Propolis is natural resinous and sticky material obtained from honey hives of Apis mellifera L bees. In the present study, we investigated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and anti-microbial activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of crude ethanolic extract were found to be 25.59 ± 0.48mg/g of Gallic acid equivalent and 4.57 ± 0.46 mg/g of Quercetin equivalent respectively. Ethanolic extract (80%) of Indian propolis shows highest inhibition against P. aeruginosa (18.6 ± 0.58 mm), S. aureus (17.3 ± 0.57 mm), E. coli (18.4 ± 0.45 mm) and C. albicans (24.3 ± 0.57 mm) at 20 mg/ml concentration which are especially responsible for ophthalmic infection and keratitis .
Sarcocephalus latifolius is a medicinal plant whose leaves are useful for the treatment of fever, pain, diarrhea, etc. The aim of the present study was to determine the phytochemical constituents and quantify the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant leaves. The phytochemical screening of the methanol extract revealed presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids while anthraquinone glycosides were absent. Only steroids were observed present in the n-hexane extract. The total phenolic content was 72.12 ± 0.09 mg Gallic acid equivalent/mg extract while that of total flavonoid content was 52.20 ± 0.13 mg quercetin equivalent/mg extract. GC-MS analysis of two of the fractions obtained from fractionation of the methanol extract revealed presence of sixteen compounds in the butanol and seven compounds in the ethyl acetate fractions. The most abundant compound in the ethyl acetate fraction was 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde (60.079%) and the least quinic acid (3.274%) while quinic acid (31.124%) was the major component in the butanol fraction and 4-H-pyran-4-one, 2, 3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl was the least (1.076%). The composition of both fractions is made up of phenolics, carbonyls, alkaloids, fatty acid esters, other esters and substituted aromatic hydrocarbons.
Kappaphycus alvarezii (An edible type of red seaweed) is commonly used in South-East Asia as raw material for domestic industries and for export. In the state of Sabah, Malaysia, this species has been commercialized by local people. This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of selected commercial seaweeds available in Sabah market. Three varieties of Kappaphycus alvarezii, ‘giant’, locally known as white and purple seaweeds, ‘tambalang hijau’, locally known as green seaweed and ‘green flower’ seaweeds were used. All samples were extracted using 80% methanol. Giant (white seaweed) was found to have the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents with the values of 49.04±6.05mg GAE/100g dried sample and 15.54±1.68mg CE/100g dried sample; respectively. Giant (white seaweed) also displayed the highest free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS assays) and ferric reducing activity as compared to other seaweeds. These findings suggested that Sabah commercial seaweeds contain an acceptable amount of phytochemicals which has a potential as a natural antioxidant that might be beneficial for human health.
Unripe grape products, unripe grape juice (or koruk juice), unripe grape powder and unripe grape piece are common condiments in Kilis traditional cousin. Besides their taste roles, their probable health benefits were also studied in this work. To evaluate total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of unripe grape samples (juice, powder and piece) extracted by various solvents. Samples were extracted separately by ethanol and distilled water (10%). Concentrated samples were suspended in methanol to final concentration 100 mg/mL. Percentage yield in the extracts were observed to range from 4.19 to 17.76. While the total phenolic contents of ethanol and distilled water extracts were revealed to range from 505.682 to 758.523 and 424.432 to 603.409 mg GAE/g; total flavonoid contents of extracts were 0.073 to 0.147 and 0.041 to 0.055 mgRE/g, respectively. Antioxidant capacity of extracts was calculated between 64.07(ethanol) and 82.64 % (distilled water). Studied extracts showed antimicrobial activity against only one test microorganism, C. albicans. The highest antibacterial activity (8 mm) was observed in unripe grape piece distilled water extract.
Liver disease has become one of the major health problems in the world, and the death rate is going rapidly to increase. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the emerging, development, and the progression of liver diseases. Ethnobotanical research has an undoubted profound impact on the development of numerous new drugs. The aim of this research, therefore, was to examine the antioxidant activities of 14 selected plants used for treating liver diseases by traditional healers of Indonesia ethnicities and to classify these plants using chemometrics of principal component analysis (PCA). The extraction using methanol as the solvent was performed with two stages maceration. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined by Folin–Ciocalteau and AlCl 3 method, respectively, whereas antioxidant activity was estimated using 2,2′-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among 19 methanol extracts of 14 plants, the leaves of Baccaurea racemosa, Macaranga subpeltata, and Piper sp. showed the highest antioxidant properties. The phenolic content correlated with TEAC, FRAP, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, while flavonoid did not significantly affect these antioxidant activity methods. PCA successfully classified the plant samples using the variables of antioxidant activities and phenolic-flavonoid contents. The selected plants have promising antioxidant properties which support their utilization for either liver diseases medication or oxidative stress-related diseases prevention.
and promote healing . The macerated leaves were usually applied to swollen portion of the body to relieve inflammation amongst the rural populace in southern part of Nigeria . Other medicinal uses include immunomodulator, antispasmodic, hepatoprotective, antiprotozoal, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antipyretic [7-10]. Most of the antioxidant potentials in herbs and spices are due to the redox properties of phenolic compounds that allow them to act as reducing agents, hydrogen donators and free radicals quenchers. In several studies, phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenes and sterols have been isolated from various plant parts, phenolic acids and flavonoids comprise the major constituents of the plant [11-13].
