Phytoplankton Diversity

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The paradox of the plankton: species competition and nutrient feedback sustain phytoplankton diversity

The paradox of the plankton: species competition and nutrient feedback sustain phytoplankton diversity

In our model experiments, the emergence of chaos versus oscillations is very sensitive to whether a nutrient feedback is included. When the feedback is strong, chaotic solutions emerge, but when the feed- back is weak or absent then the solutions switch to oscillations or competitive exclusion. A choice of strong feedback acting to restore nutrients is appro- priate for the way a chemostat operates or for a simple 1-dimensional problem, such as how vertical diffusion acts to supply nutrients down-gradient to the euphotic zone and sustain productivity. However, there is a question as to the extent that the nutrient feedback always holds in the open ocean. The nutri- ent supply to the euphotic zone is affected by a wide range of physical processes, including convection, entrainment at the base of the mixed layer, and hori- zontal and vertical transport by the gyre, eddy and basin scale overturning circulations (Williams & Fol- lows 2003). These processes can either enhance or inhibit biological productivity. For example, wind- driven upwelling induces productive surface waters over subpolar gyres, while wind-driven downwelling induces oligotrophic surface waters over subtropical gyres. These physical processes are unlikely to always provide a nutrient feedback to sustain inter-species driven chaos. There may be some regimes, particu- larly physically isolated cases, when species compe- tition might induce chaos, such as in the deep chloro- phyll maximum in oligotrophic gyres during the summer when there is weak mixing (Huisman et al. 2006). Elsewhere, phytoplankton diversity is proba- bly determined by a combination of inter-species competition and the effects of spatial and temporal variations in physical forcing. For example, phyto- plankton diversity is enhanced in western boundary currents and gyre boundaries by the combination of transport, lateral mixing and dispersal, as shown by Barton et al. (2010) and Follows et al. (2007).
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PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND PHYSICO  CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN KOLAVAI LAKE, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN KOLAVAI LAKE, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

In the present investigation, the physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton diversity of three different sites of Kolavai Lake, a fresh water lake situated in Chengalpet Taluk, Kancheepuram District, Tamilnadu, India. It is vital to observe the physico-chemical features of a water body in relation to the survival and activity of organisms which solemnly depends on the environmental factors of that water body. A detailed plankton analysis observed from three selected study sites showed the presence of phytoplankton belonging to the class Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and
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IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH: BIOMONITORING IN A TROPICAL OXBOW LAKE

IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH: BIOMONITORING IN A TROPICAL OXBOW LAKE

The present investigation on phytoplankton di- versity revealed its phytoplankton spectrum within the specific time period. This study not only pin- pointed the diversity status but also depicted the pollution load of the water body using phytoplank- ton as bio-monitoring tool. As the phytoplankton constitute the basis of the food chain, their study and characterization helps us to understand the details of the nature and type of members of the subsequent trophic levels. Owing to dominance of class Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae we found this lake to be oligotrophic to mesotrophic. Lowest diversity values during monsoon clearly suggested that the selected lake has highest an- thropogenic pollution due to jute retting which impacted significantly on phytoplankton diversity. Therefore, the lake is not conducive for fish growth especially during monsoon and we opine that there is a need to regulate and prevent jute retting pro- cess, intensity and its density in the lake during the monsoon to ensure enhanced biodiversity for sus- tainable management and conservation of aquatic environment of this Oxbow lake.
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Phytoplankton diversity of pagara reservoir of morena district,  Madhya Pradesh

Phytoplankton diversity of pagara reservoir of morena district, Madhya Pradesh

A study was carried out to assess the phytoplankton diversity of Pagara reservoir of district Morena of Madhya Pradesh from June 2016 to May 2017. During the study period total 20 species, belonging to six families, were identified. Out of these 9 species belonged to Chlorophyceae, 3 species belonged Bacillariophyceae, 3 species to Myxophyceae,, 2 species to Euglenophyceae and 1 species to Dinophyceae. Chlorophyceae was the most dominant family with 9 species and Dinophyceae was the least dominant family during the study period.

