Poetry and Memory

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A Debate on the Relationship between Poetry and Politics in W.H. Auden’s In Memory of W.B. Yeats and A. Ostriker’s Elegy before the War

A Debate on the Relationship between Poetry and Politics in W.H. Auden’s In Memory of W.B. Yeats and A. Ostriker’s Elegy before the War

The main conclusion that may be made after the examination of both poems is that while W.H. Auden, in his In Memory of W.B. Yeats, highlights (knowing that it can even elude death) the importance of poetry in the political discourse, A. Ostriker, being increasingly impatient with its ineffective nature, rejects poetry, suggesting, for example, by begging “her mother [to] come back sometime” or by confessing (in the third section of her elegy) that she could “make music” of an everyday scene she witnesses, that a source of moral and mental relief is to be found in other people. To put it crudely, when juxtaposed, the two works demonstrate an opposition of a choice between abstraction (poetry) and physicality (“poetry” personified; people). In this context, it is interesting to observe how entirely different approaches, as compared with the discussed pre-war elegies, are presented in the poets’ post-war elegies, namely W.H. Auden’s The Shield of Achilles and A. Ostriker’s The Eighth and Thirteenth. Even though from both poems an anti-war air radiates, it is now A. Ostriker who, referring to D. Shostakovich’s symphonies, strongly asserts that “art destroys silence, that is serves as a reminder to humanity”, whereas W.H. Auden, now more skeptical, by making his shield, symbolizing both art and war, the central motif in the poem, may imply that war and violence are inherently human and that art cannot do anything to prevent it.
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The Singularity of Witness : Memory, Poetry and the Refugee

The Singularity of Witness : Memory, Poetry and the Refugee

In an effort to conclude without getting stuck in bounded spaces myself, I wish to engage shortly Geoffrey Hartman’s metaphor of “authenticity.” I would like to suggest that bearing witness, much like authenticity itself, is subject to certain criteria that place both in a relationship to truth that is directly implicated upon an evolving public consciousness. Authenticity, especially when related to bearing witness, appeals to a similar resuscitative, true-to-language role that Derrida reserves for poetry. The poetic, in order to remain faithful to the memory of ‘event,’ must be understood beyond a private language. Actual testimonies do not affect change or raise public awareness simply because of their dynamic, non-apathetic and/or performative nature. Trauma narratives, for their part, are allowed an emotive quality for their appeal to an understanding of subjectivity predicated on resistance, resilience and survival. These should only be the starting points for a serious engagement with memories of war, violence and suffering as intricately more complex and polymorphous than any single discourse/idiom might disclose them to be. What I am suggesting here is that trauma narratives are as fictional and highly- emotive as they are an appeal to particular kinds of truth and justice. The reason we do not weigh recent testimonials against the archive of knowledge we already possess
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childhood's waters: child and memory in poetry of jáder de carvalho

childhood's waters: child and memory in poetry of jáder de carvalho

The Brazilian poet Jáder de Carvalho (1901-1985) uses the child as a constant motif in his verse. By memorializing his relation with his land of origin (the “hinterland”), Carvalho's poetic production, activated by his own memory resources, tracks the paths of childhood and their mediation by experience and educational process. Between family abandonment and a precocious understanding of the world, we visualize a boy who interacts with himself and the world from a singularized childhood perspective. The concepts of childhood and education are essential to understanding the lyricism of the author, because there is a strong emphasis on the forms of learning through which the child passes. In contrast to educational narratives (bildungsroman) that follow a sequenced route in order to present the characters’ life-line, we realize that life-line in a fragmented and dispersed way in Carvalho’s poetry, which represents the child without concern for linear temporal logic. The state of childhood surpasses chronology because adult and child are in that state on the same plane of discovery, indicating an educational process that remains in the poet in his old age. This study aims to examine the images of childhood in Carvalho’s poetry and their relation to elements that are present in his childhood, such as hinterland, family, loneliness and time. Specifically, we investigate how the hinterland-- the original landscape of the author's experience--acts in a relational way with the child who appears in the poems, and how childhood and old age maintain a continuous flow of relations, pointing to a mobile and active dialogue between ages. With contributions from theoretical currents from philosophy of education (Montaigne, Benjamin, Lyotard, Agamben), literary theory (Bakhtin) and psychoanalysis (Ferenczi), we analyze how childhood and its journeys participate in Jáder de Carvalho’s poetics.
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“‘A Moon Without Metaphors’: Memory, Wilderness, and the Nocturnal in the Poetry of Don McKay”

