Sidney’s Defence of Poesy was written at a time when poetry was looked down upon by critics in the English Renaissance. In his attempt to revive poetry as a genre and a mode of teaching, he makes use of many arguments relying on other scholars and writers to support his statements. The Defence of Poesy is divided into two parts, with the first part focusing on the values of philosophy, history and poetry as a means of deriving knowledge and virtue, while the second part is focused on the reasons for contempt towards poetry in Renaissance England. This essay focuses on the first part, examining Sidney’s arguments for poetry’s supreme purpose and place among other disciplines, paying particular attention to: the defence of poetry as prophecy, the eclectic scope of the defence, and the role of Plato’s and Aristotle’s philosophies in the work.
Mr. Khorramshahi’s idea about wine is “Hafez research- ers have said this thing again and again that we have two wines in Hafez’s poetry: grape wine and mystic wine. Or this idea has been frequently touched upon that we have two kinds of beloved in Hafez’s Divan: earthly and divine-mys- tic. However, I think that there is a third type of wine and beloved in Hafez’s poems and I believe that most Hafez’s poems revolve over this third type, which is the “literary or figurative” wine and beloved” (Khorramshahi, 2004: 194). Now, considering the evidence and the use of “perception and knowledge” and “uncovering the unknowns”, etc. one can add another wine called “hikmah-related/philosophical wine” which can be classified into two groups of “natural hikmah/philosophical wine” like Keykhosro’s wine in Bijan and Manizhes’ story, or “Goshtasbi wine” in Zartosht and magus story and “virtual hikmah/philosophical wine” like Khayyam’s poems and Khayyami thoughts.
10. Allusion is a reference to a known person, place, thing, event, idea or historical event. 11. Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds in two or more syllables, words, or lines. 12. Apostrophe is when a poet interrupts the narrative to directly address somebody not present. 13. Euphony is a pleasant, soothing combination of sounds.
2001 Poems: “Douglass” by Paul Laurence Dunbar and “London, 1802” by William Wordsworth Prompt: In each of the following poems, the speaker responds to the conditions of a particular place and time – England in 1802 in the first poem, the United States about 100 years later in the second. Read each poem carefully. Then write an essay in which you compare and contrast the two poems and analyze the relationship between them.
Myth is a universal human phenomenon, which attempts to express ultimate reality through symbols (Batto 1992:11). This implies that myth points towards a reality which is beyond itself and thus cannot be directly symbolised. It transcends both the capacity of discursive reasoning and expression in ordinary human language. Every society – ancient and modern – has its myths and is involved in mythmaking. Both myth (in general) and the OT (in particular) have as their ultimate concern an understanding of reality (Childs 1960:7). 15 The authors of both myth and the OT also tried to cope with the problematic human predicament, and to find their place in the world. Myth is one of the important mediums used by the biblical writers to theologise. Like their ancient Near Eastern counterparts, Israel’s theologians were concerned with their place within humankind and within the realm of being (Batto
My references to Foucault and Havel in the above readings of Mu Dan are based on their shared awareness of the social ills which gives substance to all their works, and also their perception of the special burdens of history rendered in a more or less tragic mode. The relevance of their luminous ideas to Mu Dan’s poetry on certain important subjects— power, self, responsibility—is both apparent and profound. In “Performance,” for instance, the elaborate theatrical setting and sequence of events on the stage represents the subjecting of individuals to discipline, while the actors’ extreme professionalism in perfecting their every move and utterance can be seen as the tragic result of social assimilation. The false allegorical show portrayed by Mu Dan is the very opposite of Havel’s ideal of a true theatre that fosters a sense of “alliance” or “fellowship” between artists and audience. 256 In Mu Dan’s poem the keen and probing eyes in the dark, and the failure of communication between actors and audience, resemble the surveillance that takes place in the cells of the Panopticon in Foucault’s political allegory: “small theatres, in which each actor is alone, perfectly individualized, and constantly visible.” 257 Mu Dan’s re-enactment of the exercise of power in the everyday context alludes to a
