Plant Pathology

Top PDF Plant Pathology:

Serodiagnosis in plant pathology: Present status and future prospects

Serodiagnosis in plant pathology: Present status and future prospects

Serodiagnosis is a sensitive tool that can be used to answer questions in applied plant pathology. It is useful to identify species specific molecules; structural features important in vector-pathogen interactions and quantify crop pathogens. In future, selection of Ab producing DNA fragments should make the production of useful Ab more efficient and cloned gene may prove useful in developing resistance strategies. In the more applied areas, production of pathogen free propagation and planting material , worldwide movement of germplasm for plant breeding, and the introduction of integrated pest and disease management systems all require rapid and sensitive tests to detect, identify and quantify plant pests and diseases. Use of appropriate MAbs can meet these requirements for many pathogens
Show more

8 Read more

A plant pathology perspective of fungal genome sequencing

A plant pathology perspective of fungal genome sequencing

regard, genome data are not used in isolation, but provide context for observational and experimental data, thereby accelerating the pace of traditional research methods. For emerging pathogens, a disease may be known, but the mechanisms relating to infection biology and virulence are not necessarily understood. In these cases, a genome can % E that are present (e.g. Ellwood et al. 2010). In some plant pathogens, genomes have resulted in a shift of conventional paradigms. Here a classic example is the discovery of entire horizontally transferrable chromosomes related to pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Ma i et al.!*! ƒ plant pathology have been a better understanding of the ' % Furthermore, genomes are also resources from which genetic tools can be used to mine information.
Show more

15 Read more

GUIDELINES FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology

GUIDELINES FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology

Graduate degrees are professional degrees that are conferred in recognition of the mastery of a specialized field. Enrollment in graduate school represents a major commitment by students which should be viewed as a period of continued education and the first step in becoming a professional entomologist or plant pathologist. Such a commitment requires an investment of time, over a period of years, as well as on a daily basis. For some, this commitment may necessitate a change in lifestyle. Graduate studies also involve innovative work, and in a scientific field such as entomology and/or plant pathology, carry the responsibility for original research. Thus, the effort invested by each student in his or her research will directly influence a student's overall success.
Show more

13 Read more

Cryptic species of Curvularia in the culture collection of the Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium

Cryptic species of Curvularia in the culture collection of the Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium

Several unidentified specimens of Curvularia deposited in the Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium were re-examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region, partial fragments of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the translation elongation factor 1-α genes, supported the introduction of 13 novel Curvularia species. Eight of the species described, namely, C. beasleyi sp. nov., C. beerburrumensis sp. nov., C. eragrosticola sp. nov., C. kenpeggii sp. nov., C. mebaldsii  sp.  nov., C. petersonii sp. nov., C. platzii sp. nov. and C. warraberensis  sp. nov., were isolated from grasses (Poaceae) exotic to Australia. Only two species, C. lamingtonensis sp. nov. and C.  sporobolicola  sp.  nov., were described from native Australian grasses. Two species were described from hosts in other families, namely, C. coatesiae sp. nov. from Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae) and C. colbranii sp. nov. from Crinum zeylanicum (Amaryllidaceae). Curvularia reesii sp. nov. was described from an isolate obtained from an air sample. Furthermore, DNA sequences from ex-type cultures supported the generic placement of C. neoindica and the transfer of Drechslera boeremae to Curvularia.
Show more

25 Read more

Galaxy tools and workflows for sequence analysis with applications in molecular plant pathology

Galaxy tools and workflows for sequence analysis with applications in molecular plant pathology

and insects. These interactions affect product quality and yield and result in billions of dollars’ worth of crop losses worldwide each year (Newton et al., 2010). Understanding the biochemical actions of these pathogens, and the responses of their hosts, is a key goal of plant pathology that is expected to enable improved disease control strategies through plant breeding, engineering, and chemical methods. Plants have evolved an array of defence mechanisms including passive physical barriers and active defence responses such as the production of reactive oxygen species, and programmed cell death. Successful microbial pathogens must evade or interfere with these defences and, in order to do so, many are able to introduce molecules called effectors into host plant cells or their immediate environment (Fig. 1) (H´ematy, Cherk & Somerville, 2009; Stergiopoulos & de Wit, 2009; Dodds & Rathjen, 2010; Hann, Gimenez-Ibanez & Rathjen, 2010; Rico, Mccraw & Preston, 2011). E ff ectors interact with the plant’s biochemistry and may subvert its defences or otherwise modify host behaviour to produce a more favourable environment for the pathogen. The identification of a pathogen’s effector complement and prediction of their biochemical function is key to delineating an individual pathogen’s capacity for virulence, and motivates this work. The wider study of effectors and their targets in the host is likely also to be instructive for understanding general principles of pathogenicity (Schneider & Collmer, 2010; Pritchard & Birch, 2011).
Show more

