic herb in the mint family which originated in Egypt and Arabia. It is also widely referred to as Oregano. Marjoram was initially used by Hippocrates as an antiseptic agent. To the ancient Greeks, it was names as ‘Amarakos’, a symbol of love, honour and happiness. Aristotle reported it as anti-poison. In the old Egypt, Marjoram was used to disinfect and preserve food and its oil was messaged on the forehead and in the hair. Traditionally, the leaves of marjoram are employed to cure diabetes, insomnia, catarrh, asthma and nervousness. 18 Today, it is commonly found in the Mediterranean region or grown in gardens around the world. In its varied forms of: marjoram essential oil, fresh or dried marjoram leaves, or marjoram powder (ground up marjoram), it has many uses. As a culinary additive, it is commonly used to flavor soups, sauces, salads, and meat dishes. 19 Cosmetically, marjoram is used in skin cream, body lotion, shaving gel, and bath soaps. Whether used as an essential oil, powder, fresh leaves, or dried leaves, marjoram has many uses with numerous health benefits. It increases the efficiency of digestion by increasing digestive enzymes and saliva, improving appetite, relieving nausea, eliminating flatulence, preventing intestinal infections, relieving diarrhea and constipation, gallstones, intestinal gas, and stomach cramps 20,21 . Marjoram is a great antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agent and used in a variety of common illnesses like food poisoning, staph infection, tetanus infection in wounds, typhoid, malaria, influenza, common cold, mumps, measles 22 . Another use of marjoram is enhancement of the cardiovascular and circulatory system lowering the blood pressure, greatly reducing the risk of hypertension, preventing the buildup of cholesterol. It also having anti- inflammatory effects like asthma, muscle spasms, sinus headaches, migraines, fever, body aches. It is used for topical application in painful joints, sore muscles, sprains, back aches, toothache. 21 Emotional and neurological uses of Origanummajorana are relieving insomnia, reducing stress, calming anxiety, minimizing emotional reactions, increasing control of sexual desire. 23 Some women use marjoram tea for relieving symptoms of menopause, treating mood swings related to menstrual periods, starting menstruation, and promoting the flow of breast milk. 24
Origanummajorana leaves (OM) were cut separately into pieces which were then oven dried at 180 ˚C for 20 minutes. They were separately ground into powder and soaked in different containers containing solvent in order to obtain the extract by leaching. Each of the different extracts was filtered at the end of the extraction period and stored in a clean bottle.
Introduction: Free radicals have singlet electron in their outer layer rendering them high reactivity against biomolecules (i.e., DNA, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Oxidative stress is created when the production of free radicals exceeds their removal by antioxidant systems and is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, inflammatory conditions, and various cancers. Regarding the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles (NPs) in human diseases, the purpose of this study was to synthesize cerium oxide NPs using Origanummajorana leaf extract. Methods: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 -NPs) were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of O. majorana. The sizes of NPs were characterized by a particle size analyzer. The antioxidant properties of the CeO 2 -NPs were determined by Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The anti-inflammatory effects of the NPs were also determined by measuring gene expressions of IL-1β and IL-10 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Origanummajorana: The herb belongs to the family Lamiaceae. The O. majorana is a bushy half-hardy perennial sub-shrub that is often grown as an annual. The O. majorana is 1-2 ft (0.3-0.6 m) tall with descending, multi-branched stems that spill over to create a mound. Since the stems take root where they touch the soil, the mound gradually increases in diameter. The leaves get up to a 1 in (2.5 cm) long and have a wonderful, very distinctive, perfumy fragrance when bruised. The flowers are tiny, less than 1/8 in (0.3 cm) long and arranged in burr like heads 1/2 in (1.3 cm) long. The herb is distributed North Africa, Turkey and SW Asia. It has naturalized in the Mediterranean region of southern Europe. It has been reported that Isorhamnetin has been isolated from the seeds of O. majorana). Hexacosanol, palmitic acid, β-sitosterol and its β-D-Glucoside, ursolic acid, astragal in, rutin, quercetin and two unidentified titerpenic acids have been isolated from O. majorana. It was reported that β- sitosterol, ursolic acid, rutin and quercetin were identified from the seeds of O. majorana.  3-keto-
Aerial parts of Egyptian Origanummajorana L. (Mj-eg, 250g), and Lebanese Origanummajorana L. (Mj-lb, 250g) were separately dry ground using TCM grinder (TCM, China). Both herbs were processed exactly the same way. Both fine powders were extracted using 2500 ml of 80% ethanol and were stirred for 24 hrs in their ethanol liquors. During which the flasks were covered by aluminum foil to prevent the light damage. After 24 hrs, the extracts were double filtered through a porcelain funnel using 20-25 μM filters. The filtered extracts were well dried using Rotavap (Buchi, Germany) at temperature 40 C under vacuum.
Introduction and aim:Most of today’s drugs are plant-derived natural products or their derivatives. The objectives of this study were to carry out a primary screening for the phytochemicals and antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Origanummajorana, Rumex nervosus, and Withania somnifera. Methods: Three medicinal plants were collected from Dhamar during April 2018. Primary phytochemical analysis was performed by classical chemical assays.The antibacterial activity of the extracts was evaluated against three opportunistic pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disk diffusion agar assay. Synergy was investigated by combining extracts with standard antibiotic disks. Results: Steroids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and anthocyanins were detected in all extracts. Meanwhile, alkaloids and anthraquinones were absent. Phenols and flavonoids were also undetected in the extracts of W. somnifera and R. nervosus respectively. In terms of antibacterial activity,W. somnifera was the most active extract against S. aureus and E. coliwith inhibition zone diameters range from 17 mm to 24 mm at 2 mg/disk. Extracts of O. majorana and R. nervosus showed no activity against the challenged bacteria. In terms of synergy, extracts of O. majorana and R. nervosus enhanced the activity of chloramphenicol against S. aureus while antagonistic effect was observed when extract of R. nervosus combined with fluoroquinolones against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Conclusions: Only the extract of W. somnifera showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.According to the literature, it is most likely that this is the first report on synergy testing between standard antibiotics and extracts of these medicinal species.
