Figure 2. Effect of (A) Calotropis procerra (B) Tamarix aphylla (C) Peganumharmala aqueous extract with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) on germination percentage of mustard (Each data point shows mean of three replicates. Error bar depicts standard deviation while * are showing significant values. Legends represent number of days)
It is clear from comparison between FT-IR spectra for isolated Peganumharmala seed extract and it film on the metal surface, that the absorbance frequency of all functional groups have been shifted to less value due to the force of binding between the interface of metal surface and the inhibitor, Table 4. Also the figures appear that the vibration of all functional group that affected by inhibition process have a less intensity in transition bands. Table 3. The thermodynamic function of the adsorption process.
induced diabetic rats [21; 22]. Another observation arising from this study is the eﬀ ect of the AEPHR on the body weight in the treated rats. The improvement in body weight in diabetic rats treated may be due to improvement in metabolic activity of the system o maintain glucose homeostasis. These results suggested that root contained some bioactive principles that possess insulin protective or insulin-like activity . The phytochemical study of root revealed the presence saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids, ﬂavonoids, triterpenes and Sterols that are known to be bio active anti-diabetic principles . Amino acids have been reported as anti hyperglycemic agents. This eﬀ ect may be due to a direct action of amino acids on the sensitivity of cells to insulin or increase the anabolism of muscle cells . Tannins have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity . Alkaloids inhibit alpha-glucosidase and decrease glucose transport through the intestinal epithelium. Flavonoids suppress the glucose level, reduce plasma cholesterol and triglycerides signiﬁcantly and increase hepatic glucokinase activity probably by enhancing the insulin release from pancreatic islets. Saponins stimulate the release of insulin and block the formation of glucose in the bloodstream . It is concluded that Peganumharmala has signiﬁcant anti-diabetic activity as it lowers the fasting blood sugar level in diabetic rats and increases the glucose tolerance. However, further studies are required for the isolation and structural elucidation of the active components of the plant material.
with antiviral drugs. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a paradoxical inflammatory reaction against a foreign antigen in patients who have started antiretroviral therapy and who have undergone a reconstitution of their immune responses against this antigen . Tuberculosis is the best-described presentation of IRIS [29-31]. The problems with current methods of tuberculosis treatment caused researchers to discover new drugs or alternatives to treat tuberculosis. The present study was conducted to assess the anti-mycobacterial and anti- inflammatory effects of the seeds of Peganumharmala, a medicinal plant reputed in folklore medicine for its anti- inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Peganumharmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) commonly called as Esfand and Suryin Rue is widely distributed in North Africa, Mediterranean, the Middle East, Pakistan, India and Iran. Peganumharmala is a medicinal plant with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties . The seeds of P. harmala L. contain about 2–6% pharmacologically active alkaloids, which are mostly carbolines such as harman, harmine, harmaline and harmalol . Our data showed the strong antimycobacterial activity of hydro- alcoholic extracts of seeds of Peganum harmalaagainst MDR and non-MDR isolates and a drug-susceptible reference strain of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The Golestan province is a place in the north of Iran with high prevalence of tuberculosis  and a very proper climate for herbal plants to grow. It seems that there is a good opportunity to study on medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites to improve the treatment of infectious disease particularly tuberculosis.
Results: Biotransformation of ( − )-ambrox (1) with a fungal cell culture of Macrophomina phaseolina and a plant cell suspension cultures of Peganumharmala yielded oxygenated products, 3 β -hydroxyambrox (2), 6 β -hydroxyambrox (3), 1 α -hydroxy-3oxoambrox (4), 1 α ,3 β -dihydroxyambrox (5), 13,14,15,16-tetranorlabdane-3-oxo-8,12-diol (6), 3-oxoambrox (7), 2 α -hydroxyambrox (8), 3 β -hydroxysclareolide (9), and 2 α ,3 β -dihydroxyambrox (10). Metabolite 4 was found to be new compound. These metabolites were structurally characterized on the basis of spectroscopic studies.
The results of the present investigation reported that Ferula assafoetida, Saussurea costus, Peganumharmala possess strong antioxidant potential that due to contribution of its phenolics and flavonoid contents, and it would be advantageous to use the plant antioxidant in therapeutic drugs for the implications of human health. We conclude that harmala has strong antioxidant followed by ferula than costus. In which it showed the most bioactive constituents found in harmala extract (coumarins, alkaloid, phenol, tannins, glycosides, steroids, saponinsetc).Natural product antioxidants significantly contribute in preventions of pathological consequences caused by free radicals. Furthermore plant derived antioxidant are safer and cheaper than their synthetic counterparts. Further studies are needed for the isolation and identification of bioactive compounds more specifically responsible for antioxidant activity.
