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EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF PIPER BETEL LEAVES AGAINST SOME COMMON PATHOGENS

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF PIPER BETEL LEAVES AGAINST SOME COMMON PATHOGENS

The Piper betel leaves were tested for antimicrobial activity. The extract of dried leaves were prepared in ethanol, methanol and tested against some common pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All the pathogens were found susceptible to extract in both solvents. The diameter of zone of inhibition for ethanol extract was greater than the methanol extract. The MIC value was calculated for each pathogen for both extracts and found that MIC value for ethanol and methanol extract was similar for all pathogen except for E.coli. The extracts were more potent against Staphylococcus aureus, with MIC value of 31.25 μg/ml.
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ASPECTS ON THE ANTIFERTILITY PROPERTY OF PIPER BETEL LINN  LEAF STALK EXTRACT: EFFECT ON GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS AND CAUDA EPIDIDYMAL SPERM PARAMETERS

ASPECTS ON THE ANTIFERTILITY PROPERTY OF PIPER BETEL LINN LEAF STALK EXTRACT: EFFECT ON GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS AND CAUDA EPIDIDYMAL SPERM PARAMETERS

Sperm Analysis is used to determine Motility: movement of the sperm (swimming ability), Morphology: percentage of sperm that have a normal shape, Count: the number of individual sperm present in one ejaculation, Vitality: sperm’s ability to live and endure. The assessment of traditional semen analysis has been the object to obtain a clear indication of fertilization potential [6]. Hence in the present study, the sperm analysis in terms of sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm viability were undertaken in both control and experimental rats. The results revealed that the Piper betel leaf stalk extract causes a significant reduction in sperm count, sperm motility as well as sperm viability over control, supported by earlier reports [7, 8, 9, 10]. The sperm count reduction was severe.The analysis of caudal epididymal fluids revealed a concomitant decrease in the sperm concentration which may be due to the inhibition in spermatogenesis, which has been reflected here by the low count. Another possibility of low sperm concentration by the extract administration may be due to oxidative stress [11, 12]. This may be as a result of the ability of the extract at the given dose, to either interfere with spermatogenesis process in the seminiferous tubules, epididymis functions or activities of testosterone on hypothalamic release factor and anterior pituitary secretion of gonadotropins which may result in alteration of spermatogenesis [13] may leads to oligospermia [5].
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IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL

The betel plant originated from South and South East Asia (India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka). In India, Burma, Nepal, Sri Lanka and other parts of South Asia, as well as Southeast Asia, the leaves of Piper betel are chewed together in a wrapped package along with the areca nut (also called as betel nut) and mineral slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). The areca nut contains alkaloid arecoline, which promotes salivation (the saliva stained red), and is itself a stimulant. This combination, known as a “betel quid”, has been used for several thousand years.
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Phytochemical Screening, Biochemical Estimations and Spectroscopic analysis of Various Extracts of Piper betel Leaves

Phytochemical Screening, Biochemical Estimations and Spectroscopic analysis of Various Extracts of Piper betel Leaves

cuts and injuries etc 1 . Piper betel leaves contains various biologically active compounds which are responsible for antioxidant activity 2 . The leaves have an essential oil composing of terpene-4-ol, safrole, allyl pyrocatehalmonob acetate, eugenol acetate hydroxyl chavicol, eugenol.Piper beteloil contains cadinene carvacrol, chavicol, P- cymene, caryophyllene, chavibetol, cineole and estragol as the major components 3,4 . Antioxidant compounds can donate electrons to reactive radicals, reducing them into more stable and unreactive species. Free radicals have been claimed to play a vital role in affecting human health by causing several diseases including cancer, hypertension, heart attack and diabetes. Dietary intake of phenolic compounds correlates with reduced coronary heart disease, cancer mortality and protective in many health-related properties, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities 5,6 . Phenolics present in fruits and vegetables have received considerable attention because of their potential antioxidant activities 7,8 .
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DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ORAL FILM OF HERBAL EXTRACTS OF PIPER BETEL AND FOENICULUM OFFICINALIS

