These three dimensions should be measured simultaneously for more accurate predictions of employees’ behaviors and change-related outcomes (Lines 2005;
As research finds attitudes toward organizational change to be related to affective commitment (Lau and Woodman 1995; Yousef 2000a; Yousef 2000b), it seems an employee with positive attitudes toward organizational change should view a change initiative as a resource provided them by the organization. For instance, a change in procedures should be perceived as a change that takes place for the employee to be able to perform better. Thus, as the change is perceived as a supporting initiative, the employee should further strengthen the affective commitment to the organization. This effect is similar to that of perceivedorganizationalsupport in general, only the relation between attitudes toward organizational change and affective commitment is specific to a situation of organizational change. Hence, as perceivedorganizationalsupport is an
Theory on perceivedorganizational supports is mainly drawn from social exchange theory. This derives individuals who voluntarily provide benefits to others; thus, others have a norm to reciprocate by providing benefits to the giver. In this context, the perceivedorganizationalsupport can be advanced through various ways, for example: giving rewards to employees for their works, thanking employee through media, and giving small gifts (Andrew et al., 2009). A previous research conducting by Eisenberger and Huntington (1986) has found that organizationalsupport is assumed to strengthen affective ties between employees and organizations. Instead, Kamakura and Mason argue that individual values can influence employees’ behavior in carrying out their performance as well as their concepts of individual values (1991: 208-210). Obviously, value systems have been used to predict various forms of behavior. Personal value can change the
The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between organizationalsupport and organizational trust of teachers. Organizationalsupport is recognizing the contribution of employees, appreciating and paying attention to them in the organizations. Organizational trust refers to an organizational climate that the employees behave each other in an honest, realistic, helpful and coherent way. The study sample involves 470 primary school teachers working in Tuzla during 2013-2014 educational year. In the present study, the data was collected through the perceivedorganizationalsupport scale and trust scale. SPSS 21.00 programs were used in analysis of the data. The relationships was tested by Pearson Moments Product Correlation Coefficient.
Choong Yuen Onn, Tan Luen Peng, Choe Kum Lung * Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
Abstract: Past studies have confirmed the relationship between organizational justice and supervisory support with perceivedorganizationalsupport. However, there is lack of research study conducted on examining the relationship of these two dimensions specifically on the academic staff in Malaysian universities. Furthermore, some researchers also found that organizationalsupport and supervisory support are strongly related to perceivedorganizationalsupport. Hence, the purpose of this conceptual paper is to provide a review and an examination on the relationship of organizational justice and supervisory support on perceivedorganizationalsupport among academic staff in Malaysian universities. Conceptual framework and hypotheses have been formulated. The target population is academic staff of Malaysian universities. A simple statistical analysis has been conducted such as reliability analysis and descriptive analysis.
This study empirically examines the relationships among perceivedorganizationalsupport (POS), organizational commitment, and service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), based on a survey of 255 call center customer service representatives at five large call centers in Taiwan. Structure equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. The results indicate that POS is positively related to three types of service-oriented OCBs – loyalty, service delivery, and participation – and that organizational commitment fully mediates the relationships between POS and service-oriented OCBs. The study suggests that call center managers should seek to enhance the perception of organizationalsupport to customer service representatives in order to increase their commitment to the company.
Hypothesis 1: Leader-member exchange will be positively related to perceivedorganizationalsupport.
Socialization Tactics as a Moderator of the LMX-POS Relationship
For newcomers in the process of assimilating into the organization, their socialization experience may impact the degree to which they perceive supervisory actions as attributable to the organization. In this respect, organizations can use a wide variety of tactics and techniques to socialize newcomers during the encounter or accommodation stage.
