Like every other historical investigation of phenomena found in AMGr, our research has to overcome the almost complete absence of written evidence in the period before the 19th century, which makes it diﬃcult to carry out a systematic comparison between early, intermediate and recent attested stages of development in order to identify what has changed over time and, in cases where change has indeed occurred, what the linguistic processes and mecha- nisms of change were. Fortunately, though, the lack of historical records is counterbalanced by the diversity found among the modern AMGr and NGr dialects, some of which are more conservative while others more innovative with respect to a signiﬁcant number of developments, including neuter hetero- clisis. The methodological advantage of this situation is that the various dialects essentially illustrate diﬀerent developmental stages of the change in question, which assists us in reconstructing its origin and the trajectory that it followed over time (for more details on this methodological approach as well as for examples of its implementation, see D AWKINS 1940; K ARATSAREAS 2011). The paper is structured as follows: in §2 we brieﬂy review previous explana- tions for the development of neuter heteroclisis. §3 discusses the process of morphological reanalysis that gave rise to the morphological material used in neuter heteroclisis. In §4, we move on to explore the origin of this morpho- logical innovation on the basis of evidence from the NGr dialects of Lesbos/Kydonies and Samos while in §5 we identify the factors that condi- tioned its subsequent development in the AMGr dialects. In §6 we address the implications of neuter heteroclisis for the organisation of nouns into inﬂec- tional classes and genders in AMGr. §7 concludes the paper.
The institutions of Local Government have flourished in India since time immemorial. The Panchayats or Village Governments, as they were called, were ancient institutions and were themselves small republics. They exercised power in various spheres such as industrial, commercial, administrative, and social including civic education and religious functions. The Panchayat Raj has always existed in India. These Panchayats were the Local Self Governments in villages. Local Self Government is the Government duly elected by local people. While Government at the National and state level have independent powers of their own drawn from the constitution, Local self Government Institutions are creations of the state and enjoy only such powers as are given to them by State Government or state legislature.The present paper focus on the analysis of Origin and Development of Local Governments in India.
The lymph heart is a sac-like structure on either side of avian tail. In some adult birds, it empties the lymph from the copulatory organ; however, during embryonic development, it is thought to circulate extra-embryonic lymph. Very little is known about the origin, innervation and the cellular changes it undergoes during development. Using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling we show that the musculature of the lymph heart is initially composed solely of striated skeletal muscle but later develops an additional layer composed of smooth myofibroblasts. Chick-quail fate-mapping demonstrates that the lymph heart originates from the hypaxial compartments of somites 34-41. The embryonic lymph heart is transiently innervated by somatic motoneurons with no autonomic input. In comparison to body muscles, the lymph heart has different sensitivity to neuromuscular junction blockers (sensitive only to decamethonium). Furthermore, its abundant bungarotoxin-positive acetylcholinesterase receptors are unique as they completely lack specific acetylcholinesterase activity. Several lines of evidence suggest that the lymph heart may possess an intrinsic pacing mechanism. Finally, we assessed the function of the lymph heart during embryogenesis and demonstrate that it is responsible for preventing embryonic oedema in birds, a role previously thought to be played by body skeletal muscle contractions.
Origin & development of Rasashastra 3 Rasashastra means the science dealing with mercury and other metallic substances & their utilizations in the medicine. The period be- tween 7 th century AD. to 13 th century AD. was considered as the golden period of develop- ment of Rasashastra, the use of mercury & other metals in bhasma form shown miracles results in diseased condition and in contribut- ing positive health. Acharya Nagarjuna and many siddhas of Rasashastra contributed lot in the development of Rasashastra, many Ra- sashastra literature which is available now were written during this period only. Many important formulations which were demon- strated during this period (7-13 Cen, A.D.) are till today practiced to treat many chronic dis- orders.
The problems of transition in Bulgaria also affect the development of our banking system. In many ways, the commercial banks are not prepared for the new market conditions and continue to function in accordance with the stereotype constructed during socialism. The lack of sufficiently qualified professionals, good banking practices for evaluating the risks involved, and sometimes purely criminal behaviour of some bank employees led to deterioration the entire banking system which developed into a banking crisis in 1996.
Currently the JACPA can establish a disciplinary committee to impose one or more of the following sanctions upon members for malpractice: admonishment, warning, suspending the auditor’s license for a period not exceeding two years, and termination of the auditor’s license. Accordingly, the JACPA possesses the authority to inspect the audit firm’s working papers through a specialized inspection committee. Moreover, the Association can now draft its own rules and regulations and has the right to maintain a special record for all auditors. For the first time, the JACPA now has the power, the means, and the authority to play a vital role in the development of the auditing profession. This new authority should encourage the Association to start exercising its power in the best manner. Enhancement of the quality of the profession should be built on a strong professional base, requiring Jordanian auditors to engage their Association to exert pressure towards the technical advancement of the profession.