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ORAL FILM OF HERBAL EXTRACTS OF PIPER BETEL AND FOENICULUM OFFICINALIS

Oral dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules, etc. This work investigates the possibility of developing Piper betel and Foeniculum officinalis oral dissolving films allowing fast, reproducible dissolution in oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. The oral dissolving films were prepared by solvent-casting method. HPMC for the formulation of the films is suitable polymer and plasticizers are selected. The films were subjected to physical investigations such as uniformity of weight, folding endurance, surface pH. Also evaluation of the films is done by using parameter like thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, percentage of moisture content, drug content analysis, disintegration time and in-vitro dissolution studies. The obtained results for prepared herbal films disintegrate within 1 minute. The formulation F-3 resulted into excellent palatability along with least disintegrating time and found to be stable when compared with other formulations. So, it was concluded that formulation F-3 is the best film forming as well as stable polymer with respect to Piper betel and Foeniculum officinalis oral dissolving film.
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HORMONAL CHANGES IN PIPER BETEL LINN  LEAF STALK EXTRACT ADMINISTERED MALE ALBINO RATS

HORMONAL CHANGES IN PIPER BETEL LINN LEAF STALK EXTRACT ADMINISTERED MALE ALBINO RATS

The betel leaf (Tambula patrabrint) is extensively cultivated in warm moist parts of India for its leaves; the antifertility properties of the betel plant were studied in both male and female rats [1]. It was suggested that the contraceptive effect of the extract of leaf stalk of piper betel Linn is mainly on the maturation process of spermatozoa in epididymis without influencing hysteric hormonal profiles. Withdrawal of the extract restored all altered parameters including organ weights and fertility after 60 days [2]. Several studies affirm the undisputable role of plant products in impairing testicular steroidogenesis [3&4]. In males, LH plays a role in reproductive function by modulating testicular Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis. Testosterone secreted by Leydig cells, in turn promotes male sexual differentiation, pubertal androgenization, and fertility. In the testis, functional LH receptors are expressed in Leydig cells during fetal development, transiently in early postnatal life, and
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A smart spproach for delivering of nanosized olanzapine using piper betel biopolymer rate controlling flexi films for transvermillion delivery

A smart spproach for delivering of nanosized olanzapine using piper betel biopolymer rate controlling flexi films for transvermillion delivery

In the present study, the bioflexi films based on the piper betel biopolymer were developed and analysed for the drug release over the required period of time (48 h). Biopolymer isolated from leaves of piper betel used in preparation of nanosize olanzapine loaded bioflexi films which act as an efficient carrier for delivery of olanzapine at a controlled rate. It may significantly improve the ability to cross blood-brain barrier and act as an effective tool to treat psychosis. Also, this natural biopolymer is capable of serving as a promising excipient for the systemic delivery of drugs through the translabial route or other transdermal route. Acknowledgement
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Effect of Piper betel leaf extract on learning and memory in Aluminium chloride induced Alzheimer’s disease in Wistar rats

Effect of Piper betel leaf extract on learning and memory in Aluminium chloride induced Alzheimer’s disease in Wistar rats

The leaves were obtained from the local market in Udupi. The leaf was authenticatedby Dr M. S. Joishni Kumble, Department of Botany, Canara College, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India. A voucher specimen (CC/Cert./2017-2018) has been deposited in the herbarium of the Canara College, Mangaluru University, Karnataka, India under the license No.CC-Jan/2018/01.The 100g of Piper betel leaves was grounded with 150ml of distilled water in a grinder and kept at 4ºC for 24 hours. The extract is filtered under vacuum and used for this study.

