Only a few countries, however, adopted an integrated policy of interven- tion. In Italy, for instance, the only policies adopted were those concerning incentive, with greater flexibility of the labour market regulations and fiscal benefits. Two instruments in particular have been adopted over recent years: realignment contracts in the law n.196/1997 and the Program for emersion in the law n. 383/2001. These interventions were characterized by tax incentives, deregulation of production activities, bonuses paid for cancellation of previous tax debts, etc., without any enforcement action taking place at the same time. The failure of the last Program for emersion is showed in the data of Labour Minister: only 3854 irregular workers emerged that are about the 0.0008% of the 3.5 millions of irregular workers in Italy!
Gender targeted policies are increasingly becoming part of everyday program before and during the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) period unto 2030. Many programs have been introduced to ensure enforcement of gender policies on women empowerment but despite government efforts to address the issues, women disempowerment is still endemic in Kenya especially in counties located in Arid and semi- Arid Lands (ASAL). The study was guided by cultural lag theory by William Ogburn. The purpose of the study was to establish the extent to which Gender Based Violence (GBV) influences the enforcement of Gender Policies on Women Empowerment in Narok County, Kenya. The study adopted the ex-post-facto survey and descriptive survey design. Samples were drawn using stratified, simple random, purposive and systematic sampling. Questionnaires, interview schedule and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics such as frequency percentages and correlation statistics. Qualitative data were transcribed and discussed based on established themes. The study found out that the policies made to empower women are there but they have not been enforced to empower women and remove them from poverty and traditional exclusion. GBV most of it cultural affected the enforcement of Gender Policies on Women Empowerment. Cultural factors influencing enforcement of gender policies on women empowerment were FGM, early marriage, culture, powerful traditional institutions, patriarchal society and male chauvinism. Other factors were restriction put on women, dependency on husbands and societal roles. The study recommends need to challenge believes that girls and women are of less social, economic and political value than men and full implementation of gender policies on women empowerment. The government should also provide a public space for women to challenge unjust behaviors and enhance policies that will assist women ascent into power. These findings are significant not only to policy implementers and government but also to the entire society to understand the place of women in the society. The study provides a baseline to policy makers and enforcers to put in place laws and enforce policies that protect women from abuse and humiliation.
Being able to move is a constituent element of human development, and there are potential large gains to income, knowledge and other dimensions of human development to be obtained through migration. However whether people are able to move across international borders, under what conditions and how they fare after arrival depends at least in part upon the policy regimes in place. The relevant policies go beyond those governing admission, and certainly beyond those governing entry of the high skilled, to policies towards protection, treatment and access to services at destination. Nevertheless, up to now there has not been a comprehensive and systematic analysis of these three areas of migration policies (i.e., admission, treatment, and enforcement) in an internationally comparable way, covering not only different visa programmes but also developed and developing countries. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap.
In addition, the results suggest that the degree of alignment between local and federal preferences is essential in determining the overall level of enforcement and therefore the real impact of federal policies. This is particularly relevant in the US where multiple layers - county, federal district and national government - are involved in the process. It is also potentially relevant in areas besides immigration. The degree of decentralization and how that affects local outcomes is an interesting avenue for future research. Another interesting future step would be to look at the effects of local enforcement spillovers on neighboring counties. Migrants may react to enforcement over time, relocating and thereby affecting local crime rates. Furthermore, neighboring counties may react by changing their level of enforce- ment, leading to a strategic game between counties. My results show a degree of substitutability between crime enforcement and pure immigration enforcement. One natural future step would be to explore how shocks to a particular type of enforcement have consequences on other types. In this case, lower immigration en- forcement freed resources that may have been used to intensify arrests of certain ethnic groups.
In this chapter, we present a policy-based access control mechanism for outsourced envi- ronments where we support full confidentiality of access policies. We named our solution Enforcing Sensitive Policies in Outsourced envirOnmeNts (ESPOON). One of the main advantages of ESPOON is that we maintain the clear separation between the se- curity policies and the actual enforcement mechanism without loss of confidentiality. This can be guaranteed under the assumption that the service provider is honest-but-curious. Our approach allows us to implement the access control mechanism as an outsourced service with all the benefits associated with this business model without compromising the confidentiality of the policies. Summarising, the research contributions of our ap- proach are threefold. First of all, the service provider does not learn private information about policies and the requester’s attributes during the policy evaluation process. Sec- ond, ESPOON is capable of handling complex policies involving non-monotonic boolean expressions and range queries. Third, the system entities do not share any encryption keys and even if a user is deleted or revoked, the system is still able to perform its op- erations without requiring re-encryption of the policies. As a proof-of-concept, we have implemented a prototype of our access control mechanism and analysed its performance to quantify the incurred overhead.