Origanummajorana Linn. (Family- Labiatae) is a herb, commonly grows in Mediterranean regions. The plant has been used in the treatment of diseases related to the nervous system as an antiepileptic and sedative drug in traditional medicines. In this study, anticonvulsant and sedative activities for different extracts of aerial parts (leaves and stems) of O. majorana are evaluated. An anticonvulsant effect of O. majorana was investigated using the Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) test The pet ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts (PEOM, CEOM, ACEOM, MEOM, and AQEOM respectively) of O. majorana exhibited anticonvulsant effect in both the PTZ and MES induced seizure models at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, i.p. The extracts of O. majorana delayed the onset of seizures and reduced the duration of seizures in PTZ test and decreased the duration of seizures in MES test compared to the control group. The CEOM exhibited maximum reduction (58.47 and 44.83% in PTZ and MES test respectively) in the duration of seizures, hence it was processed to isolate triterpenoic acid fraction (TAF) which contained substantial amount of ursolic acid. The TAF exhibited maximum reduction (64.54 and 59.31% in PTZ and MES test respectively) in the duration of seizures compared to the other extracts of O. majorana. Also, the test extracts decreased the latency and increased the duration of total sleeping time significantly. The antagonism of chemically and electrically induced seizures that O. majorana extracts possess anticonvulsant activity. Presence of flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids and essential oil may be responsible for the anticonvulsant activity of this plant.
In the present investigation, different antioxidant assays have been used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Origanummajorana. Hydroxyl (OH .- ) and superoxide (O 2- ) radicals are the most reactive free radical known and can react with everything in living organisms. In the present study, the methanolic extract of Origanummajorana showed significant hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging activity by their ability to remove hydroxyl and superoxide free radicals due to inhibition of respective mechanisms involved in the formation of radicals Fig. 4, 5. The experimental controls are compared with the standard ascorbic acid, and the IC 50 values
The formation of SNPs was analyzed by UV–Visible spec- troscopy. Figure 3(a and b) shows the UV–Visible spectra recorded from mixture of aqueous leaf extract (O. majo- rana and C. sinensis) and Ag salt solution as a function of time of reaction. After microwave heating, the color of the solution changed from colorless to brown. It is well- known that SNPs exhibit dark brown colors, depending on the intensity and the size of nanoparticles; the colors arise due to the excitation of surface plasmon reso- nance (SPR) of the SNPs (Mulvaney 1996). The SPR of SNPs was observed at 380 and 420 nm in O. majorana- mediated SNPs which steadily increased in intensity as a function of time of reaction i.e., after 30 s and 1 min. No further change in the intensity of SPR was observed when the solution was microwaved for 2 and more. This shows that the formation of SNP was completed after 1 min in
The amount of total phenolic varied in the five plants and ranged from 4,68±0,01 to 143,09±0,07 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g dw (dry weight) (Table 1). However, the phenolic content of Origanummajorana and Plantago ciliata L extracts are higher than other plants in other families such as: Artemisia arboresens with 3.42±0.50 mg GAE/g dw (dry weight), Ruta Montana with 3.13±0.30 mg GAE/g dw, Artemisia campestris with 20.38±0.30 mg GAE/g dw and Globularia alypum with 21.54±0.81 mg GAE/g dw [17-18]. About the other fractions, we marked that the total phenolic content in the tested plants was lower than those reported for the most of other Asian medicinal and common dietary plants [19-23].
polyphenols that have beneficial effects on health due to their anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities [20-25]. The genus Origanummajorana L. is an aromatic, and it has been used as a flavoring and herbal spice since ancient times and is also used as an antistomachic, an antihelmintic, and an alexipharmic and is useful in diseases of the heart and blood as well as for fevers, leucoderma and inflammation .
The study was undertaken to determine a possible role of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) as antioxi- dants in salt tolerance of Chamomilla recutita and Origanummajorana. Salinity generally induced variable changes in growth, contents of oil and ﬂavonoids of both plants; foliar application of any polyamines counterbalanced the eﬀects of salinity. In general, the degree of stimulation diﬀered according to the type and concentration of the used additive and the type of the plant.
H = it x , which correspond to phonon processes of higher order. In accordance with previous treatments of similar problems we only consider the lowest order as in Equation (6) in order to simplify the description . Now, we do not want to couple the Majorana fermions to an outer lead  but rather couple them laterally as illustrated in Figure 2.
One dimensional fermionic chain is reviewed in the light of Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model and Kitaev model and idea of topological phase in such system is illustrated. Fermionic zero modes with four fold ground state degeneracy exist in Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model which considers liner carbon chain having alternate single and double bonds. The zero modes are found to exist near the edge of the chain and protected by sub-lattice symmetry. However, the Kitaev model predicts the existence of majorana zero modes with two- fold ground state degeneracy. The Kitaev model assumes identical spin less sites and therefore sub-lattice symmetry does not come in to play. The majorana zero modes are robust and not susceptible to external perturbations. Experimental detection of majorana zero modes will have great impact in the field of quantum computing using topological qubits.