22 Read more

Where Will the Next Norman Borlaug Come From? A U.S. Perspective of Plant Pathology Education and Research

Where Will the Next Norman Borlaug Come From? A U.S. Perspective of Plant Pathology Education and Research

Much of the world’s arable cropland is already intensively cultivated, leaving little good, produc- engineered traits for drought and cold tolerance, pest resistance, increased levels of micronutrients, healthier oils such as omega fatty acids, and plant-derived pharmaceuticals are all on the horizon. Research in the future likely will focus on new problems, traditionally seen as outside the discipline of plant pathology. The impact of climate change on plant diseases will be significant. As many parts of the world become warmer and drier some plant diseases likely will increase in severity. Pathogens are likely to migrate and survive in more northern latitudes greatly expanding their range and diseases exacerbated by abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity will increase. Plant pathology will continue to evolve as a multidisciplinary science. These changes will open up many new research opportunities. Plant pathology will play a bigger role in global food security. Research into the molecular and cellular interactions of symbiotic and endophytic organisms will help provide answers to food-borne illnesses caused by E. coli and Salmonella and how these and other human pathogens become established in plants in the field. Plant pathologists will team up with biomedical and aeronautical engineers, nanotechnologists, and computer scientists to develop microsensory technology to detect the introduction and spread of pathogens for biosecurity, diagnostics and epidemiological modeling purposes. Traditional areas of plant disease management and the use of biologicals for disease control also will benefit from a better under- standing of the molecular and cellular processes and the similarity of virulence mechanisms and pathogen ef- fectors between plant, insect, and vertebrate pathogens likely will bring new insights into human diseases. And last, but not least, there likely will be a resurgence in plant disease management and epidemiological research as the world’s dependence on biofuels increases and results in new diseases on intensively cultivated plant spe- cies used for biomass production.
Show more

15 Read more

Application of image analysis in plant pathology and forest protection

Application of image analysis in plant pathology and forest protection

since the beginning of the 90s, it has not been virtually used in forest protection and plant pathology in the Czech Republic yet. Thus, examples of implemented studies had to be searched in world literature until recently. For example, it is possible to cite the papers of Thomas (1992), Reichl et al. (1992), Yang et al. (1996), Cox et al. (1998) or Park et al. (1999). Image analysis was primarily used for the determination of the area of pellets (Reichl et al. 1992; Cox, Tho- mas 1992), of geometric characteristics of mycelium (O’Shea, Walsh 1996) or cell dimensions (Packer et al. 1992). In the course of 1997–2005, possibilities of using the image analysis for phytopathology and forest protection purposes were repeatedly tested at our workplace. The aim of this paper is to present examples of these applications, their methodical pro- cedures and examples of actual research results.
Show more

8 Read more

PLANT PATHOLOGY: A NEW HORIZON

PLANT PATHOLOGY: A NEW HORIZON

Hover the exact era of the plant pathology was began from the 1200AD form the mistletoe research on the plant pathology. Peoples suffer from the hungers and the malnutrition’s due to partially to diseases destroy their crops. However they have not any options except to prey with the god to eradicate the dieses and to reduce the dieses form the society and from the field. In the mid 1600 century, there was the observation of the French farmers that wheat rust dieses was very severs in the place where the Barbary bushes grows nears by, the farmers observation was that the rust was produced in the Berbarry plants and from there it moves in to the wheat. So they ask the French government at that time to cut the berbarry bushes and passed the legislation to cut the bushes and to control the diseases.
Show more

82 Read more

The Consequences of Drought on Plant Pathology

The Consequences of Drought on Plant Pathology

result, the livelihood of farmers is directly impacted, while industries and consumers dependent on agricultural products are left with uncertainty. Climate change will create warmer temperatures and warmer air. Warm air holds more water and leads to rapid evaporation of surface water. This causes soils to dry out faster, thus increasing the demand for water (Arndt and Enloe ). Climate change will also prompt alternating extreme wet and dry seasons with increased flooding and drought (Colgan 2018). These conditions will have a major impact on the agricultural industry, especially crops. From a plant pathology perspective, these extreme conditions may prove more favorable to certain pathogens and pests, render common control practices less effective, and negatively affect overall plant health and productivity.
Show more