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Evaluation of Antiulcerogenic Potential of Piper Betel Leaves Extract as an Adjuvant Therapy with Omeprazole Against Stress Ulcers in Rats

Evaluation of Antiulcerogenic Potential of Piper Betel Leaves Extract as an Adjuvant Therapy with Omeprazole Against Stress Ulcers in Rats

In our study, the dose of 15 mg/kg of omeprazole along with 200 mg/kg of Piper betel leaves extract showed similar antiulcerogenic level of significance as those produced by omeprazole 20 mg/kg alone. These results support our hypothesis of adjuvant role of Piper betel leaves extract with omeprazole for its ulcer protective activity. Accordingly, the protective action of Piper betel leaves extract against stress induced ulceration could be due to its histamine antagonistic and free radical scavenging effects, suggesting its ability to inhibit the gastric prostaglandin depletion and/or decrease of the acid secretion in the mucosa.
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Evalution of Antihistaminic Activity of Leaves of Piper Betel Linn.

Evalution of Antihistaminic Activity of Leaves of Piper Betel Linn.

The selected plant of Piper betel have multiple therapeutic activities like antibacterial, treating eczema, lymphangitis, to cure cough, cold, pruritis, asthma, treating rheumatism. Among these diseases some diseases are related to histaminic activity of the body. Even though the selected plant Piper betel is effective in histamine activity related diseases, antihistaminic activity of Piper betel is still not scientifically investigated 4,5 .

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Neuropharmacological Profile of Piper Betel Leaves Extract in Mice

Neuropharmacological Profile of Piper Betel Leaves Extract in Mice

Piper betel is claimed to be useful to improve learning and memory, in Indian traditional system of medicine yet not documented scientifically in this regard (7). Despite extensive research, the neurological basis of learning and memory remains controversial (30). Moreover, existence of cognitive problem in various neurological illnesses like Alzheimer’s disease, depression, convulsions, etc is well known (31, 32). The modern therapy employed to treat these disorders further may result in cognitive impairments (33).

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 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF VAGINAL DOUCHE MADE FROM ROBUSTA COFFEE (Coffea canephora L.) EXTRACT AND BETEL LEAF (Piper betel Linn.) AGAINST Candida albicans FUNGUS GROWTH

 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF VAGINAL DOUCHE MADE FROM ROBUSTA COFFEE (Coffea canephora L.) EXTRACT AND BETEL LEAF (Piper betel Linn.) AGAINST Candida albicans FUNGUS GROWTH

Fluor albus is a problem that is very troubling for women. Abnormal fluor albus is characterized by a large amount of fluid, white in color such as stale milk, yellow or greenish, itchy, sore and accompanied by a fishy or rotten odor. The robusta coffee bean and betel leaf are plants that have been trusted their efficacy as anti-fluor albus. These plants have ability to inhibit Candida albicans growth. This study aims to determine the best formula of vaginal douche made from robusta bean extract and betel leaf. The method used in this research was dilution agar for MIC and diffusion of disc paper for LDH against formula 0 (base), formula 1 (Robusta extract 0.7%), formula 2 (betel extract 8%), formula 3 (combination 10%), formula 4 (combination 15%), formula 5 (combination 20%) and vaginal douche in the market as a positive control. The results showed that MIC in robusta extract was at concentrations of 0.5% and for betel leaf extract was at 0.6%. Whereas LDH results in formula 2 single betel leaf extract (8 gr / 100 ml) and formula 5 combination vaginal douche 20% (robusta 0.14 gr / 100 ml and betel leaf 1.6 gr / 100 ml) is the best vaginal douche formula as an antifungal of Candida albicans. Besides, this combination is better than the positive control of vaginal douche in the market.
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Title:  A SCIENTIFIC REVIEW ON COMMON CHEWING PLANT OF ASIANS: PIPER BETLE LINN. Author:  Rahul Shukla*, Sandeep Sachan, Ashutosh Mishra, Sankul Kumar Keyword:  Creeper, laxative, appetizer and aphrodisiac.Page No:  01-10Abstract:   Pan consists of leaf o