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Assessment of phytoplankton diversity and physico chemical parameters in Chikkakere, Periyapatna, Mysore, Karnataka State, India

Assessment of phytoplankton diversity and physico chemical parameters in Chikkakere, Periyapatna, Mysore, Karnataka State, India

Based on the above study, during summer season water quality of chikkakere becomes heavily polluted due to the lowering of water level and increase in organic load. Higher values of both physical and chemical parameters like pH, EC, Salinity, turbidity and total hardness, calcium, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, BOD, COD respectively leads to eutrophication in the lake. The Phytoplankton diversity helps in assessing the water quality of the lake. The diversity of phytoplankton is affected by these physico- chemical parameters. From the biodiversity indices it is clear that the Phytoplankton diversity is not evenly distributed in the lake which indicates the pollution status of the water body. From both physico- chemical and phytoplankton diversity it can be concluded that the water quality of the lake is very poor and it is unfit for drinking purpose. The domestic, agricultural, anthropogenic activities and sewage contamination reduces the water quality and disturb the lake ecosystem.
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Periodical Assessment of Phytoplankton Diversity in Navalgund Lentic water body of Dharwad District in Karnataka, India

Periodical Assessment of Phytoplankton Diversity in Navalgund Lentic water body of Dharwad District in Karnataka, India

Lentic water bodies are valuable water systems and intensively used for drinking, for fisheries and recreation. Since the time immemorial man has been settling around rivers and lakes and in later period, migrating human populations have had dug water bodies to nurture all life forms (Guru and Goswami, 2011). The quality of water is very important for any other aquatic ecosystems because any change in water directly or indirectly affects the biotic environment (Mary Kensa and Jeyakavitha, 2012). The aquatic plants and animals bring about changes in the chemical composition of water. Life in aquatic environment is always governed by physico-chemical characteristics (Kumawat and Jawale 2003; Panigrahi et al., 2005) and their stability. In all aquatic ecosystems Phytoplankton are the principal primary producers of the food chain. Phytoplankton, which include blue-green algae, green algae, diatoms, desmids, euglenoids etc, are important among aquatic flora. They are ecologically significant as, they form the basic link in the food chain of all aquatic floras (Ravikumar et al., 2006). Therefore, conservation of water bodies with basic biological output is the major challenge before biologists and the environmentalists (Senapati et al., 2011; Hosmani, 2012; Jaiswal, 2013) in most Asian countries. These water bodies became polluted by the discharge of sewage, agricultural runoff, bathing animals, washing clothes and vehicles. The phytoplankton diversity in lentic water body of Arekurahatti in Navalgund taluk of Dharwad district has not been studied till today. Therefore in the present study phytoplankton diversity in relation to Physico-chemical parameters of Arekurahatti Lake has been under taken.
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ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION ON WATER QUALITY AND PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY IN CANAL SYSTEM OF RIVER GANGA

ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION ON WATER QUALITY AND PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY IN CANAL SYSTEM OF RIVER GANGA

Seasonal distribution of phytoplankton ecology and nutrient status of water were studied in River Ganga of Haridwar for a period of one year covering three seasons at two sites, Site 1(Bhimgoda Barrage – Control Site) and Site 2 is Bahadrabad. Maximum population density was observed in the summer season followed by winters and monsoon showing the increase in pollution load in Ganga Canal due to major anthropogenic activities in summers. Higher phytoplankton populations were encountered in Site 2 is Bahadrabad which corresponded to the fluctuation of existing turbidity, dissolved oxygen and better organic load. Numbers of species were identified but 3 dominant groups were identified viz., Diatoms, Green algae and Blue green algae. Six species such as Diatoma, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Amphora, Cymbella and Achnanthes belonging to Diatoms group were recorded maximum during the study period. Higher concentration of phytoplankton diversity at Site 2 indicates polluted nature of river water and can be used as an indicator of organic pollution in the river.
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The role of phytoplankton diversity in the emergent oceanic stoichiometry

The role of phytoplankton diversity in the emergent oceanic stoichiometry

possibilities are grouped into functional groups attending to the distinct role of each of these groups in the biogeochemical cycles ((Follows & Dutkiewicz 2011, Litchman et al. 2006, Moore et al. 2002, Quéré et al. 2005); Fig. 2B). Thus, phytoplankton diversity can be represented by using a small number of functional groups with some common basic physiological features, which differ in specific abilities such as being motile and/or mixotrophs (dinoflagellates), silica sequestration (diatoms), or nitrogen fixation (diazotrophic cyanobacteria). All these functional groups share the same basic terms in their respective dynamic equations, but also have additional group-specific terms that capture the distinct strategies of each group. Still, these functional-group models omit much diversity and neglect the fact that, while they differ in mean traits, these groups often have overlapping trait distributions (Edwards et al. 2012, Edwards et al. 2015).
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Qualitative pattern of phytoplankton diversity in two lakes of Udupi district, Karnataka, India

Qualitative pattern of phytoplankton diversity in two lakes of Udupi district, Karnataka, India