The findings from the field study also found that organizational fairness elements such as formal procedures, interactional justice and distributive justice affect employees’ perceptions, providing information of organizationalsupport. The interviewees expressed the view that formal procedure characteristics such as documented procedures for determining reward, promotion and training; and designed procedures for providing feedback regarding its services and implementation had a positive influence on how employees perceivedsupport given to them. There is some agreement among interviewees that interactional justice could be positively related to perceivedorganizationalsupport. The interviewees mentioned that the timely feedback about any decision and its implementation given by the supervisor and consideration of employees’ viewpoint by involving employee in their decision making, could affect how they perceivedsupport given by the organization. As mentioned by one of the employees “...... I feel I have a say in my job….Although I had not been given hundred percent power, but at least the supervisor will ask our opinion before making the decision…..” Participants of this study also mention that distributive justice characteristic such as rewarding the employees in a fair manner could be related to perceivedorganizationalsupport.
cynicism (Birnbaum, 2000; Kanter & Mirvis 1989; Ramaley, 2002). Moreover, organizational cynicism in academic organizations is negatively correlated with organizational identification, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship whereas it is positively correlated with the intended turnover and perception of unfaithfulness (Barnes, 2010; Bedian, 2007; Kutanis & Çetinel, 2009; Özgan, Külekçi, & Özkan, 2012; Taylor, 2012). On the other hand, the concept of organizationalsupport is defined by Yoshimura (2003, p. 10) as “a perception or judgment of how much support an employee feels or thinks an organization provides to him or her” and by Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, and Sowa (1986, p. 500) as “employees’ perception concerning the extent to which the organization values their contribution and cares about their well being” (Eisenberger et al., 1986, p. 500). Since perceivedorganizationalsupport reflects the quality of the relationship between the employees and the organization (Yürür, 2005) organizationalsupport describes the attitudes and behaviors of employees (Yüksel, 2006). One of the organizations where organizationalsupport should be felt is in universities (Dee, 1999). If organizationalsupport is not provided sufficiently by a university, its instructors are more likely to display negative behaviors toward the institute for which they work. In the literature, there are relationships between organizational cynicism and organizational politics, organizational justice, psychological contract violation, perceivedorganizationalsupport, organizational stress, organizational citizenship behavior, performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, alienation, and emotional burnout (Brandes, 1997; Brandes, Das, & Hadeni, 2006; Byrne & Hochwarter, 2007; Cartwright & Holmes, 2006; Cole, Bruch, & Vogel, 2006; James, 2005; Treadway et al., 2004; Tokgöz, 2011).
engagement has a significant positive impact on the organization’s benefit and long- term development. The latest research report released by the well-known Gallup con- sulting firm showed that there are only 13% of the total staff in the world can be re- garded as dedicated, and the proportion of employees in the work of the problem is as high as 63%. Compared to the world average level, the proportion of dedicated em- ployees in China is only 6% which makes Chinese enterprises feel anxious. It can be seen that China’s enterprises who want to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage in the increasingly competitive market environment are required to improve their em- ployee engagement urgently. So, what can domestic enterprises do to improve em- ployee engagement? Chen Anqi  found that employees’ organizational identification and employee engagement are positively correlated through the questionnaire survey of new employees in financial industry from four different cities. In addition, Sun Jianmin and Wang Zhen  analyzed 122 employees of 601 companies in domestic and found that organizationalsupport can predict the role of organizational identification effec- tively. By empirical research, Gao Jianli  put forward that enterprises who pay atten- tion to the correspondence between employees psychological capital and organizational can have a significant effect to improve employee engagement. In addition, Usmani and Jamal think that organizational justice has a significant effect on the employees’ job be- haviors and their work attitudes that ultimately result in a positive if confirmed or, otherwise negative organizational outcome . Hence, such notion has great and sig- nificant implication for the individuals and the organizations as a whole . It can be seen that the relationship among employee’s organizationalsupport, organizational identification, employee engagement and organization justice has been paid more and more attention by experts and scholars, meanwhile many valuable results have been achieved. However, the research on the internal mechanism of how organizationalsupport affects employee engagement is to be deepened. Specifically, what is the inter- nal mechanism of perceivedorganizationalsupport and employee engagement? In or- der to answer these above questions, this paper will mainly focus on discussing the fol- lowing three aspects: the influence of organizationalsupport on employee engagement, 2) the mediating effect of organizational identification on organizationalsupport and engagement, 3) to explore the regulatory role of organizational justice in the model of this study. And then we use psychological contract theory, social exchange theory and social equity theory and so on to explain those questions above.