“‘A Moon Without Metaphors’: Memory, Wilderness, and the Nocturnal in the Poetry of Don McKay”

In his essay “The Bushtits’ Nest,” Don McKay explores and recreates the experience of the Biblical Adam’s task of applying names to the natural world. Initially brimming with enthusiasm and to his great personal satisfaction, Adam assigns names to the flora and fauna, honoring God’s “love of code” (91); however, waking in the middle of the night, Adam is no longer pleased with his choice of the name “Screech Owl,” among others, and now sees the name as a constricting “cage for the bird which could be set down in one place or another in the sentence” (91). Night is the site of Adam’s disillusionment with the imprecision of nomenclature, with him realizing that, under the auspices of the lunar, the nocturnal invades diurnal reality and wilderness invades language. The darkness reveals an unfamiliar, mutable side of the natural world not visible at the time of naming, and a bewildered Adam wonders “Would the whole ceremony have to be done again under the moon’s changing eye? Would everything have to have a day name and a night name?” (91). In Don McKay’s poetry, night is variously the time of shape-shifting, de-materialization, memory, and non-empirical knowledge, all of which require a re-investigation of the division between inner and outer, memory and experience, and between naming and knowing.
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Flexible and Creative Chinese Poetry Generation Using Neural Memory

Flexible and Creative Chinese Poetry Generation Using Neural Memory

This paper tries to solve this extremely chal- lenging problem. We argue that the essential prob- lem is that statistical models are good at learn- ing general rules (usage of regular words and their combinations) but are less capable of remember- ing special instances that are difficult to cover with general rules. In other words, there is only rule-based reasoning, no instance-based memory. We therefore present a memory-augmented neu- ral model which involves a neural memory so that special instances can be saved and referred to at run-time. This is like a human poet who creates poems by not only referring to common rules and patterns, but also recalls poems that he has read before. It is hard to say whether this combination of rules and instances produces true innovation
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Editorial : the uses of poetry

Editorial : the uses of poetry

The core of this collection of essays arises out of an Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded project, ‘The Uses of Poetry’ (2013-14), led by Kate Rumbold, 3 that brought together evidence and expertise from a team of eminent and emerging scholars on the uses and values of poetry at different stages of life in order to develop new, interdisciplinary ways of understanding, articulating and quantifying the values of poetry. This special issue also draws together some important related projects from the UK, such as the University of Cambridge 'Poetry and Memory' project led by David Whitley and Debbie Pullinger, and Philip Davis and Josie Billington's work at the Centre for Research into Reading, Literature and Society (CRILS), University of
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Wordsworth's poetry of allusion

Wordsworth's poetry of allusion

encapsulates the central problem of this clouded light, or lighted cloud. For he is thankful that the child comes ‘not in utter nakedness’, but clothed in the clouds, though it is the naked, or unveiled image of God, the sight of His face itself, that Adam has lost. Because it is only on the memory of a loss that Wordsworth can ground his hope, the melancholic indication of that loss - the clouds that cover the light, the ‘shades’ ( ‘of the prison house’) - are at one and the same time the emblem of that hope. In the Bible, likewise, though Paul longs for the time that the veil, or ‘glass’, symptom of our imperfection, will be removed, nevertheless that veil, the cloud in which God descends, is the only means by which he can be seen at all, for God cannot be seen directly. His light being so bright that it is invisible (as in Paradise Lost IB), or blinds (as it did St. Paul in Acts 9), or kills (Exodus 33. 20). W hat is in one sense a barrier between God and man, brought down with the Fall, and darkening our vision, is in another sense a beneficent gift, enabling that vision which would otherwise be impossible. For two reasons, then, this image of veiled sight is ambiguous: because it is paradoxically both a hindrance and a help, and because it is not certain that the tmly inspired - Isaiah, M oses in some instances, and Paul and Milton, who both ‘see’ better when blinded - are not capable of seeing behind the veil.
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Memory and exile in the poetry of Luis Cernuda

