However, min, max, and range also have a second predictive power: they are able to show the distribution’s kurtosis or distribution density: whether the distribution is highly concentrated with a sharp central peak—leptokurtotic—such as the example in the prior paragraph or very weakly concentrated with a small, flattish central mound—platykurtotic. When examining a placement test for its functionality, extreme forms of kurtosis (i.e., leptokurtosis and platykurtosis) are thought to demonstrate that a placement exam is not distributing scores well. If a distribution is leptokurtotic the test does not seem to be widely and clearly separating test takers. This is an indication that test takers are quite close in ability to each other and that there is a problem with the test’s difficulty at the higher and lower ability levels (i.e., they are respectively too difficult and too easy). On the other hand, if a distribution is highly platykurtotic, then this might indicate that there may be too few data points in the data set, forming a diluted distribution with a smallish center, or that the match between the population and the test be reconsidered.
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Table 2 presents the descriptive statistics for the Reading, Writing, and Pre-algebra COMPASS placement test scores for taking any online course during the student’s first semester. As Table 2 shows, the Overall mean was 84.56 for Reading, 71.89 for Writing, and 45.81 for Pre-algebra. The mean of the successful student was higher than the total mean and the mean of the unsuccessful student was lower than the total mean. The Overall standard deviations were 11.297 for Reading, 25.532 for Writing, and 25.373 for Pre-algebra. The standard deviations for the successful student were lower than the standard deviation for the unsuccessful student with the exception of Pre-algebra. In the case of Pre-algebra, the unsuccessful standard deviation was lower than the total standard deviation and the standard deviation for the successful student was higher than the total standard deviation. The means and standard deviations for Females and Males followed a similar trend. The means and standard deviations for each group did not change when including the Credit and Age variables.
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in appropriate level groups. At schools placement tests are usually administered at the start of a school year. The most popular tests administered in school education are progress and achievement tests. Progress tests are given at various stages throughout a language course to see what and how much the learners have learnt. Achievement tests serve the same function, but are usually given at the end of the course. The content of both tests is based on the material covered during the course and/or the textbook. The aim of proficiency tests is to assess whether the students have reached a given level of FL competence and how well they can function in certain areas which require the use of a foreign language. To conclude, “achievement assessment is oriented to the course. It represents an internal perspective. Proficiency assessment on the other hand is assessment of what someone can do/knows in relation to the application of the subject in the real world. It represents an external perspective” (Common European Framework of Reference 2001: 183). In school conditions, foreign language teachers are more interested in achievement assessment because it is the type of test that can provide them with feedback about their teaching. Proficiency tests are administered in the form of external exams, the example of which are the junior secondary school leaving exam and the senior secondary school leaving exam, called in Polish “matura”. The last type of test to be discussed in this section is a diagnostic test. Its aim is to identify those areas in which students need help. Since constructing this type of test requires specialized skills on the part of the teacher, very often achievement and proficiency tests are used for this purpose.
A sample of 70 lower-intermediate and upper-intermediate EFL learners were selected based on the results of the Oxford Quick Placement Test (2001). The participants were male and female high school students whose ages ranged from 17 to 25 years. They had a background of studying English in an evening language institute in Iran for about 4 years, in addition to their normal mainstream English education at junior and senior high school levels. Normally, there is no systematic emphasis on writing skill in Iranian English programs at institutes. However, the learners are typically required to hand in at least 4 writings during each semester. The rationale behind selecting this sample was the nature of the study which required participants with a good mental lexicon (i.e. the ability to use different words in context) and, of course, a reasonably good command of English writing.
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This study examines the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and the teaching methods used by EFL teachers in their classrooms. Towards this goal, a standard proficiency test, the Oxford Placement Test (Allan, 1985) and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning ( SILL , Oxford, 1986-1990) were administered to 120 intermediate and advanced learners from two institutes in Shiraz that teach their students audio-lingually and communicatively. The results revealed that the order of the application of the strategies among the audio-lingual group ( AL ) and the communicative group ( CA ) was the same, excluding memory and affective strategies. Furthermore, comparing the means of the strategies employed by the two groups showed some inter-group variations among the students’ use of these strategies. Implications and conclusions were included.