Test validity is the extent to which a test or measuring accurately what we suppose to measure by correlating between the scores obtained in each question item with a total score of the individual. Test validity used a computer with SPSS for Windows Version 22.0 program. Test validity in this study was conducted on 30 respondents. The decision making based on the calculated value r count (corrected item-total correlation) > r table the amount 0.361, for df = 30– 2 = 28; = 0.05 then the item or test is valid, vice versa. Based on the results of test validity, it shows that the indicators of perceivedorganizationalsupport, organizational justice, organizational commitment, and employee performance are valid, because r count > r table .
This study was done in a single organization; the next step would be to test the combined survey across multiple organizations to see if the relationship holds. Second, further testing needs to be done to examine the relationship between mean scores on the socialization and POS surveys and the results of outcome measures. Job satisfaction, turnover, performance measures, organizational citizenship, and other outcomes may all have stronger links to socialization and perceivedorganizationalsupport than is currently known. Finally, there has been very little empirical work on the connection between socialization and training. By attempting to define the content of socialization, Chao et al.
here is much evidence in the professional literature that advocates the importance of employees’ job performance which, in turn, affects professional conduct (Judge et al., 2001a; Liu and Ramsey, 2008). In the educational realm, staff’s job performance is considered influential in its relationship to institute effectiveness and university outcomes; therefore, it is considered of as a key factor in improving university performance (Thompson et al., 1997; Sargent and Hannum, 2005). While the importance of staff’s performance is well documented (e.g. Reyes and Shin, 1995; Rossmiller, 1992), less is known about the way organizations promote their employees’ job performance through organizational processes. Most of all organizationalsupport; such as high level of fairness and good job conditions are very important for the development of the employees. If employees are valued and rewarded in the organization they will be more relaxed and satisfied and will consider themselves emotionally committed towards their organization and will perform highly for their jobs. While organizational appreciation may be viewed through various organization measures, the current study specifically focuses on perceivedorganizationalsupport (POS) and staff’s job performance. This relationship may be theoretically explained in considering that POS and its antecedents are process variables testifying for a university’s organizational behavior while job performance is an outcome variable. Therefore, it is assumed that job performance is likely to be influenced by the qualities of organizational processes. Taking into account previous research evidence indicating the significant connections between POS and job performance, the following study takes a unique perspective as it attempts to assess the contribution of POS directly to staff’ job performance. The theoretical rationale for this research endeavor may be better understood when considering that while these variables are organizational processes, POS is viewed by employees as a perceived measure for the organizational backing in their professional conduct while its antecedents expresses the extent to which employees’ experience organizational backing through an actual change in their authority. Therefore, it is assumed that POS with direct effect on job performance is likely to provide a powerful measure when attempting to appraise employees’ performance.
This research investigates the influence of perceivedorganizationalsupport and self-efficacy on burnout. A total number of 209 Nurses responded to the questionnaires. The participants were all nurses in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia who willingly choose to participate in the study. These participants were made up of 207 female and 2 male nurses from the hospital. 152 are married while 57 are unmarried. Their ages ranged from 20 years to 52 years. 20-30 years (23.45%), 31-41 years (30.62%) and 42-52 years (45.93%). The mean age and standard deviation of the participants are (M=38.47, SD = 8.62). Three instruments were used in the research for data collection. 1) Perceivedorganizationalsupport (POS) scale developed by Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison and Sowa (1986). 2) General self-efficacy scale developed by Jerusalem and Schwartz (1989). 3) Maslach burnout inventory by Maslach and Jackson (1986). A cross-sectional survey design was employed in the study and a two-way analysis of variance was used to test the hypotheses. Results show that Nurses with low organizationalsupport experience high level of burnout than those with high organizationalsupport. In other words, perceivedorganizationalsupport significantly influence burnout among Nurses, while self-efficacy does not significantly influence burnout among Nurses. There is a slight difference in burnout between Nurses with low self-efficacy and those with high self-efficacy. Having realized that organizationalsupport is a strong factor of influence on burnout among Nurses, it is imperative that organizationalsupport is highly encouraged within the health profession and other organizations or sectors in the country.