Phytoplankton diversity is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for irrigation and drinking purposes. Phytoplankton composition of Chantaru lake, Brahmavara and Manipalla lake, e 2013 to May 2014 (see Fig.1).The physicochemical parameters of water such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, water pH, biological oxygen demand, nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates ware observed and their ranges 5.61 µg/l, 21.3–36.5 µg/l, 0.12–4.91 µg/l and 5.24 µg/l. During the period of investigation 33 species of phytoplankton representing five taxonomic groups such as Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyceae. The Chlorophyceae is dominant than all other forms.
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Obtaining Phytoplankton Diversity from Ocean Color: A Scientific Roadmap for Future Development

Obtaining Phytoplankton Diversity from Ocean Color: A Scientific Roadmap for Future Development

on smaller spatial scales than larger scales, especially around continental shelves (Hirata et al., 2013). However, PG satellite products retrieved are necessary especially for coastal areas and inland waters where water quality and HABs issues are most urgent. In these optically complex waters, optical constituents vary independently making ocean color retrievals challenging. In extremely high colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and low scattering waters, CDOM absorption dominates the whole visible spectrum resulting in very low water-leaving reflectance (<1%) and thus, the phytoplankton signal itself is weak. By contrast, the main problems in highly scattering waters are the masking of pigment absorption by non-algal (mineral) particle absorption and significant near infrared water reflectance (IOCCG, 2000). Successful results in these types of water are hampered by limited spatial and spectral resolution of sensors. This already makes it difficult to achieve accurate atmospheric correction and obtain reliable ocean color standard products. It also inhibits the observation of the patchy distribution of phytoplankton communities. To derive certain PT beyond size- and/or pigment-based discrimination of phytoplankton requires developing empirical methods that rely on covariation: Via the exploitation of additional data (light, temperature, nutrients, ...), retrievals and optical modeling for specific regions could be further constrained (and optimized), as for example in the study by Brewin et al. (2015) where information on ambient light field extracted from satellite information was combined with an abundance based PSC approach.
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ESTIMATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY WITH PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF HUKAL RIVER, KODINAR GUJARAT, INDIA

ESTIMATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY WITH PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF HUKAL RIVER, KODINAR GUJARAT, INDIA

Collected 1 liter river water sample from two collection site with Plankton net (0.20 microne). After collection of river water samples it’s transferred as soon as possible to laboratory for Analysis. Add 4% formalin solution and stay it for 48 hrs, after incubation time period drop count Method is used for identified plankton diversity.

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Hydrobiology Aspects Related On Phytoplankton Diversity Of Uppanar River, Cuddalore Coast (Southeast Coast Of India)

Hydrobiology Aspects Related On Phytoplankton Diversity Of Uppanar River, Cuddalore Coast (Southeast Coast Of India)

The recorded low primary productivity during monsoon could be related to the wash of the phytoplankton to the neritic region by the monsoonal flood besides reduction of salinity, which could have affected the phytoplankton population (Rajasegar et al., 2000). The similar finds also reported by Santhosh Kumar and Ashok Prabu, 2014 and Ramesh et al., 2017. The reactive silicate content was comparatively higher than the NO 3, NO 2, and PO 4 . Seasonal variations dissolved

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Effect of water quality on the sustainability of phytoplankton diversity in the lake ecosystem of navalgund in dharwad district,  karnataka - india

Effect of water quality on the sustainability of phytoplankton diversity in the lake ecosystem of navalgund in dharwad district, karnataka - india

The surface water samples from the Arekurahatti lake of Navalgund taluk were collected seasonally for a period of one year from May 2012 to April 2013. Pre-cleaned polyethylene carbonyl cans of the capacity of one liter were employed for this purpose with utmost care. Air and water temperatures and pH were observed on spot and also in the laboratory. For the estimation of dissolved oxygen and BOD determination water samples were collected separately in 350 ml BOD bottles. For further analysis, samples were brought to laboratory and analyzed other parameters using standard procedures (APHA, 1995). From the collected sample of lentic water body, sedimentation was made in acid Lugol’s solution and the supernatant was discarded. The phytoplankton sediment was concentrated to 30 ml by centrifugation.
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STUDY ON PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE THREE EPHEMERAL STREAMS OF LAKHIMPUR DISTRICT OF ASSAM, INDIA

STUDY ON PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE THREE EPHEMERAL STREAMS OF LAKHIMPUR DISTRICT OF ASSAM, INDIA

Species diversity is a measure of the diversity within an ecological community that incorporates both species richness and the evenness of species abundances. In the present study, Shannon diversity index ranges 2.1-2.44. This reveals that the three ephemeral streams are moderately polluted [22], the value of Simpson’s index ranges 0.86-0.94, which indicates nearly satisfactory diversity status [23]. The value of Margalef index ranges 2.51- 2.83 and clearly indicate moderate to clean condition of the studied streams [24]. The value of McIntosh diversity index ranges 0.76-0.88, which fairly indicates that the individuals under phytoplankton community are not homogeneously distributed [14].
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Study of the Effect of Himreen Dam on the Phytoplankton Diversity in Dyala River, Iraq