Memory and exile in the poetry of Luis Cernuda

Cernuda also submits and responds to the discipline and rigours of poetry in “Nocturno yanqui” (RD, 445-49), which is, as Harris notes (1973: 164), a poem of existential analysis akin to “Noche del hombre y su demonio” (RD, 366-70). In this text, an interior monologue in the second person, the writer reveals his capacity for self-detachment and self-criticism as he meditates with searing clarity and lucidity, during a sleepless night in Mount Holyoke, on his intense solitude in exile, on his acute temporal consciousness, his sense of dissociation between past and present selves and his work as a teacher. 84 The poem, defined by the poet himself as a “soliloquio” (449), skilfully plays on the reader’s memory of Cernuda’s poetic corpus. As the poet seeks to resolve many of the pressing concerns and themes explored throughout Vivir sin estar viviendo and Con las horas contadas, he creates a series of inter-textual echoes with poems such as “Viendo volver”, “La sombra”, “El intruso” and “Pasatiempo”. In full maturity, the poet deals with his recollections in a highly sophisticated and subtle manner. He threads the memory of his former self, his struggle for self-affirmation and his previous creative activities into a text which critically appraises the nature and the function of his poetry. The metrical structure of the poem, like Manrique’s “Coplas”, is based on “pie quebrado” stanzas. 85 This refers the reader, as Pato notes (1989: 213), to the tradition of meditative poetry which deals with the problem of time and with the attempt to envision a transcendent purpose in the face of the ephemeral nature of existence. The writer, then, encourages the reader to draw on his memory of previous readings in order to gain a deeper understanding of the poem. In accordance with his search for a poetry which resembles the rhythm
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The poetry of Günter Grass

The poetry of Günter Grass

representative and member of the 3PD. Yet the dirty ujators which the tide of politics leaves behind still (according to Grass) nourish the philosophy of Martin Heidegger whose major work bears the title Sein und Zeit and who is also satirized by Grass in his novel Hundejahre. The aloof, apolitical stance of the octogenarian thinker who is still to be seen strolling at Todmanberg near Freiburg is captured in the final three lines where impressions of provincial towns such as Kulmbach, the Yugoslavian district of Karst and the memory of a former official encroach upon his idyllic retreat:
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The Shape of Poetry: A Typographic Exploration of Poetry and Synesthesia

The Shape of Poetry: A Typographic Exploration of Poetry and Synesthesia

Almost our entire understanding of the world is experienced through our senses. Our senses are link to memory that can trap right into emotion. Our memory library begins accumulating materials from at least five tracks–images: sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch since we are born. These five tracks contain valuable data that direct bearing on our emotions. For example, a familiar sound or music might recall one’s past memory, which might further trigger certain emotion like happiness, sadness, painfulness, anger etc. This awareness of sensory information called perception is a process based on our experience and knowledge.
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Medieval Scottish poetry

Medieval Scottish poetry

Rather as in literary histories, so in anthologies, medieval Scottish poetry tends to take a small part: there are representative texts in Scots, Gaelic, and Latin in Crawford and Imlah 2000, Watson 1995, and Kerrigan 1991. The most accessible recent anthologies specifically directed toward medieval Scottish poetry are the Mercat Anthology (Jack and Rozendaal 1997) and The Triumph Tree (Clancy 1998). Older, but nonetheless valuable is Volume 1 of Longer Scottish Poems (Bawcutt and Riddy 1987). Producing scholarly editions of Older Scots texts is the primary purpose of the Scottish Text Society, whose publications feature in every section below. The society’s backlist up until 1950 is available through the website of the National Library of Scotland: this includes diplomatic editions of the Asloan, Bannatyne, and Maitland manuscripts, key witnesses for the surviving corpus. Also available online are the TEAMS editions, designed primarily for student use. These editions include some lesser-known works, fully glossed and annotated.
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The poetry of Pierre Seghers

The poetry of Pierre Seghers

INTRODUCTION The name Seghers is more often associated with the Resistance and with the publishing of poetry than with the writing of poetry.. attracted some academic interest, but the l[r]