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First of all, researcher insured about homogeneity of learners by considering placement test of the institute which was based on Hip Hip Horray book. The researcher made a 30 item matching test and did a pilot study on a smaller group of 15 subjects. The reliability was calculated to be 0.94. To make the test valid, the researcher made a correlation between the students` grades on their final exam of the preceding semester and their grades on the researcher’s test in the pilot study. The correlation was 0.8116. Then, the researcher acquired the necessary permissions to conduct the study from Meraj- e- Andisheh Institute. Two instructors volunteered to administer the tests on the students. The instructors distributed the consent forms to the subjects and read aloud to them the recruitment statement to participate in the study. The students were analyzed in two groups: 1) One group: semantically-related clustering (SR), 2) The other group: semantically unrelated clustering (SU).
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The test was validated in several ways: (1) face validity by comparing the scores of Indonesian studying in the Philippines and those studying in Indonesia. The findings shows that the score is highly correlated at Spearman ρ = .85. (2) The content validation relies on the evaluation from four expert informants, and a panel of evaluators, which included of ten professors. The finding shows that the content coverage and relevance of the test is highly satisfactory. (3) The concurrent validation i to existing placement test of Universitas Klabat is also conducted and found that the tests are highly correlated at .964 using gamma test. (4) The construct validation is conducted in two ways: item-per-item analysis in objective section of the test, and Rasch Analysis in the Subjective Section of the test. The findings of item analysis revealed that there are only three items considered “fair items”, while the remaining are “good items” and “very good items”. The finding of Rasch Analysis showed that the raters could interpret the rating system and that the test is well fit and accurate. In general, the proposed performance test is valid. Table 9 below wraps up the validation of the test.
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Westrick (2005) discussed three reasons for the implementation of the Quick Placement Test-Pen and Paper Test® (QPT-PPT®) within a curriculum. The first reason was the status. The QPT-PPT® was developed by University Cambridge Local Examinations Syndi- cate and published by Oxford University Press, so some believed that actually using the test could somehow improve the image of their program. The second reason was that it was extremely difficult to develop in-house placement tests because of a lack of resources. The third reason was paucity of time. Usually, placement tests are administered at the beginning of an academic year, and it is difficult to find time to administer the tests in the busiest time of the year. In addition, administrators have to report the results in a short period of time in order to announce the classes in which students were placed. Westrick then reported the results of the QPT-PPT® when administered to make placement deci- sions. The KR20 internal consistency reliability coefficient was .66 with 120 items when 161 students took the cloze and multiple-choice tests that had reading, grammar, and vocabulary sections. He concluded that the QPT-PPT® might be effective with other groups but not for his participants and urged on the development of in-house placement tests that were connected to curricular goals and objectives.
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This study was limited as it investigated test takers as a homogenous group, who differed only across years, and did not take in to account ability level. It was possible that the factor structure may not remain constant over time for all levels. Future studies could investigate factorial invariance with respect to student performance and proficiency level, similar to that of Romhild (2008). Another limitation of this study is that it only analyzed section score totals. Future research could conduct factor analysis on item-level data rather than just section score totals. Finally, a detailed analysis of the EPE’s content at the item-level with detailed specifications could shed light on how the structure of the test should be interpreted and whether or not the test items adequately capture the TLU (Target Language Use) domain (Bachman and Palmer 1996).