For the first time in 1993, the third year of activity, Regional Information Center for Science and Technology like other Iran’s governmental organizations was approved to get an independent budget which was about 1800 million Rials. At this time, Prof. Moe’in and Prof. Ali Salehi, Professor of Sharif University of Technology and a member of RICeST’s high council, proposed the idea of taking a loan from Islamic Development Bank (IDB) -based in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia- through holding a meeting in Sharif University of Technology. It should be noted that at that time, IDB’s authorities were in Tehran in response to the invitation of Sharif University of Technology which was to take a loan from the bank, too. In that meeting, both RICeST and Sharif University of Technology introduced their programs and finally could receive their loans. Since each dollar cost 70 Rials at that time, taking a loan of 15 million dollars with long time repayments was a greate help to RICeST. Afterwards, RICeST could order a lot of journals. Then, Internet lines were not available in Iran and so we at RICeST prepared and put a list of journals in our Bulletin Board Services (BBS). This matter which happened after the imposed war was like an explosion in the scientific society and universities which had started their scientific activities at a fairly accepted speed and were in need of more information support. So, plenty of information demands were delivered to RICeST.
The multidisciplinary research approach compiled in this review helps to clarify some key doubts about the formation of the Carajás, as well as the apparent mismatches of plant and paleoclimate dynamics during the last 50 ka cal BP. The ULs were formed by structural and dissolution of the lateritic crusts during the late Cenozoic, and possibly start to fill with sediment during the Quaternary. The study of the modern environments of deposition allowed the calibration of the down-profile data from lake deposits. Thus, it is possible to relate detritic facies with predominant chemical weathering and peat facies with swampy conditions, high primary productivity or macrophytes development under ultra-oligotrophic conditions, depending of the accommodation space. The cyclical pattern of the sediment deposition with alternating beds of mud, peat and siderites reveals that paleoclimate seasonality was stronger during the Holocene than the previous epoch, which was clearly evidenced by stratigraphy, multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry, and pollen data. ULs were strongly influenced by drier paleoclimate conditions of the LGM and mid-Holocene with very low detrital inflow, subaerial exposure of lake deposits and large formation of siderites (late Pleistocene). However, there is no signal of widespread expansion of savanna during the studied period.
III. DEFINITION AND ORIGIN OF NOVEL According to The Shorter Oxford Dictionary, novel is “a fictitious prose narrative of considerable length in which characters and actions representative of real life are portrayed in a plot of more or less complexity” (cited in Rees, 1973, p.106). Another definition by an anonymous author states that a novel is “a piece of prose fiction of a reasonable length”. Both the definitions highlight the word ‘prose’ meaning the common or ordinary spoken form of language without the presence of poetic rhythmic structure. However, there are a few novels written in verse as well, such as Vikram Seth’s The Golden Gate and Alexander Pushkin’s Eugene Onegi. The other aspect of the definition is related to the length. The first definition points out ‘considerable length’ and second definition states ‘reasonable length’ to distinguish the novel’s unique feature as a genre vis a vis genre of short story. The lengths of some novels are similar to the length of short stories and hence a term such as ‘novella’ is often used for shorter novels.
A modern estimate of the average annual publication of new books, excluding pamphlets, suggests that an almost fourfold increase occurred during the century; annual output from 1666 to 1756 averaging less than 100, and that from 1792 to 1802, 372. . It is likely, therefore, that when, in 1781, Doctor Samuel Johnson spoke of a 'nation of readers', he had in mind a situation, which had to a large extent arisen after 1750, and that, even so. His phrase must not be taken literally: the increase in the reading public may have been sufficiently marked to justify hyperbole, but it was still on a very limited scale. A brief survey of the factors, which affected the composition of the reading public, will show why it remained so small by modern standards. The first and most obvious of these factors was the very limited distribution of literacy not literacy in its eighteenth-century sense-- knowledge of the classical languages and literatures, especially Latin -- but literacy in the modern sense of a bare capacity to read and write the mother- tongue. George Lukacs, the most eminent Hungarian Marxist critic and literary theorist in his most remarkable work “Studies in European Realism” has remarked that, “The great English novelists of the eighteenth century lived in a post- revolutionary period and this gives their works an atmosphere of stability and security and also a certain complacent short- sightedness (Lukacs, G., 1950, p. 150). In short, the novels of Marivaux, Daniel Defoe, Smollett and Henry Fielding are the best example of this step of novel‟s development in England. They employed minor role to the low characters of working classes for providing comic relief in their novels.