Of course, several studies have reported the effect of eth- ical work climate on moral distress. The ethical climate does not often lead to personnel’s’ perceivedorganizationalsupport. The reason for this can be the creation of a work environment which is reliable in the organization . Fogel showed that ethical climate agents have a moderating effect on the moral distress, turnover, poor patient care, and justice subjects . In the study by Fogel, the relations between managers and Fnurses induced significant effects on ethical work climate . This, in turn, affects moral distress. Silen’s study showed that ethical climate is an im- portant factor in nurses’ work setting . But in some arti- cles, it has been indicated that a negative relationship exists between ethical climate and moral distress [50–53, 59].
For the data to gather I have adapted and adopted items from different sources which had reasonably acceptable reliability. Of these perceive organizationalsupport as an independent variable was adapted from Eisenberger (1986) short version with 8 items having an alpha coefficient of 0.90.which has one negatively stated item “My organization shows very little concern for me”. It has been measured with five point scale which ranges from 5= strongly agree to 1= strongly disagree. 5 represents high perceivedorganizationalsupport and 1 represents low perceivedorganizationalsupport. 6 items were added with some sort of modification from literature. In the pilot study conducted the alpha coefficient obtained was α= 0.80 though it is acceptable but by far less than what Eisenberger’s short version reliability found. Perceived supervisor support items were adopted from Armendariz (2012) with 8 items that have been stated all positively with an alpha coefficient of 0.90. It had been measured with five point scale which ranges from 5= strongly agree to 1= strongly disagree. 5 represents high perceived supervisors support and 1 represents low perceived supervisors support. Items in this variable, for example “My Supervisor keeps me informed of things I need to do my job well”. In the pilot test the reliability coefficient was α= 0.91. Therefore it is consistent to take as it is. Job satisfaction was measured through 9 items adapted from Phelps (2006) with 0.82 alpha coefficient having an item stated negatively “I am not satisfied with the benefits I receive”. Its alpha coefficient was found 0.35 in the pilot test and I tried to change items to improve its reliability from the 28 pools of items that Phelps used and got 0.65 which is good to accept. It had been measured with five point scale which ranges from 5= strongly agree to 1= strongly disagree. 5 represents high level of satisfaction and 1 represent low level of satisfaction. Turnover intention was also measured by 6 items with alpha coefficient of 0.88. In the pilot test I have administered its alpha coefficient was 0.76. The variation may be due to cultural difference, organizational setting differences and access of jobs but the coefficients were at the acceptable range. It had been measured with five point scale which ranges from 5= strongly agree to 1= strongly disagree. 5 represents high turnover intention and 1 represents low turnover intention. The point of agreement and disagreement was in relation to the intention to stay or leave.