fashioners of poetic traditions, whom Wordsworth could transcend or revise without an internal stmggle, poets like Wither, Cotton, Anne of Winchilsea, and the host of later-eighteenth-century second fiddles could remain at the back of his poetic consciousness as a free field for casual, mood-inspired plunder. The case is different with Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, and, at key junctures, Coleridge, His relation to these poets is most often front to front, for they were writers against whom he was impelled to define himself, (pp. 189-90) ‘Front to front’ suggests a one-on-one combat, but where more than one of these greater figures is present, more complicated manoeuvres may be performed, different again from the relation to ‘tradition’ as a whole. Not only ought the Ode to be considered in relation both to other poems and to the ‘tradition’ of which these poems are a part, but that tension between the individuality of certain crucial works and their place in a vast pastoral corpus may itself have a bearing on W ordsworth’s own poem. Just as it is difficult to discern which poems ought to be privileged as individuals from amongst the masses of a genre, so specific allusion (or relation of another kind) shades uneasily into ‘generic allusion’ or coincidental resemblance: sources and analogues are hard to distinguish. Both kinds of relationship are at work: the relationship of individual to individual, and to the society of poetry. W ordsworth’s poem attempts to be not just another member of a class, but an individual, by differentiating itself both from its
Finally, Philip Davis and Josie Billington provide a further exploration of how poetry works for us - the mechanisms at work, again offering a vision of the therapeutic benefits of reading poetry, in particular poetry as 'offering a place for thinking about [life] without ceasing to be in it'. They suggest the importance of focusing on the experience and value of reading prior to the kind of experience of poetry we have once we have learnt about the poetic structure more formally. By considering this in the context of education, there might be an important role for teachers to play in offering students the space to encounter and value poetry in this pre-theoretical way. There is an immensely powerful experience on offer from a first encounter, further supporting the call to take more care in attending to the rich affective dimensions of our experience of poetry for its cognitive, emotional and social benefits.
Schelling was embedded in the midst of Romanticism throughout 1799. He studied Dante under Friedrich Schlegel, wrote satires in the spirit of symphilosophy and dedicated verses to Caroline Schlegel. What is more, the poetics that he developed at this period appears extremely close to the poetics of the Jena Romantics: there is a form of absolute poetry achieved through the mixing of all genres. Yet, despite this close proximity, Schellingian poetics are irreducible to Romantic poetics. 49 And this is because Schelling’s concept of mixing remains his own; it is a concept that remains tied to his rejection of representation, his refutation of the idea of a formless absolute and his refusal to countenance the power of reflection. Schelling’s concept of mixing is, instead, developed out of his meta-philosophical praxis and his account of systematicity: the endless assemblage of discursive forms in the name of identity. We have seen this process of potentiation-through-assemblage not just within Heinz Widerporst in which Heinz’ increasingly-developed confessions of Naturphilosophie are mixed in with a polemical satire against Schleiermacher and Novalis; we have seen it not only within Schelling’s poetry as a whole, which—as fragments contributing to an unwritten speculative epic—mix the low Knittelvers of Heinz Widerporst with the high, Dantean terza rima of The Heavenly Image; but we have also seen this process of potentiation-through-assemblage take place on the level of the system as such, which mixes discursive forms, including philosophy and poetry, as a means to absoluteness.
Michelet, as his stagecoach crosses from England into Wales, is aware that this border is so much more than a line on a map. He first notices donkeys rather than horses, signaling a hilly terrain: “l’emploi des ânes annonce un pays de montagnes” (1959, 134), and then comments that the place names become foreign: “étrangers” (1959, 134). He notes the presence of slate (“L’ardoise paraît, je reconnais la Bretagne” 1959, 134), realizing that the landscape is not only different from the English one he had left behind, but also strikingly similar to that of Brittany. Thus, it is through analogy with the Brittany that he had described only a few years previously that Michelet recognizes that he is in Wales. He goes on to discuss the Welsh landscape and evidence of industry, offering an opinion on the latter (1959, 134). The pinnacle of the account comes when he hopes that an unsuspecting Welsh native jumping into the stagecoach will provide him with access to ancient poetry (1959, 134). The passage ends with his crossing to Dublin (1959, 135).