Title: A SCIENTIFIC REVIEW ON COMMON CHEWING PLANT OF ASIANS: PIPER BETLE LINN. Author: Rahul Shukla*, Sandeep Sachan, Ashutosh Mishra, Sankul Kumar Keyword: Creeper, laxative, appetizer and aphrodisiac.Page No: 01-10Abstract: Pan consists of leaf of Piper betle Linn. (Family; Piperaceae); a dioecious, perinnial creeper, climbing by many short adventitious rootlets, widely cultivated in hotter and damper parts of the count ry. The plant is prescribed in the ancient Ayurvedic literature as a general tonic and voice, laxative, appetizer, beside this they pacify vata and aggravate pitta. In addition to these, the aphrodisiac effect of betel chewing has been indicated in ancient texts. The scrutiny of present overview revealed pharmacognostical, phytochemical and some notable pharmacological activities of the plant. Keyword: Creeper, laxative, appetizer and aphrodisiac.Download PDF

Yang NY, Kaphle K, Wang PH, Jong DS, Wul S, Lin JH(2004) have explored the potential Steroidogenic activity of hot water extract from betel quid and its constituents arecoline on testosterone producing ability in an experiment conducted in vitro. Enzyme dissociate interstitial cells which was taken from adult mouse testes (ICR strain) were cultured with/without different doses of the extracts and the level of testosterone produced was estimated by an enzyme immunoassay technique. It was found that of lower doses of arecoline, areca catechu linn and Piper betel linn. extract have significantly stimulated testosterone production over the basal level 30 .
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Comparative study of betel leaf extract against standard antibiotics  against bacteria causing dental caries

Comparative study of betel leaf extract against standard antibiotics against bacteria causing dental caries

Piper betel L. (Piperaceae) leaf is widely used as a mouth freshener after meal. Betel leaf has been described from ancient times as an aromatic, stimulo-carminative, astringent and aphrodisiac. [4] Betel leaf is traditionally known to be useful for the treatment of various diseases like bad breath, boils and abscesses, conjunctivitis, constipation, headache, itches, mastitis, mastoiditis, leucorrhoea, otorrhoea, swelling of gum, rheumatism, cuts and injuries. [5] The leaf has a significant antimicrobial activity against broad spectrum of micro-
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A REVIEW ON BETEL LEAF (PAN)

A REVIEW ON BETEL LEAF (PAN)

Antifungal activity: Ali et al., (2010) have shown that the Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betel L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 μg/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 μg/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 μg/ml for dermatophytes whereas the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 × MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 × MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 × to 8 × MIC concentration. Their conclusion was that antifungal activity exhibited by this compound can be used as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida infections 26 .
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Effect of plant extracts formulated in different ointment bases on MDR strains

Effect of plant extracts formulated in different ointment bases on MDR strains

Kashele Forest Academy, Karjat, India. They were authenticated by the Department of botany, Smt. CHM College for the identification of the plant species before employing them for the study. The plants collected were whole plant of Aloe vera, Eucalyptus globulus (Nilgiri) leaves, Ficus infectoria (Pakar) bark, Ficus religiosa (Pipal) bark, and Piper betel (Betel) leaves. The extracts were prepared with ethyl alcohol of analytical grade and distilled water for aqueous extract preparation.