fi o d e c l i n e in importance, With the development of new technolo gies and new discoveries, many in the field of medicine, an organic viewpoint gained support and perhaps reached its peak in mid-19th century Germany. Around the turn of the century, a new tradition emphastzing psychological factors in psychopathology appeared with Wreud and psychoanalysis, however, the first hals of this century witnessed widespread experimentation in the study of the relation- shio of genetics and "biochemistry to mental disease. Coupled with ■ ’ -’■•e limited success of this research, and the development of behav ior therapy and its emphasis on learning principles, a psychological or behavioral model has gained considerable support. Within these two broad orientations, the somatogenic and the psychogenic, several other interpretations have been advanced. Indeed, at present,
dimensions of human development: life expectancy, education level and income. The objective of our study was to determine if maternal HDI may be used to identify women at increased odds of poor pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal population-based study in a tertiary centre in Madrid, Spain. The outcome variables were maternal and perinatal/antenatal mortality, preeclampsia (PE), low birth weight (LBW), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm delivery (PTD) before 37 and 34 gestational weeks, abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) during delivery, C-section (CS) due to abnormal CTG, pH < 7.10 at birth, Apgar at 5 min ≤ 7, and resuscitation type ≥ 3. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding variables to evaluate the associations between maternal HDI and perinatal outcomes.
This study will examine two aspects of Korean Biblicism: first its germination and early progress, and then its theological – more or less fundamentalist – formation. The first aspect, covering The purpose of this article is to clarify the origin and early stages of the Biblicism of the Korean Protestant churches in general, and of the Presbyterian Church of Korea (PCK) in particular. The Biblicism is very important for Korean Protestant churches, because it is believed to be a main cause of their unusual growth on the one hand, and on the other hand, of their Fundamentalism and many schisms in the post-liberation era. The article, in the beginning part, investigates the four crucial elements of Korean Biblicism and then examines how the four elements worked together to form a resilient Biblicism whose two distinctive theological forms were practical on the one hand, and dogmatic (fundamentalist), on the other. Among the four basic Biblicist elements, the first was the firm Biblicist theology of the early North American missionaries in Korea who tried to follow and flower their original, puritanical and Old Princeton theology in Korea. The second was Korean Protestants’ original, Neo-Confucian biblicism, which facilitated them to readily accept the missionaries’ Biblicist teachings of the Bible. The third element was the so-called Nevius [Mission] Methods, which emphasised simplistic Biblicist Bible studies, and offered both opportunities of learning and ways to become meaningful leaders in their communities. The fourth and last element was the Biblicist creed of PCK, which became the fundamentalist weapon against its modernist or liberalist wing. To sum up, Korean Biblicism has been the result of those four Biblicist elements working together. The Korean Biblicism was developed into two more or less different positions; the one being practical, exemplified by Rev. Samuel A. Moffett; and the other, dogmatic and fundamentalist, represented by Rev. Dr W.D. Reynolds.
metamorphosis in A. queenslandica. Confocal sections through a flask cell (fc) at the free-swimming larva stage (A) and a transdifferentiating flask cell at the settlement stage labelled with CM-DiI (B). Note the loss of apical structures including the cilium (ci). C: Confocal sections viewed from the top at settlement, showing that many DiI-labelled cells are internalised (arrow- heads). D: Confocal sections viewed from the top during metamorphosis; note that DiI-labelled cells have differentiated into archeocytes with characteristic large nucleoli (nu; inset magnified from the boxed cells). E: Confocal sections of individual archeocytes of the larval epidermal origin undergoing further differentiation at the chamber-formation stage; an arrowhead shows a differentiating choanocyte with a cilium (ci in inset) whose cell body has yet to complete cytokinesis within the mother archeocyte (ar). F: Confocal sections of a multi-nucleated archeocyte- choanocyte intermediate at the chamber-formation stage. Differentiating choanocytes with cilia (ci) are evident (arrowheads). Abbreviations: ap apical non-ciliary process; ba basal process; co columnar epithelial cell. Scale bar: 10 μ m (A, B, inset in D, E, F), 100 μ m (C, D).
Banks having growth in central and eastern Europe in the early 1990s led to a rapid growth of foreign ownership in local banking systems. In the beginning of 21 st century, foreign participation in the markets often exceeded 80 percent of local banking assets. In Latin American experience on financial liberalization it was first wave of liberalization that follow-your- customer type in the mid to late 1990s. The development of foreign branches and subsidiaries in the last 40 years has been largely uneven. Foreign branching can be considered a more mature form of expansion abroad. According to Brealey and Kaplanis (1996), the number of banks foreign branches increased very rapidly from about 1960to the mid-1980s and slowed significantly after 1985. In contrast, the number of cross-border merger and acquisition in the banking industry has risen most rapidly in the 1990s. However, they are still a small fraction of banking M&A activity within individual nations (Group of Ten, 2001) and they are rarer than in other industries (Focarelli and Pozzolo, 2001).