In recent years, location information has been increasingly used in context-aware applications with the goal of augment- ing the mobile services offered to the end user. Some exam- ples are: advertisements on mobile devices from the shop being visited, and presentation of more information related to the product being purchased, or the work of art we stand by. For an effective deployment and acceptability of location services, they must support the specification and enforce- ment of security policies. Users want to specify under what conditions their location can be disclosed. In some scenarios, this can depend on past events such as, how many times a location request was made, or what places have been visited. Finally, the kind of properties that are relevant to characterize each object or event is different for each location service.
Beneﬁ ts of certiﬁ cation for companies lay mainly in the following points: implementation, maintenance and enforcement of policies and procedures in this area; evidence that policies, procedures and practices are in accordance with the requirements of this standard; improve its position in a competitive environment which is becoming a “competing values”; fulﬁ lment of the requirement of foreign customer to declare working conditions; improved communication of employees with employers regarding work environment; eﬃ cient and reliable supply chain; measurable summary of organization’s achieved results in social responsibility; better management of risks associated with the work, reputation in the labour market (Ekvalita.cz, 2012).
the low execution. Thus, the low execution knows the occurrence of confi- dential events but not their values. For policies which specify what can be declassified, values computed by expressions marked with declassification annotations in the high execution are available for being used by the low execution. In the work of Vanhoef et al., declassify annotations are only directives indicating that a particular value is computed by the release function . In their work, the stateless project function that projects confidential events to events visible to attackers is idempotent. Bolosteanu and Garg  proposed an enforcement mechanism called asymmetric SME in which the low execution is a variant of the original program. Asymmet- ric SME can enforce declassification policies where the projection functions are not idempotent, and can enforce policies whose states depend on pro- gram outputs. Austin and Flanagan  proposed enforcement mechanisms for robust declassification , which requires that active attackers (who can introduce new code) are no more powerful than passive attackers (who can only observe).
ORGANIZATIONS amass and analyze consumer data to ameliorate their accommodations. Access Control Mechanisms (ACM) are habituated to ascertain that only sanctioned information is available to users. However, sensitive information can still be misused by sanctioned users to compromise the privacy of consumers. The concept of privacy- preservation for sensitive data can require the enforcement of privacy policies or the auspice against identity disclosure by gratifying some privacy requisites. Subsisting workload cognizantanonymization techniques minimize the imprecision aggregate for all queries and the imprecision integrated to each sanction/query in the anonymized micro data is not kenned. Making the privacy requisite more stringent (e.g., incrementing the value of k or l) results in adscititious imprecision for queries.
Throughout the American university systems, a common practice can be seen – the creation and enforcement of diversity policies by both the university heads and the university faculty in an effort to create a harmonious campus environment: a campus in which all students are seen by one another as equals. However, while the crafters of these policies may have the best intentions in mind, for many students these intentions may appear to be lost in translation. Students are forced to accept certain elements of diversity, but not given the proper method to truly understand the things that make our student body diverse. This method of forcing diversity allows many key components necessary to implement true acceptance to be lost, and in fact, can hinder the ongoing process of diversity acceptance, which can result in students leaving the university without diversity compassion, but instead repeating the practice of forced pseudo- diversity. The analysis in this thesis will research and discuss how this occurs and the ways that the rhetoric of the diversity policy shapes how it is implemented.
Recent years, to make extensions for the industry process model languages such as BPEL4WS and Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) to express task authorizations becomes a research focus. For example, in  formal architecture that integrates RBAC into BPEL and allows expressing authorization constraints using temporal logic is presented. In this architecture model-checking can be applied to verify that a given BPEL process satisfies the security constraints. Although it can make use of available model-checking tools for constraint satisfaction check, the common users can not apply temporal logic to represent related authorization constraints directly. In , an extension for the BPMN to express authorizations within the workflow model is proposed. It enables the support of resource allocation pattern, such as separation of duty, role-based allocation, case handling, or history-based allocation in BPMN. Comparing with their work, our architecture supports access control modeling in different scope and the enforcement of policies for dynamic business process are also provided while this topic is not covered in .
Theoretical and empirical results pointing to a substitution between regular and irregular migration all derive from a mix of policies aimed at strengthening enforcement of migration legislation while offering concrete and sizeable access to legal labour migration, in order to create the right incentives for employers to hire, and migrants to migrate legally. On the contrary, when legal access to labour migration is limited then the risk of categorical substitution towards either other legal channels (e.g. family and protection) or irregularity is high. Substitution towards family reunification as well as irregular channels, for instance, happened for destination countries in western Europe after termination of several guest-worker programmes, and also with Maghreb countries (de Haas et al., 2018).