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Neural Poetry Translation

Neural Poetry Translation

This failure is due to the nature of the phrase-based machine translation (PBMT) sys- tems. PBMT systems are bound to generate trans- lations according to a learned bilingual phrase table. These systems are well-suited to uncon- strained translation, as often the phrase table en- tries are good translations of source phrases. How- ever, when rhythm and rhyme constraints are ap- plied to PBMT, translation options become ex- tremely limited, to the extent that it is often im- possible to generate any translation that obeys the poetic constraints (Greene et al., 2010). In addi- tion, literal translation is not always desired when it comes to poetry. PBMT is bound to translate phrase-by-phrase, and it cannot easily add, re- move, or alter details of the source poem.
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Arbindonean School of Poetry

Arbindonean School of Poetry

only interviewed for more than four dozen literary journals, magazines, anthologies and web-societies in Malta , Romania , Albania and India but has been also crowned with the literary titles of phrasal King, quatrain king, Indian Keats, mythical messiah, proverbial Samarat and poet of the poets due to the abundance of the phrasal fragrance, rhymed quatrains, Keatsean romantic flavour, proverbial pregnancy and Spenserian poetic pigments all through his creative gems. Arbindonean School of Poetry represents cultural, mythical, ethical, pluralistic and all other social activities of Indian masses. Arbindonean School of Poetry that is passionately rooted in the fertile literary soil of India has already been planted that will flourish with new ideology with the passage of time. Arbindonean School of Poetry that has started to flourish in the fertile cultural soil of India will fragrant not only the masses but will also guide them for spiritual sensations. Arbindonean School of Poetry has opened a new vistas of knowledge where poets have to swim across the poetic taverns without hindrances. Arbindonean School of Poetry is expected to fragrant the literary zones in the womb of time.‖6(2015-83)
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The poetry of Celtic places

The poetry of Celtic places

However, it is notable that, despite the mention of ‘race’ in the title of Renan’s essay, the discussion of poetry contained within seems to be just as much about place, as a passage near the opening demonstrates: “Le sommet des arbres se dépouille et se tord; la bruyère étend au loin sa teinte uniforme; le granit perce à chaque pas un sol trop maigre pour le revêtir; une mer presque toujours sombre forme à l’horizon un cercle d’éternels gémissements” (The treetops lay themselves bare and writhe; the heather extends its unchanging hue into the distance; at every step granite breaks through a topsoil too thin to clothe it; at the horizon an almost-always somber sea forms a circle of eternal sighs) (1928, 375-76). 2 In what is
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Poetry UCEA English

Poetry UCEA English

Liz Hillier: 2010 Poetry Across Time: Character and Voice: Week One; Autumn Term Liz Hillier: 2011 Poetry Across Time: Conflict: Week One... Liz Hillier: 2011 Poetry Across Time: Conflic[r]

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Iconicity in Cummings's Poetry

Iconicity in Cummings's Poetry

If these interrogative questions and the unanswered question fit together well with the dramatic situation which is called into play in the couplet/ a girl weeping and given peace through sleep/ then this means that the girl is mentally startled. She does not have an answer in her mind; she is perplexed. So that the poem is in need to extensions to have a clear meaning which is no doubt what the poet want to convey. A meaning that needs more than one example to be fully, illustrated .Babette Deutsch comments on these words in Cummings' poetry saying:
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Poetry Examining the Edges

Poetry Examining the Edges

language of home of safety of self Why is it we have interpreters in courts having to translate justice to people who have been here since time immemorial The people of power don’t s[r]

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Generating Topical Poetry

Generating Topical Poetry

7 Path extraction through FSA with RNN To locate fluent paths, we need a scoring function and a search procedure. For example, we can build a n-gram word language model (LM)—itself a large weighted FSA. Then we can take a weighted in- tersection of our two FSAs and return the highest- scoring path. While this can be done efficiently with dynamic programming, we find that n-gram models have a limited attention span, yielding poor poetry.

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Mythology, poetry and theology

Mythology, poetry and theology

Human beings have always been mythmakers. However, in view of the heavy negative connotations attached to the word “myth”, the aim of this article may, inter alia, be seen as an attempt to “rehabilitate” the word “myth” as a positive term in order to describe one of the most common genres within the Old Testament tradition. The author will indicate that the presence of myth is a common phenomenon in the Bible, and specifically in the Psalter (as poetry). The authors of the Psalms used (re-used) myth, the “mythical” and/or mythical allusions in order to express some of their most profound theologising about Yahweh – the God of Israel – as well as their relationship to that God.
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