6 Read more

A Plant Pathology View of Signaling: a computational study of Fusarium oxysporum Kinomes and Downy Mildew Resistance in Sweet Basil

A Plant Pathology View of Signaling: a computational study of Fusarium oxysporum Kinomes and Downy Mildew Resistance in Sweet Basil

Twelve predicted candidate resistant genes belong to receptor-like kinases (RLK), another large gene family implicated in plant defense (Chern et al., 2016; Mendy et al., 2017). The RLK family has over 600 members in the Arabidopsis genome, and over one third are LRR RLKs (Shiu and Bleecker, 2001). Detailed inspection of the 12 MRI RLK hits revealed many truncated fragments. Three contained only the LRR domain, two contained only protein kinase domains, and two did not encode an identifiable domain. Additionally, two were annotated as containing “stress antifungal” domains, which contain a RLK-like domain and are present in proteins with known antifungal and salt tolerance related phenotypes (Sawano et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2009), but little is known about their function. A search for protein domains using the NCBI conserved domain finder identified two sequences as transposable elements misannotated by our B2G pipeline. This left only a single protein, mri_comp170662, which encodes a full length malectin-like RLK, a member of which was shown to be involved in plant susceptibility to another downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hok et al., 2011).
Show more

143 Read more

An update : improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology

An update : improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology

Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximize the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labeling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC), perfluorodecalin (PFD) enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the PFCs, PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11) for in vivo plant leaf imaging using four advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image PFCs directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the “negative space” within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.
Show more

9 Read more

Studies of camellia flower blight (Ciborinia camelliae Kohn) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science (Plant Pathology) at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Studies of camellia flower blight (Ciborinia camelliae Kohn) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science (Plant Pathology) at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

There i s currently no quick and accurate method for detecting and identifying C. camelliae from diseased plant material. Disease identification is made by symptoms and signs exhibited by the flower and its colony characteristics when grown on PDA. Establishing a pure culture of the pathogen from diseased material can be difficult (Watson 1 950; Winstead et al 1 954; Taylor 1 999) and colony growth is relatively slow, taking from 7- 14 d to attain the felty mycelium and form sclerotia characteristic of the fungus in culture (Kohn & Nagasawa 1 984). Similarly, the characteristic symptoms and signs of C. camelliae flower infection may be confused with infections caused by other pathogens, such as Botrytis, Pestalotia, Monochaetia, Penicillium and Sclerotinia. Correct identification is also hindered when flowers display atypical symptoms, as well as by petal shattering varieties, where the petals desiccate before the pathogen is well established. For researchers and quarantine staff, the quality and accuracy of research and control management options at export/import points is limited by the lengthy and sometimes unreliable isolation and identification methods.
Show more

305 Read more

Biological control of clover cyst nematode Heterodera trifolii : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science (Plant Pathology) at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Biological control of clover cyst nematode Heterodera trifolii : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science (Plant Pathology) at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Fungal parasites of eggs of H trifolii could be candidates for biological control of this pest. In evaluating such fungi it is as important to determine their lack of pathogenicity to man, plants, or other valuable non-target entities as well as their efficacy in parasitising females and cysts, and in killing eggs (See Chapter 4). Fungi found in and around cysts on roots are often common soil fungi that invade and colonise living, moribund or dead root tissue. Many of the fungi isolated from cysts and females in the rhizosphere belong to species that are known plant pathogens (Kerry 2000). Some promising nematode biocontrol fungi, such as, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Nectria vasinfecta have biotypes that are plant pathogenic (Dornsch et al. 1 980) and Paecilomyces lilacinus has been reported pathogenic to man (Agrawal et al. 1 979, Malbran et al. 1 973, Takayasu et al. 1 977).
Show more

201 Read more

Crop Monitoring by Drone for Plant Pathology

Crop Monitoring by Drone for Plant Pathology

Database And Image Classification After successful assembly of various parts the images are captured through drone and classified using the Bo V W model the image classification is very [r]