Because they resist high salinity in soils, Halophyte plants are well adapted to saline habitats, e.g coastal regions, salt marshes, mudflats, and inland deserts. These plants can be useful for new sources of natural antioxidants. In this context, we aimed to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of the Tamarix gallica and Tamarix articulata in Southern Algeria (Touggert). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured using colorimetric methods , HPLC analysis for identification of individual polyphenols was identification in different phenolic groups and the quantification are also described, while antioxidant capacities were evaluated using scavenging assays of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power FRAP, ABTS and total antioxidant capacity of methanolic leaves extract from Tamarix gallica and Tamarix articulata. The obtained results indicated that Total phenolic contents and flavonoid from extract of Tamarix gallica were founded high against Tamarix articulata, 334.19 ± 8.47, 395.62 ± 6.23 mg GAE /g DW for phenolic content and 159.73 ± 6.28, 117.47 ± 4.04 mg CE/g DW respectively and it showed higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The HPLC analysis showed that at least 6 considerable phenolic compounds of leaves extract exist for the two extracts, the major ones being vanillic acid, naringin, and caffeic acid. These naturals plants seed could be a good source of antioxidants and antibacterials for food and pharmaceutical industries.
Polyphenols were found in all the extracts/fractions of leaves and stem bark. The obtained results for DPPH are in agreement with the phenol contents determined for each sample. Plant polyphenols are produced from phenylalanine or from its precursor shikmic acid. These phenolics are important dietary antioxidants because they have ideal structural chemistry for free radical scav- enging activities, and have been shown to be more ef- fective antioxidants in vitro than vitamins E and C on a molar basis . Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects such as protection of LDL oxidation in vivo with significant consequences in atherosclerosis and also protect DNA from oxidative damage with im- portant consequences in the age-related development of some cancers . Our findings suggested that leaves and stem bark of C. cujete rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents which are the major contributor to scavenge the free radicals in oxidation pathways.
Table 4 shows the secondary metabolites found in these aqueous extracts using standard protocols for qualitative phytochemical screening. In general, it is observed that water is a solvent which can extract interesting phytochemicals from medicinal plants, in particular, the phenols and flavonoids which have been assayed hereafter. Note, we could extract the same compounds either with maceration, infusion or refluxing. Nevertheless, extraction with refluxing can make extracts more concentrated, which was confirmed during the determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents.
The aqueous ethanol seed coat extract of Vigna mungo shows better antioxidant activity than methanol extracts of seed coat 29 . The extract has also been shown to possess free-radical scavenging activity, which can be attributed to the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant 30, 31 . The results of the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of ethanol extract of seed coat (75.2 ± 0.05%) were not remarkably different then reference compound BHA (80.3 ± 0.07%) at 100µg/ml. The scavenging ability of the seed coat ethanolic extract might be due to the active hydrogen donor ability of hydroxyl substitution. Hydrogen peroxide can be
Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) is well known for its rich Vitamin C and polyphenolic contents which contribute to its antioxidant activity. The present study was focused on the total phenolic, proanthocyanidin, flavonoid contents and also protective effect of phenolic compounds present in methanolic extract of amla against free radical induced oxidative damage on DNA and erythrocytes. The extract was also tested for its inhibitory action on α- glucosidase and its reducing power. The total phenolic content was evaluated to 108.4 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g. The amount of flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were recorded as 40.1 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g and 60.4 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g respectively. The extract prevented the DNA from damage, after treatment of λ DNA with H 2 O 2 and methanolic extract of amla. The oxidative hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide in rat
The objective of this research is to determine the influence of varying light Abstract: Light is an important environmental factor that have an influence on a plants photosynthesis and production of secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds and flavonoid. Mangifera indica from the family Anacardiaceae is known to have bioactivity due to its phenolic and flavonoid contents. The objective of the study is to determine the influence of light on the photosynthesis and phenolic contents of M. indica. Photosynthesis of the plant was measured using a portable photosynthesis system referred to as LICOR- 6400. Photosynthetic pigments as well as phenolic and flavonoid contents were quantified using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The outcome derived from the study shows that sun exposed leaves of the studied plant were having the maximum photosynthesis, saturation and compensation points (P < 0.05). Moreover, sun exposed leaves were having higher carotenoid, phenolic and flavonoid contents but lower chlorophyll contents. This leads to a conclusion that sun leaves of M. indica contribute the highest photosynthesis and phenolic contents to the plant.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics (proximate composition, dietary fiber, total phenolic, and flavonoid contents; and antioxidant activity) of geluring prepared from the mixture of Gelidium sp. and U. lactuca. Three types of geluring were studied [P1 (unseasoned), P2 (seasoned), and P3 (seasoned and roasted)], and results were compared with those of the raw materials.