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Abstract: Most of the commercially-available pot seedling nursery machines are incompatible with soft-pot-trays and are labor-intensive and low in productivity. A soft-pot-tray automatic embedding system was developed in this study to achieve automatic embedding of the soft pot tray into the hard tray following sowing and covering with soil. A control system was constructed using the Arduino program development environment. An embedded-hard-tray automatic lowering mechanism and conveyor-belt-based pot-tray embedding system were designed. Dynamics analysis was conducted to derive an equation to describe the embedding process of the soft pot tray into the embedded hard tray. A prototype of the soft-pot-tray automatic embedding system was manufactured and tested. The analytical equation suggested that a minimum linear velocity of 0.86 m/s was required for a complete embedding process. The experimental results showed that the embedded-hard-tray automatic lowering mechanism was reliable and stable as the tray placement success rate was greater than 99%. The successful tray embedding rate was 100% and the seed exposure rate was less than 1% with a linear velocity of the conveyor belt of 0.92 m/s. The experiment findings agreed well with the analytical results. The proposed soft-pot-tray automatic embedding system satisfied the technical specifications for a light-economical pot seedling nursery machine.
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Abstract- Biomass is a consistent term for living matter, more especially any characteristic matter that has been gotten from plants as a result of the photosynthetic change process. The word biomass is similarly used to mean the things got from living structures – wood from trees, gathered grasses, plant parts, and stores, for instance, stems and leaves, and furthermore land and water proficient plants. The solid biomass taking care of office may similarly make strategy warmth and electric power. As more capable bio vitality headways are made, fossil fuel inputs will be decreased; biomass and its by-things can in like manner be used as hotspots for fuelling various imperativeness needs. The essentialness estimation of biomass from plant matter at first starts from sun arranged imperativeness through the method known as photosynthesis.. Biomass generators are utilized as a firm generator to give required power requests in distribution system . Biomass generator is an exceptionally dependable generator. These days these biomass generators are favored for circulation frameworks since biomass generators are without contamination thus these are preferred for residential areas. In this paper biomass generators are utilized to introduce in distribution system for minimizing the power losses in the system. As these are considered as the firm generators they have their yield altered at evaluated esteem with no related instabilities and consequently generally ideal. It is evaluated that 1MW power can expend 1200 kg of biomass material every hour. Likewise biomass and biogas generators have effectiveness of 35% to 45%. This paper includes the reduction of power losses in 33 bus test system by optimal placement of biomass fueled DG in 33 bus test system .Genetic algorithm is used as an optimization technique to find out the optimal size and optimal location of biomass fueled Distributed Generator.
In relation to the present study, the following aspects were considered: a) A gold standard was included in the calculations to obtain objective results related to the diagnosis of a vital or necrotic pulp in teeth with a need for treatment; b) The basic concepts were defined for the interpretation of results; c) The calculations for sen- sitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and repro- ducibility were performed according to the guidelines established in the literature; d) Three sites were included in the study; e) The measurement of the variables was conducted by 2 researchers to get independent results; f) The study was blind, and the application of the test at different sites was random; g) The researchers allowed at least 5 min to elapse after each pulp test so that the pulp could recover; h) The stimulus was placed in the tooth for 25 s or until the participant raised a hand [2, 5 – 7, 10, 15, 21, 23, 34] and i) Eight groups were formed to iden- tify the response of the test in subjects of both genders with different age ranges.
Above table shows the results of all algorithms in some cases 2 algorithm fail and 3 pass, vice versa. This result shows 1 and 0 .1 means students selected and 0 means not selected .if 3 algorithm pass any student then that student probability to place because its probability more than 50%.if 2 algorithm passed and in 3 fail then may be student selected or not. This result based on online test result dataset by this predict the student’s selection .no algorithm give 100% accuracy but all algorithm give 88-94% accuracy to give right result .
Although rapid laboratory tests are available for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), delays in completion of CDI testing are common in clinical practice. We conducted a cohort study of 242 inpatients tested for CDI to determine the timing of different steps involved in diagnostic testing and to identify modifiable factors contributing to delays in diagnosis. The average time from test order to test result was 1.8 days (range, 0.2 to 10.6), with time from order to stool collection accounting for most of the delay (mean, 1.0 day; range, 0 to 10). Several modifiable factors contributed to delays, including not providing stool collec- tion supplies to patients in a timely fashion, rejection of specimens due to incorrect labeling or leaking from the container, and holding samples in the laboratory for batch processing. Delays in testing contributed to delays in initiation of treatment for pa- tients diagnosed with CDI and to frequent prescription of empirical CDI therapy for patients with mild to moderate symptoms whose testing was ultimately negative. An intervention that addressed several easily modified factors contributing to delays re- sulted in a significant decrease in the time required to complete CDI testing. These findings suggest that health care facilities may benefit from a review of their processes for CDI testing to identify and address modifiable factors that contribute to delays in diagnosis and treatment of CDI.