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Antifungal Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extract on Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtthe Causal Agent of Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato

Antifungal Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extract on Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtthe Causal Agent of Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato

From the investigation, it was observed that leaf extract of Piper betel in ethanol and acetone at 20% concen- trations effectively suppressed the mycelial growth of the F. oxysporum. Inhibition observed by P. betel may be due to the presence of the essential oils which contained phenolic compounds [16] [17]. There have been reports on the antifungal activities of P. betle [18]. Singha et al. [11] reported the control of fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum using chloroform extract of P. betle leaf. They observed that it was efficient in reducing Fusarium population in soil than carbendazim. These facts suggested that betel leaf extracts exhibit significant fungicidal properties that inhibit the mycelia growth of Fusarium strain.
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 EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF IKMO (PIPER BETLE LINN.) ON THE THYROXINE LEVEL OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO INFERTILITY AND HYPERPROLACTINEMIA

 EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF IKMO (PIPER BETLE LINN.) ON THE THYROXINE LEVEL OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO INFERTILITY AND HYPERPROLACTINEMIA

Because of this, the researchers conducted this study to determine the negative effects of piper betel as an alternative contraceptive. Specifically, it aims to determine if there is an alteration in the level of free thyroxine, that is one of the determinants of hypothyroidism, in non-breastfeeding rats. This study will be helpful to people who practice betel quid chewing especially to women and in the advancement of the use plants in population control. In addition, the study will be of helpful information to individuals who use Piper betle as a natural contraceptive. This study will not include the determination of the level of the hormone estrogen, prolactin, TSH and T3 of female rats.
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Study on the Improvement of Essential Oil Quality and Its Repellent Activity of Betel Leaves Oil (Piper betle l.) from Indonesia

Study on the Improvement of Essential Oil Quality and Its Repellent Activity of Betel Leaves Oil (Piper betle l.) from Indonesia

were introduced to the sample of betel leaves oil and aroma standard. Judges were asked to describe the perceived sensations regarding the quality, intensity, and time in the odor sample. During two preliminary orientation sessions of 60 min. panelists discussed the main odor characteristics of the betel leaves oil and agreed on their use of odor attributes. During these orientation experiments, panelists evaluated different coded samples of betel leaves oil from Bogor, Boyolali, and Makassar. The group leader of panelist served to summarize, resolve confusion, and bring the group to consensus on the final terms to be used. All panelists agreed that the odour of the samples could be described using seven attributes: eugenol (spicy, sweet clove and woody; reference: 100% eugenol = 10), isoeugenol (spicy, sweet, carnation, phenolic and floral; reference: 100% isoeugenol = 10), clove bud oil (warm, sweet clove, fruity and woody; reference: 100% clove bud oil = 10), chavicol (phenolic and medicinal herbal; reference: 100% chavicol = 10), hexanal (green, aromatics associated with newly cut-grass and leafy plants; reference: hexanal in propylene glycol, 10 g/L = 6), 2,3-dimethyl benzofuran (tar-like, phenolic, smoky tobacco, slightly pungent with a hint black licorice drops, leather, cade oil, smoky and bacon meaty; reference: 2,3-dimethyl benzofuran in propylene glycol, 10 g/L = 6), and patchouli oil (woody old, wood, dry, earthy and weedy balsamic, spicy, and minty; reference: 100% patchouli oil = 10). Reference products of these attributes with different intensity were prepared and provided to the panel. Individual booths with controlled illumination and temperature were used in this study. Three digit numbers were used to code samples, and they were randomly offered to panelists in glass beakers of 10 mL with lids; samples were left 15 min. at room temperature before analyses. The intensity of the seven odor attributes was scored using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 = none or not perceptible intensity, and 10 = extremely high intensity 17-19 .
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Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

Betel quid is chewed in the oral cavity where it remains for some time, releasing its water-soluble components into the oral environment. Thus, a temperature of 37°C was set for the extraction using aqueous medium to emulate the condition in the oral cavity. In the DPPH and FRAP assays, it was shown that the gambir, one of the ingredients of betel quid exhibited a marginally bet- ter antioxidant activity than the areca nut. In addition, the DPPH scavenging activity of gambir is almost similar with ascorbic acid, indicating its powerful free radical scavenger. DPPH assay measures the ability of the extract to donate hydrogen to the DPPH radical resulting in bleaching of the DPPH solution. The greater the bleaching action, the higher is the antioxidant activity. The DPPH
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