5 Read more

The top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

The top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

Homologous recombination is amazingly efficient (Kämper, 2004) and makes use of four dominant selectable markers (Fig. 15G; Basse and Steinberg, 2004). Tools include regulated promoters for the study of essential genes and a variety of staining methods to visualize the fungus during biotrophic growth (Fig. 15D), and fluorescent proteins for live cell imaging of gene expression and visualization of subcellular structures (Fig. 15F) are available (Böhmer et al., 2009; Mendoza-Mendoza et al., 2009; Steinberg and Perez- Martin, 2008). Since 2006, the 20.5-Mb manually annotated and curated genome sequence has been available (Kämper et al., 2006; http:// mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/genre/proj/ustilago). The genome is ‘lean’ and contains little repetitive DNA. Transcriptional profiles (Fig. 15E) have been established for the most important developmental fungal stages and plant responses (accessible through GeneExpressionOmnibus: http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). This has spurred reverse genetics approaches and has allowed the identification of clustered genes encoding secreted effectors that play crucial roles during host colonization, and the determi- nation of which tissue can be infected (Doehlemann et al., 2009, 2011; Kämper et al., 2006; Skibbe et al., 2010). From genome analysis, it has also become apparent that U. maydis is more closely related to humans than to budding yeast, and numerous proteins are shared only by U. maydis and Homo sapiens. This includes proteins involved in basic principles of long- distance transport, mitosis, motor-based microtubule organization and homologous recombination. Ustilago maydis is therefore a perfect host for the study of such processes (Banuett et al., 2008; Holloman, 2011; Steinberg and Perez-Martin, 2008). Where is this system heading? It will allow the establishment of the hierarchy of effector action during plant colonization, provide insights into fungal nutrition during plant colonization (Eichhorn et al., 2006; Wahl et al., 2010) and serve as the blueprint for comparative approaches (Schirawski et al., 2010), which are likely to reveal insights into both genome evolution and host specialization.
Show more

18 Read more

Detection And Classification Of Plant Pathology
With Image Processing Technique

Detection And Classification Of Plant Pathology With Image Processing Technique

assessing the parameter variety of data, Energy, Entropy and Evaluation Time. The Images of plant leaves are assessed by the quantitative and subjective procedures. In this paper, we propose a calculation dependent on a fluffy edge and grouping division for various plant investigation. Before applying the proposed strategy pre-handling strategies like picture change, clamor decrease by the middle channel, morphological activity and at the last wavelet change will be prepared. The proposed strategy gives great outcomes dependent on the fluffy limit and bunching procedures for the identification of most homogeneity areas in plant leaf pictures. The overall execution of the proposed strategy gives appropriate outcomes for proficient characterization and acknowledgment. The test outcomes show that the proposed technique is a significant philosophy, which would altogether be able to support a definite acknowledgment of leaf disorders in a little computational effort. An expansion of this work will concentrate on creating half breed calculations, for example, hereditary calculations and neural systems (NNs) so as to build the acknowledgment rate. In addition, we will commit our future takes a shot at assessing the seriousness of the distinguished ailment and checking in specific phases of the development of the leaf consequently. Later on, it additionally lets the client to get told of mindfulness or a precautionary measure to develop the plants.
Show more

8 Read more

Advancing fronts of pathology

Advancing fronts of pathology

Pathology is a branch of medical science that help in diagnosing the disease by microscopic examination and revealing the information to render correct diagnosis and help in proper treatment planning. Recent advances in technology has put a significant impact in the diagnostic field of pathology. Introduction of slide less pathology also known as Virtual Microscopy or Whole s imaging (WSI) is not mere an imagination but an upcoming and promising invention. It is highly demanded in everyday pathology as well as in educational, research purpose and bioindustry. Even though these advances are faced with significant challenges such as data storage, image compression, they also provide guidance to newer diagnostic approach. These can also minimize the interobserver variability, diagnostic dilemma, identifies the therapeutic pathways and predicts the patient responses to therapy. Hence the promise of digital pathology is not the simple transfer of an image to monitor, but rather an upgradation with information that cannot be garnered by human examination. This article aims to introduce and discuss the important aspects of this evo
Show more

5 Read more

PERINATAL PULMONARY PATHOLOGY

PERINATAL PULMONARY PATHOLOGY

Idem: Hyaline membrane disease of newborn premature lungs; a new approach. R.: Hyaline membrane disease[r]

10 Read more

The Pathology of Neonatal Osteomyelitis

The Pathology of Neonatal Osteomyelitis

As in the previous specimen, the mar- row space of the proximal femoral metaphysis was filled with purulent material, with beginning destruction of tra- becular bone subjacent to the gro[r]

7 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...