In order to test the hypothesis that the existence and placement of the dummy root node can have an impact on parsing accuracy, we performed an experiment using two widely used data-driven dependency parsers, MaltParser (Nivre, Hall, and Nilsson 2006) and MSTParser (McDonald 2006), and all the 13 data sets from the CoNLL 2006 shared task on multilingual dependency parsing (Buchholz and Marsi 2006) as well as the English Penn Treebank converted to Stanford dependencies (de Marneffe, MacCartney, and Manning 2006). We created three different versions of each data set, corresponding to the representation types None, First, and Last, and used them to evaluate MaltParser with two different transition systems—arc-eager (Nivre 2003) and arc-standard (Nivre 2004)—and MSTParser with the arc-factored non-projective algorithm (McDonald et al. 2005). The results are shown in Table 1.
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In this paper, optimal placement of capacitors is carried out using exhaustive load flow analysis for enhancement of the voltage profile with power loss reduction. The obtained results shows, selection of optimal number of capacitors and their optimal location plays important role in acceptable percentage power loss reduction without violating the voltage limits. This will helps in efficient, stable and reliable operation of the distribution network.
Data placement algorithms : Four data placement algorithms were experimented. Such algorithms were round-robin algorithm, random algorithm and our algorithm. However, there were two variations in our algorithm. One used maximum number of views as load estimate and the other used number of subscribers as load estimate. In round-robin algorithm, videos were placed in storage tiers in round-robin fashion. Storage tiers took turn storing new videos. In random algorithm, one storage tier was randomly picked to store new video. In our algorithm, storage tier was chosen according to the process described in Section III E. Storage capability was taken into account in workload distribution.
In this study, the examination of handwritten samples of 50 writers was carried out by analyzing their general and individual writing characteristics for arriving at a definite opinion regarding their authorship. The same handwriting of same person in two different languages was (Marathi and Hindi) studied. Both languages are different but having same consonants and vowel therefore shows similarity andis comparable. Such handwritings are comparable on the basic of placement of modifiers, spacing between words, placement of punctuation marks, formation of letters, formation of loop and respective size.
The placement lead highlighted her role in deciding whether to allow individual students to pursue an international placement. Currently this decision is her sole responsibility, albeit a decision which is informed by information provided by the student and, where necessary, consultations with relevant staff members, i.e. academic and professional advisors and course leaders. The process appears to be sufficiently robust as evidenced by the fact that there have been very few instances of international placements going wrong (only 1 during the time period covered by the research). An alternative approach was suggested involving the creation of a placements panel which would enable the final decision to be shared, thereby reducing the burden of responsibility for decisions which are very important, both for individual students and the University.
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On the positive side, Theorem 1 paves the way for experiments (in which people place them- selves) that provide the potential of detecting overplacement. We can infer overcon…dence if a su¢cient fraction of people (variable y in the theorem) believe su¢ciently strongly (variable q) that they rank su¢ciently high (variable x). We conduct two tests of overplacement. We test if more than 60% of the subjects believe that there is at least a 50% chance that their type is in the top 30%. Recall that Svenson found that over 80% of his American subjects placed themselves in the top 30%, but it was unclear what they meant by this placement. We also test if more than 83.3 % of the subjects feel that there is more than a 60% chance that they are better than the median. We choose 60% because we are independently interested in whether a relatively small increase in the chance of receiving a prize randomly – from 50% in a benchmark test to 60% here – makes many people change their choice behavior. While these are the explicit tests we conduct, as discussed below implicitly there are more tests.
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