The conventional approach to estimating the two-equation model described above is a censored type model, such as the Tobit and its closely related variants –namely Tobit I or Tobit II. These models estimate a log-likelihood function consisting of two parts: (1) one that describes the decision to remit and utilizes all observations, and (2) a sec- ond one that models the amount remitted conditional on the observations not being censored. However, this approach has several drawbacks. First, the model relies on very strict assumptions, which include: the linearity, homoscedasticity and normality of the error term, for its validity. Otherwise, the usage of a Tobit model is highly inappropri- ate as it yields inconsistent estimators. We tested the appropriateness of the Tobit model in our case using the LM-statistic. 18 A rejection of the null suggests that the Tobit specification is unsuitable. Second, the model is restrictive in that it assumes that the same mechanism explains the decision to remit and the dollar amount ultimately remitted. This is an important modeling constraint that does not fit the reality. As an example, tougher immigration enforcementpolicies might restrict migrants ’ ability to earn and save money and, as a result, fewer migrants might remit money home. How- ever, those in a position to remit might increase the dollar amount sent home for insur- ance purposes or to make up for lower remittance payments from undocumented family members in the United States. Third, the model is only applicable when zero values capture true censoring, which might not be the case here. The observed zeroes may very well represent the amount the migrant chooses to remit.
Flexible security checks can be implemented at different system layers. For this system, enforcement at the application framework level is best solution. It serves as middleware, provides hardware abstraction and system services for multiple purposes hence ideal place to monitor events and to enforce security policies. It monitors four types of events: permission checks, queries to content providers, intents and certain data sinks like the network, file system and IPC. Hence, in this solution policy enforcement is based on events and actions. Policies have these parts: A set of event declarations (events that can occur in a actual system) and a set of mechanism descriptions, with preventive and detective event-condition-action (or ECA) rules. Preventive systems can obstruct or modify the event, while detective systems can only monitor that an event occurred under the condition specified in the rule. Both strategies can perform additional actions. But, this system assumes a non-rooted and vulnerability-free device. Both assumptions in practice are quite questionable. This is because, rooting an Android device is quite simple even for unexperienced users and vulnerability reports are quite frequent.
Typically, policies and other environmental strategies serve two purposes: they create changes in areas they were designed to address specifically, such as limiting advertising (primary effects), and as a result of their primary effects, they foster shifts in social norms and attitudes that are supportive of abstinence and responsible use (secondary effects). As part of their efforts to combat binge drinking and overcome reputations as party schools, several institutions have taken actions that have as their sole purpose the establishment of a new social normative environment on campus. These normative interventions fall into three general categories: (1) direct communications of administrators, faculty, and law enforcement; (2) messages from student-run media; and (3) social marketing strategies. Faculty, administrators, and enforcement can help establish positive social norms and expectations on campus regarding student alcohol use in many ways. One method is to use college recruiting and student orientation materials to communicate to prospective students that the school promotes a healthy social and academic environment not denigrated by alcohol misuse. Colleges and universities that closely monitor the academic calendar and adjust schedules accordingly can help avoid large periods of unstructured free time that may unwittingly foster opportunities for student activities involving alcohol. For example, the University of Vermont modified its academic calendar to avoid beginning the year with two consecutive three- day weekends. With this important and symbolic step, the University clearly showed that academic rigor, not partying, is central to being a student at the University of Vermont (Higher Education Center, 2000a).
Conclusions The main recommendations for improving road safety in the U.S. are as follows: (1) lower states’ BAC limits, and encourage the use of alcohol ignition interlocks (2) reex- amine the current speed-limit policies and improve speed enforcement, (3) implement primary seat-belt-wearing laws in each state that would cover both front and rear occupants, and reward vehicle manufacturers for installation of advanced seat-belt reminders, and (4) reconsider road-safety target set- ting so that the focus is on reducing fatalities and not on reducing fatality rate per distance driven, and (5) consider new strategies to reduce vehicle distance driven.
Climate change has posed serious challenge to national development worldwide. The increase in the amount of carbon dioxide emitted directly into the atmosphere is as a result of man’s action on the environment. In 1984, the Buhari administration launched a tree planting campaign in Nigeria. The intention of that tree planting progrmame was to bring to national consciousness the inherent danger of rapid depletion of environmental resources. The policies provide serious challenges to school administrators, teachers, youths and adults in today’s era of rapid climate change. What are the awareness and involvement of the schools and the public in the environmental policiesenforcement. The role schools and various agencies of information have to play in environmental protection, what strategies do schools and government agencies adopt in waste disposal management, awareness and information dissemination among adolescents in Calabar Municipal Local Government in preventing environmental degradation and preventing the environment from climate change hazards. These are some of the puzzles that motivated the researcher to carry out this study.