The level of perceivedorganizationalsupport of BPO-RPO employees was strong which means they feel that the organization value them as employees and feel that their contribution in the company is vital. They are more motivated to work in the company, and their performance is good. Their organization rewards them when their performance is better to make sure that the employees are happy in their work. They are more loyal and committed to the organization when they feel that the organization provides their needs, gives them support and values them as an employee especially when given recognition, promotion and job security. It was noted by Levinson (1965) (as cited by Eisenberger & Rhoades, 2002), that actions taken by agents of the organization are often viewed as indications of the organization’s intent rather than attributed solely to the agents’ personal motives. An organization that treats their employees fairly conveys a sense of concern for their well- being. Fair treatment is a factor of PerceivedOrganizationalSupport. Fairness in distributing pay, promotions and daily task assignment, consideration in the treatment of employees, like respect and dignity, courtesy in giving necessary job-related information to employees, fairness in giving resources and rewards to employees, fairness in giving opportunities to employees for active involvement in the organization. These are some of fair treatment that the organization should provide to their employees to feel engaged at work. Organizationalsupport is more important to new employees because they can feel if that is the right company for them to work with. When the new employees understand that the organization support and cares for them as a well-being, they tend to perform better and feel motivated to work every day. Many Filipino employees return the favor if the organization supports and gives their needs. As a Filipino, we help the people who help us and who give us support and reward. We tend to give more because we are thankful for what we receive, particularly in the performance at work. An employee feels motivated and enjoys what they do every day. When the employees perform better, it will also benefit the company. “Filipinos, in particular, have been described as personalistic, familial, and paternalistic. Personalism involves placing a high concern for the welfare of individuals. Familialism, on the other
3 Educational Reaserch
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to study relationship between perceivedorganizationalsupport and organizational commitment among faculty members. The research hypotheses were examined while considering dimensions of organizational commitment including affective, continuance and normative and perceivedorganizationalsupport. This study was conducted using the correlation method. The statistical population consisted of 502 faculty members in the university from the year 2011 till 2012; from the 502, 100 were chosen by using stratified randomized sampling. The information gathering tools were organizational commitment with 24 items and perceivedorganizationalsupport with 36 items. 100 questionnaires were distributed to targeted population. Out of 100 questionnaires we received 89 completed questionnaires. Analysis of the results indicated that mean the organizational commitment in dimensions of affective, continuance and normative was bigger than average. The results indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between perceivedorganizationalsupport and organizational commitment.
ii) In terms of the research methodology, this study attempts to make a rigorous empirical examination of the relationship between workplace spirituality, perceivedorganizationalsupport and organizational commitment.
iii) In terms of the practical implications, this study will provide recommendations to the Malaysian universities on how to improve perceivedorganizationalsupport and implement workplace spirituality in the universities in order to enhance the organizational commitment among the academic staffs. Thus, the findings of this study will provide the input on the human resource practices in the universities. It will add new dimensions and approach in terms of recruitment, as well as training and development and of academic staffs.
Enhancement in employee job performance is the crucial concern of organizations in the current environment. Employees are the basic source of profits and competitive advantage in an organization. In other words, the effectiveness and productivity of an organization is attributed to the effectiveness and efficiency of employee’s performances. There are different psychological and environmental factors that may affect employee job performance. Ekemini (2012) mentioned that motivation, anxiety, and stress are the psychological factors that may influence the employee job performance. Besides, working environment factors such as lighting, inappropriate office furniture, insufficient of ventilation and inadequate security measures, communication and noise are said to have significant effects on employee’s attitude in which may influence their job efficiency (Nur & Narehan, 2015). This research will focus on the effect of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and perceivedorganizationalsupport on their job performance. This will be achieved by providing three detailed of independent variables that will affect the employee job performance.
Keywords: Positive Organizational Behavior; Boredom Proneness; PerceivedOrganizationalSupport;
ngoing pursuits for the development and application of strategies to maximize organizational effectiveness have led to the more frequent use of concepts and theories from positive organizational science. Positive organizational science allows understanding of the effects of human behavior on organizational strategies and why certain strategies and competencies are more beneficial than others (Cameron et al., 2003). This approach is related to developments especially in the recent 5 years in positive psychology (Seligman et al., 2005) and has the objective of creating a organizational system that realizes human potential (Peterson and Spiker, 2005). Positive organizational behavior is defined as practices of the study of human resource potential and psychological capacity, which can be measured, developed and effectively geared toward performance increase in today’s workplaces (Luthans et al., 2002). The psychological capacity mentioned in this definition is also referred to as “psychological capital” and is characterized as follows (Luthans et al., 2007): a) trust in one’s ability to put the effort to achieve difficult tasks (self-competence), b) positive expectation for current and future success (optimism), c) display of perseverance to achieve goals (hope), d) survive in the face of challenges and difficulties and to succeed in spite of everything (endurance). If positive organizational behavior variables are to be placed in a scale, on one side can be the variable positive states of happiness, joy and content while on the other can be the relative stable characteristics, innate abilities, or negative states. Between these two extremes, on the other hand, can be the relatively improvable positive tendencies