Enforcing Rhyme in Translation. Ghazvinine- jad et al. (2016) fix the rhyme words in advance and build an FSA with the chosen rhyme words in place. Unlike their work, we do not fix the rhyme words in the FSA beforehand, but let the model choose rhyme words during translation. We do so by partitioning the vocabulary into rhyme classes and building one FSA for each class. This FSA accepts word sequences that obey the rhythm pat- tern and end with any word within the correspond- ing rhyme class. Then we translate each line of the source poem multiple times, once according to each rhyme class. In the final step, for each set of rhyming lines, we select a set of translations that come from the same rhyme class and have the highest combined translation score. In practice, we just make FSAs for each of the 100 most fre- quent rhyme classes (out of 1505), which covers 67% of actual rhyming word tokens in our devel- opment set.
With hindsight the millennium now appears to mark something of a shift in the academic fortunes of New Old English poetry, with an ever increasing flow of research being published in this area. Undoubtedly the catalyst for some of this work was the 1999 publication of Seamus Heaney’s translation of Beowulf, much fanfared in broadsheet press, rather than any millennialist disposition among Anglo-Saxon scholars, determined to reveal the apocalyptic presence of ancient texts in the contemporary world. With Heaney’s translation renewing or even awakening interest in Old English among the general public, as well among scholars and students of contemporary literature, it was both desirable and inevitable that more work should be produced on the intersection between the oldest and newest literary productions in English. Daniel Donoghue led the way in 2000, showing how through acts of ‘philological faithfulness’ the language of Anglo-Saxon had shaped that of Heaney, not only in the task of translating Beowulf, but also in original compositions pre-dating his Beowulf. Donoghue’s was the first extended piece of work to argue successfully that Heaney’s Beowulf deserved to be seen as a free-standing, independent work, coherent with and within the poet’s whole oeuvre.
When these operations are aligned with ‘Is There Any Poetic Writing?’, we can say that these poets’ ‘words’ have ‘abolished’ fixed connections, but they generate instead multiple ‘possible’ connections. Pcoet takes the examination of language that is possible in Grenier and Coolidge to another level: in ‘modern poetry’, says Barthes, ‘there lies a sort of existential geology, in which is gathered the total content of the Name’ (WDZ, p. 48), but in Pcoet, that ‘geology’ (which I take to include striation, distribution over levels) is shown to extend beyond the established Saussurean arbitrary signifier. The property of meaning extends even beyond the ‘Name’. Silliman phrases it as if to diminish that quality and reign it in, tying it to Barthes – Melnick’s ‘terms’ are ‘derived’ – and thus to the work of the other eight poets in the collection, who all, Silliman says, do their best to ‘diminish the reference’ of words and thus ‘redistribute’ the ‘balance’, forcing it over to sound or structure or some other element. 49 Melnick’s next major work was to be
The speaker of ‘The Journey of the Magi’ has, with his companions, ‘returned to our places, these Kingdoms,/ But no longer at ease here’ (PTSE 1, p. 102); the landscapes through which he travelled have contained disruptive meanings he cannot unriddle, although we can. For while it seems that place continues to be an intermediate rather than a substantive category for Christian Eliot, and so partakes of that quality of being illusory or even delusory that I have been discussing, there also comes into his poetry something I would call the redemptive rather than the futile place. In ‘Marina’ the phrase ‘this grace dissolved in place’ is, as it were, seeing location under the aspect of Incarnation, imbued with the Creator’s presence. Most of the poems of Ash-Wednesday occur, as I read it, within a subjective ‘space’ that is actually contained ‘In the hollow round of my skull’ (PTSE 1, p. 89), with – for example – the bones under the juniper tree and their attendant leopards comprising an emblematic dreamscape. But in the final poem of the sequence, place is not ‘always and only place’: here is evoked ‘the granite shore’ and its associations that, like the approached island of ‘Marina’, derive their potency for Eliot from being an actual landscape and seascape, familiar to him from sailing expeditions off the New England coast undertaken in his boyhood and youth. In letters he named Casco Bay, Maine, as the location he had particularly in mind, although the poems leave it unidentified. But what both poem VI of Ash-Wednesday and ‘Marina’ also have in common, is that this location is endowed with value through an emotionally-implicated act of recollection; recovery of what had been thought lost is an important element.