Peganumharmala and Piper longum medicinal herbs are used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases and to relieve tragic processes. The chemical composition of these two compounds is their analgesic agent. The purpose of this study was the Peganumharmala and Piper longum rubbing oil effect on pain in male mice by using formalin test. In this study, male mice were divided into three groups: control group, Peganumharmala rubbing oil group, Piper longum rubbing oil group. All groups were taken formalin test and data were analyzed by using Graphpad prism statistical software. In rubbing groups, Peganumharmala rubbing oil and the Piper longum rubbing oil, there was a significant difference compared with the control group (p<0.05). It seems that the reason of these two plants analgesic should be sought in their chemical composition. The chemical compositions of these two plants have analgesic effects.
Furthermore, Benbott et al.  showed that Peganumharmala extracts contains: flavonoids, saponins, tannins, compounds reducers, volatile oils, anthraquinones, triterpenes, sterols and alkaloids. Indeed, several authors have shown that different types of chemical compounds highlighted in the extracts of this plant have therapeutic effects such as: narcotic, anthelmintic, malaria and in some cases against rheumatism [16-18]. Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances and derivatives which form the phytochemical constituents [19,20]. Phytochemical constituents and derivatives are commonly used for medicinal purposes against number of disease such as analgesic, antimalarial, bactericidal and antiseptic .
It is used for the treatment of variety of human ailments, 12 a harmal content of this plant enhances the action of epinephrine 13 and β- carboline alkaloids isolated from this plant are reported to possess antidepressant 14 . The different alkaloids of peganumharmala have been shown to be monoamino oxidase inhibition (MAO-I) 15 , MAO-I can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of serotonin and other monoamine. This inhibition of break-down of serotonin in the human body makes MAO-I effective antidepressants. In warm blooded animals, seeds as well as the Harmal alkaloids cause a primary stimulation of motor tracts of the cerebrum, and spinal cord, giving rise to tremors and clonic convulsions. Harmal alkanoids and their derivatives have been suggested for use as protozoicidal agents, coronary dilators, ecbolics and used in the treatment of nervous diseases like post- encephalitic and neuralgia conditions 16 . The seeds of plant contain compounds known as harmal alkaloids; have a long history of use as psychoactive drug, and other purposes. Huge medicinal properties of Peganumharmala enforces to reveal the potentiality of Peganumharmala in the management of neurodegenerative disorders.
The antioxidative effects of Ph were studied by Rezaei 29 , who concluded that the aqueous extract of Peganumharmala could prevent signs and decreased oxidative stress markers in rats with Parkinson’s disease brought on by 6- hydroxydopamine. Hamden 55 decided that, Ph contains effective constitutes which can also have the ability of scavenging free radicals and modulate the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes inclusive of estrogens, growth factors and Vitamin E supplement. Moreover, the alkaloid extract of seeds of Ph has a prospect enough at the control of neurodegenerative disorders of the type Alzheimer’s diseases 27
Peganumharmala L.(P. harmala), commonly known as Harmal or Syrian rue, is a perennial plant of the family Nitrariaceae and is widely cultivated in Middle East, central Asia, North Africa, India and Pakistan (Niroumand et al., 2015; Komeili, et al., 2016). It is a medicinally important herb that has been reported to have a broad spectrum of biological activities (Bourogaa et al., 2015). P. harmala is traditionally used for its antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative, analgesic and antirheumatic properties (Ullah et al., 2013). Moreover, P. harmala extracts have been reported to have a variety of potential health benefits, including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant and anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo (Mothana et al., 2011; Moloudizargari et al., 2013; Lamchouri, 2014).
26. Soliman, A. M. and Fahmy, S. R. Protective and curative effects of the 15 KD isolated protein from the peganumharmala L. seeds against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in brain, tests and erythrocytes of rats. Eur. Rec. Med. Pharm. Sci., 2001; 15: 888- 899.