Phenolic content expressed as gallic acid equiva- lent ranged from 44.8 mg/kg in acacia honey to 241.4 mg/kg in fir honey (average 83.7 mg/kg) (Bertoncelj et al. 2007). The antioxidant activ- ity was the lowest in the brightest acacia and lime honey kinds and the highest in darker kinds of honey, namely fir, spruce, and forest honey kinds. Flavonoid contents in ether and water fractions, were 2.57 mg and 1.64 mg catechin equivalents in 100 g honey, respectively (Blasa et al. 2007). The comparison of the contents of flavonoids in Ital- ian acacia and millefiori kinds of honey recently revealed that millefiori samples showed the high- est contents of flavonoids and antioxidant activ- ity and also demonstrated that these parameters are dependent upon the honey origin (Blasa et al. 2007). In Burkina Fasan honey, total phenolic content (mg gallic acid equivalents GAE/100 g of honey) varied from 32.59 mg to 114.75 mg with a mean of 74.38 ± 20.54 mg using the standard curve of gallic acid (Meda et al. 2005). The total phe- nolic content varied from 32.59 mg in multifloral
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exhibited strong antioxidant and hepatoprotective activ- ities [60–64] were detected in all plants extracts except Zygophyllum hamiense of which rutin was the pre- dominant flavonoid (10.71 %). The presence of high rutin concentration in Zygophyllum hamiense extract explains its in vitro free radical scavenging activity and possibly it’s in vivo effect on AST level. Anyway, the plant could not be considered as hepatoprotective since ALT level, that is thought to be more specific for hepatic injury , was not significantly improved. Accordingly, the lack of other flavonoids especially quercetrin that pre- sents in the other three plants explains the weak in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Zygophyllum hamiense against CCl 4 intoxication.
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Traditional medicine usages have been on the rise since the 1990s in many developed and developing countries . The reasons for this rise are due to lower costs of herbs as compared to synthetic drugs, the need for alternative treatments for drug-resistant pathogens and increasing popularity for products that are natural and environmental friendly . Organic production is the most likely answer to cultivating herbs for medicinal purposes. It is a production system that takes into consideration the health of soils, ecosystems and people and discourages use of inputs with adverse effects but relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions . Organic farming of tea plantation was reported to help in increasing leaf growth by 23% and also major polyphenols by 38% . Use of organic inputs such as organic and bio- organic fertilizers in production of sweet fennel increased fresh yield (20%), total phenolic contents (45%) and total flavonoid contents (51%) . Different levels of organic nitrogen fertilizers also help in the improvement of biomass yield and nutrient absorption in herbs such as Stevia rebaudiana and Clinacanthus nutans [6,7].
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The results obtained in this study indicate that petroleum ether extract and hydroalcoholic extracts of petroleum ether have a remarkable potency to donate electron to reactive free radicals, converting them into more stable non-reactive species, reduce the oxidized intermediates and act as primary antioxidant substances. From the results presented above, it is evident that the extracts contained phenolic compounds at different levels in the following order: hydroalcoholic > petroleum ether.
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Zinc (Zn) is an important micronutrient essential for plant growth and development. One approach is the use of foliar spraying for increasing plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating Na + and Cl − injury to plants -. So, the objective of the present work was to examine the pattern of accumulation of phenolic contents in re- sponse to Zn-HEDTA foliar spray in two maize cultivars under salt stress, and the roles of these phenolic com- pounds in plant tolerance, because it is known that different antioxidant compounds may act in vivo through dif- ferent mechanisms, in plant stress tolerance.
Seasonal variations effect biosynthesis of antioxidant compounds in Melilotus indicus. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents increase as we go from colder to hotter seasons when plants receive stronger sunlight for a longer duration. Types of polyphenolics also vary with change in ecological conditions as we have noticed variations in their contents in solvents of different polarities. Antioxidant activities and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities of methanolic extracts and their fractions also showed variation with the seasonal change. It is thus advisable that when harvesting the plant for the purpose of isolating antioxidant constituents or using the crude extracts as such seasonal variations should be taken into account.
The flavonoid fraction was analyzed by GC–MS (QP-2010, Shimadzu Co., Kyoto, Japan) equipped with 30- mX 0.25 mm DB-5MS column (Agilent Technologies, J& W Scientific Products, Folsom, CA). The carrier gas was helium. The temperature program was set as follows: 100 °C hold for 5 min, raised at 4 °C/min to 280 °C, and hold for 5 min. The injector and detector temperatures were set at 250 and 280 °C, respectively. The ion source and interface temperatures were set at 200 and 250 °C, correspondingly. The mass range was scanned from 50 to 900 amu. The control of the GC–MS system and the data peak processing were controlled by Shimadzu’s GC–MS solution software, version 2.4. Compound identification was confirmed based on the relative retention time and mass fragmentation pattern spectra with those of standards and the NIST147. LIB. Database of the GC–MS system (Shimadzu).