visionary, confessional and historical - all at once and uniformly’. A glance at the table of contents is sufficient to indicate what prompts such a sense of grandeur. While Some Trees presented nothing more immodest by way of titles than ‘The Mythological Poet’, and opened with the immaculately reserved ‘Two Scenes’, The Tennis Court Oath offers ‘A Last World’, ‘The New Realism’, ‘Faust’, ‘The Ascetic Sensualists’, ‘Europe’, ‘Idaho’, “‘They Dream Only of America’” , and, most epic of all, perhaps, ‘America’. Moreover, with the exception o f ‘Civilisation and its Discontents’ (written shortly after the publication of The Tennis Court Oath! it was not until the early seventies, when he wrote ‘The One Thing That Can Save America’, that Ashbery would again risk anything quite so grand-sounding, and there the effect is tempered with irony. Probably the monumental tone indicated by the titles of Ashbery’s second book has gone largely unconsidered by criticism because once one starts reading the poetry one finds oneself peering at fragments, straining ones eyes to see how (or whether) the atoms of Ashbery’s experimental poetry interlock. Simply put, such is the effort of concentration required to get through the more difficult poems in The Tennis Court Oath that one loses sight of the larger scale on which the volume seemed to promise to work. It is both this larger scale, and its seeming disjunction with the book’s characteristic poetic practice that I hope to begin to account for in this chapter.
There will be little exaggeration if we call him one of the jewels of the literary world in India and abroad. This creative spirit who has introduced a number of literary movements-- Phrasal Movement, Mythical Movement, Proverbial Movement and, above all, Arbindonean School of Poetry, deserves tremendous appreciations amidst the poetry lovers all around the corner. Indianised ideal form of Arbindonean Sonnets,Arbindonean Racy Style of versification and Arbindonean School of Poetry have been unanimously appreciated by innumerable critics that promote Indian English literature up to global repute. Arbindonean School of Poetry that stirs the verse-suitors for the sake of innovative poetic zone of Spenser on one hand and romantic romance of Keats on the other perfumes the poetic passages for the poetic prosperity in India and abroad. Arbindonean School of Poetry that is a junction of Tagorean, Pondicherry, Ezekielean, Confessional and Subaltern School of Poetry thrills the peeping poets for the poetic prosperity in one hand and romance with the creative stanzas on the other in spite of the monetary monarchy prevailing all around the continent. Arbindonean School of Poetry sings the success story for the glary of Indian English poetry that has thrilled the luminary for the tracery of Tom, Dick and Harry on this cultural land of milk and honey. The prime purpose of Indian School of Poetry is to turn the century for the prosperity of English poetry in India.
journalistic and ecsdemic. Chapter 2 (The Lyrical World of Gunter Grass) goes into the biographical circumstances which surround the poems and outlines the central themes of Grass's poetry and at the same time documents the author's experience of fear, death and impotence« In the third chapter (Tho Uriter and his Society) I have endeavoured to aiialys-e a number of poems which show Grass as a stern moralist and a keen social critic determined to confront his readers with their own shortcomings and hypocrisies. The final chapter (Poetry and Politics) traces the writer's progressii'e commitment to political life in the Bundesrepublik and examines this 'engagement * as it is reflected in the poetry of Gunter Grass.'''
If these interrogative questions and the unanswered question fit together well with the dramatic situation which is called into play in the couplet/ a girl weeping and given peace through sleep/ then this means that the girl is mentally startled. She does not have an answer in her mind; she is perplexed. So that the poem is in need to extensions to have a clear meaning which is no doubt what the poet want to convey. A meaning that needs more than one example to be fully, illustrated .Babette Deutsch comments on these words in Cummings' poetry saying:
Essay collections are a common form of critical publication in the field of Older Scots writing generally, including poetry. Of primary significance are collections of papers from the triennial International Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Scottish Language and Literature (ICMRSLL). The first of these, Aitken, et al. 1977, contains still essential papers: Aitken’s “How to Pronounce Older Scots” remains definitive, whereas Denton Fox’s “Manuscripts and Prints of Scots Poetry in the Sixteenth Century” articulates a systematic account of the kinds of witnesses for medieval Scots poetry. Subsequent volumes have benchmarked the state and the range of the discipline every three years or so, and many essays in them have had significant impact on the development of the discipline, notably Lyall and Riddy 1981 and Mapstone 2005. In addition, there are some Festschriften and other themed collections that contain several important pieces.