The Culicidae family constitutes a plague of health risks. These biting insects are harmful to human populations and pass on infectious diseases such as malaria. Since chemical control has limited effectiveness against mosquitoes, biological control has become more prevalent. We conducted toxicological tests with an ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Peganumharmala on Culex pipiens larvae (L4). The results show a larvicidal effect that resulted in an LD 50% in 10.17 days for a 2 g/L dose and an LD 50% in 5.76 days for a 4 g/L dose. A sub-lethal dose was tested on the different stages of the studied species, and a significant difference was observed between the duration until hatching in female eggs from the control group and eggs from the treated group (P = 0.01). There was a considerable prolongation of each stage of the development cycle in the treated group, in the egg-laying period, in the hatching period, and also in the duration until the emergence of the adults. These results show that P. harmala causes retardation and inhibition of moulting and development of Culex pipiens.
The seeds of Peganumharmala were cleaned of impurities, washed with tap water and dried out of the light for two weeks, then crushed using a medium fine powdered mortar. Dried seeds of P. harmala were collected in May and June and authenticated by Dr Abdelilah RAHOU, botanist in Moulay Ismail Faculty. The decoction is made with 40 g of the seed powder in 1000 ml of warm distilled water for a few hours at a moderately high temperature. Then a Filtration is carried out on hydrophilic cotton, then on Wattman paper No 3
A new, N, N’-[3-hydroxy-5-methyl phenyl]-oxamide has been isolated from a chloroform extract of peganumharmala seeds. Preliminary screening of crude extracts obtained after solvent extract and purification by chromatographic studies. The structure of the compound was identified further by melting point determination and spectral analysis of UV-VIS, FT-IR, 1 H NMR & 13 C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometer studies. The structure of the isolated compound was docking with HIV integrase Protein with help of schrodinger softwere.
Peganumharmala L. Commonly known as Syrian rue, Wild rue or Harmal is native to arid and semi-arid regions of Northern African and Asian deserts that have spread to parts of the southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. It is a multipurpose medicinal plant with antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti cancerous, hypothermic and hallucinogenic activities. Phytochemical investigations has revealed the presences of a number of active alkaloids especially beta-carbolines such as harmalol, harmaline, and harmine. Seeds and roots contain the highest levels of alkaloids with low level in stem and leaves and absent in flowers. This emphasizes on the need of widespread study for covering the supplementary information on the medicinal importance of other species of genus peganum.
using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique . In another related study, genetic diversity of Peganumharmala was studied based on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) . In the current report, we evaluated genetic diversity between 21 Harmal accessions, collected from different regions of Iran using ISSR marker.
Peganumharmala L is a member of the family Zygophyllaceae (Hilal and Youngken, 1983). This plant is commonly distributed in the Attock District, Islamabad, including the Margalla Hills. Several alkaloids have been isolated from the seeds and roots of this plant and have been identified as chemicals with a β-carboline structure, such as harmine, harmaline, harmalol, and harman (Bailey, 1986; Rizk, 1986), or with a quinazoline structure, such as vasicine and vasicinon (Openshaw, 1953; Bailey, 1986; Joshi et al., 1996). Here we report on the crystal structure of the title
www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 03, 2018. 2 characterized by hyperglycemia, with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.  Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for hyperglycemic and liver toxicity.  There is a growing interest in herbal remedies because of their effectiveness, minimal side effects in clinical experience, and relatively cost effective. Herbal drugs or their extracts are prescribed widely, even when their biological active compounds are unknown.  Peganumharmala (L.) is a member of the family Zygophyllaceae  commonly known as Harmal grows spontaneously in semi arid and predesertic regions of south-east Morocco and distributed in north Africa and the middle east  P. harmala has been traditionally used to treat diabetes in folk medicine of some parts of the world. [7,8] This effect of P. harmala has been pharmacologically confirmed in several studies one of which showed that the plant would lose its hypoglycemic activity at high doses instead of increasing it. 
In analysis the research during the last decades, it is estimated that the analgesics are one of the highest therapeutic categories on which research efforts are concentrated [ 1]. Analgesic compounds available in the market, still present a wide range of undesired effects [ 2] leaving an open door for new and better compounds. Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as analgesics [ 3]. There are reports about analgesic effects of medicinal plants in the literatures [ 4- 10]. Peganumharmala (L.) is a member of the family Zygophyllaceae [ 11] commonly known as ‘Harmal’ which grows spontaneously in semiarid and predesertic regions of south-east Morocco and distributed in North Africa and the Middle East [ 12]. In Moroccan traditional medicine, seeds of Peganumharmala were used as powder, decoction, maceration or infusion for fever, diarrhoea,