Study of the Effect of Himreen Dam on the Phytoplankton Diversity in Dyala River, Iraq

Quantitative Counts showed clear seasonal variation in phytoplankton cell numbers with maxima during spring and early autumn. This phenomenon was observed by other authors in Iraq such as [25], in Himreen lake, [6] in Qadisia Lake and [26] in Habbaniya Lake. This increas- ing may be caused by light intensity and the long photo period [27], raising of temperature, decomposition of organic matter and the assemblage of nutrients material that are important for these organisms [28]. Impound- ment may influence the plankton population of a body of water in a number of ways. Reduction of the rate of flow of a stream will allow the sparse plankton already present to multiply before it is swept away. Often a large plank- ton population develops when the reservoir is filling and there is little outflow [29] Even after the reservoir is full and outflow becomes substantial, a fairly large plankton population may persist. Various authors have attempted to difine the conditions of flow under which the trans- formation of a stream ecosystem to a lake ecosystem may occur [30]. Russian scientists [31] suggest simpler crite- ria; in Russian reservoirs a lacustrine plankton population develops if the rate of the flow is less than 0.2 m·sec −1 . It
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The paradox of the plankton: species competition and nutrient feedback sustain phytoplankton diversity

The paradox of the plankton: species competition and nutrient feedback sustain phytoplankton diversity

In summary, the chaotic nature for the abundance of the phytoplankton species is reliant on there being a feedback to the nutrient concentration: an absence or too weak a feedback leads [r]

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Impact of ocean phytoplankton diversity on phosphate uptake

Impact of ocean phytoplankton diversity on phosphate uptake

phytoplankton groups. The lines represent the best fit of a hyperbolic curve. Each row represents the whole community or specific population and each column represents a discrete station as listed in Table S1 and noted at the top of the panels. In panels B, F, I, and M, data from both October and March are shown as denoted in the legend in panel F. Panels C, G, J, and N show samples from 39N taken approximately one year apart. 390

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Seasonal variation in the water quality of upper lake with respect to its phytoplankton diversity

Seasonal variation in the water quality of upper lake with respect to its phytoplankton diversity

Abstract - Water is a transparent fluid which forms the worlds streams, lakes, oceans and rain ,and is the major constituent of the fluids of living things. The upper lake is a major source of portable water for the city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. The study of phytoplankton gives the number of kinds and occurrence of phytoplankton in a habitat. The studies physico-chemical analysis of the Bhopal city was carried out from December 2012 to April-2013. It has been concluded that Bhopal Lake is highly eutrophic and biologically ‘dead’ in term of its un ability to provide the aesthetic pleasures of swimming, boating, fishing and the effluent of fertilizer industrial due to luxuriant growth of micro and macro flora and fauna.
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Studies on phytoplankton population and species diversity in three wetlands of coimbatore, tamil nadu, India

Studies on phytoplankton population and species diversity in three wetlands of coimbatore, tamil nadu, India

The present study concerns monthly variations of phytoplankton species composition, population density, species diversity during September 2012 to March 2013 in Ukkadam, Kuruchi and The total of 20 (Ukkadam Lake), 34 (Kuruchi Lake) and 26 genera (Siganallur Lake) were identified under phytoplankton diversity in studied three ecies composition of Chlorophyceae (15 species), Bacillariophyceae (12 species) and Euglenophyceae (6 species) were recorded at Kuruchi Lake. When compared genera wise, Euglenophyceae group were rarely found in both Ukkadam Lake and the study period, it was indicated that these lakes were polluted by organic components. The present baseline information of the phytoplankton distribution and abundance would form a useful tool for further ecological assessment and monitoring of these lakes of
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DIVERSITY OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN COASTAL WATER OF KUANTAN, PAHANG, MALAYSIA

DIVERSITY OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN COASTAL WATER OF KUANTAN, PAHANG, MALAYSIA

Seventy taxa of phytoplankton were identified belonging mainly to diatom with 63 genera and followed by dinoflagellates with 7 genera (Figures 2-6). There are several studies on phytoplankton diversity and abundance had been conducted in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Study by Boonyapiwat [6] in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia and Gulf of Thailand has recorded 260 taxa with 55 genera of diatoms, 30 genera of dinoflagellates and two genera of blue green algae. In coastal area of Cukai, Terengganu, Shamsudin [7] had reported eight genera of dinoflagellates, four genera of blue green algae and seven genera of diatoms. While study done by Salleh and Ruslan [3] in the coastal area of Bachok Kelantan has recorded 20 genera of phytoplankton.
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