Positive Psychological Capital

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The Positive Psychological Capital of Smallholder Farmers and Its Determinants: A Case Study of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

The Positive Psychological Capital of Smallholder Farmers and Its Determinants: A Case Study of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

According to Roy (2009), some psychological factors resulting in loss of individual‟s confidence, optimism, hope, and resilience include a feeling of failure to achieve the desired results, suffering from helplessness, isolation, meaninglessness, and powerlessness. Due to loss of individual‟s positive psychological capital, the current study assumes that a farmer chooses to reduce investment or abandons his/her farm as a solution to challenges beyond his/her control. Several studies carried out by South African Water Research Commission (WRC) and agricultural economists have reported high rates of a declining number of farmers on small-scale irrigation schemes and some lie idle, and a large chunk of land abandoned by this category of farmers especially among rural-black people communities (Kibirige, 2013). However, these studies indicate that not all farmers facing these challenges abandon their fields and look for alternative sources of livelihood, but it is those who feel that they have exhausted all pathways of gaining access to government/private sector interventions that have opted out of farming. Abandonment of farms is an indication of loss of confidence, optimism, hope, and resilience. Precisely, farmer‟s positive psychological capacities related to declining smallholder-agricultural productivity in Eastern Cape Province have not been explored. Assuming abandonment of smallholder farms as the extreme stage of low positive psychological capital, the reasons of giving-up farming profession provide a basis of identifying the farm/farmer characteristics thought to be correlated with positive psychological capacities of smallholder farmers.
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Effects of Supportive Organizational Climate and Positive Psychological Capital on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Effects of Supportive Organizational Climate and Positive Psychological Capital on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Organizational climate is defined as "a set of measurable properties of the work environment, perceived directly or indirectly by the people who live and work in this environment and assumed to influence their motivation and behavior" (Litwin and Stringer, 1968:1 as cited in Hollmann, 1976:562). On the other hand, supportive climate refers to a working environment, in which reciprocal trust, coordination and collaboration is dominant and managers motivate employees towards organizational vision and increase commitment (Rogg v.d., 2001:447). Supportive organizational climate has been explained by Rogg et.al. with four dimensions as employee commitment, cooperation and coordination, managerial competence and consistency and lastly customer orientation. Employee commitment refers to the behaviors reflecting high commitment to the organization and making self sacrifices when required for the work, cooperation and coordination refers to the collaboration of employees and groups (i.e.departments) in order to get the job done efficiently and effectively, managerial competence and consistency refers to behaviors of managers maintaining a trustworthy working environment and clearly communicating work objectives and responsibilities, and finally customer orientation refers to behaviors of valuing customers' needs and exerting effort to maintain good relationships with them in the long run (2011:439). In a working environment with supportive organizational climate employees believes that they are valued, their needs are taken into consideration by their organizations and for this reason they do not hesitate to exert effort and devote time in activities related with their organizations (Randall v.d., 1999:162). In that vein, researches have supported this positive link between supportive organizational climate and employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (Bell ve Menguc, 2002:139; Farooqui, 2012:300). As it can be understood from all the explanations above, supportive organizational climate and positive psychological capital are among the factors which would affect organizational citizenship behavior of employees and for this reason investigating this effect constitutes the main objective of this study.
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AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL

AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL

One way to address the issue of turnover is to understand the commitment that employees have to their organization, and to determine what affects the different levels of commitment. To do this, we must have a clear definition of organizational commitment and identify variables that might influence it (Vondrasek, 2000). Also, it has been argued that positive organizational behavior research became the catalyst for developing the construct of authentic leadership (Luthans & Avolio, 2009; Vondrasek, 2000). It is argued as a positive form of leadership that goes beyond traditional leadership styles in order to influence followers through genuine, ethical behavior (Tuttle, 2009; Luthans & Avolio, 2009). Prior research argued the influence of leadership on organizational commitment, which emphasizes one of the strategies followed by some organizations, including testing and implementing new types of leadership. This is the case of authentic leadership that positively influences individuals' commitment (Gatling, 2016). Other authors have studied the relationship between authentic leadership and positive psychological capital, and suggest in their studies that, among other things, authentic leadership promotes positive psychological capital and positive emotions (Rego, Sousa, Marques & Cunha, 2012a). Our attempt is to determine the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. This study makes a vital contribution to the human behaviors and management science by adopting the case of a university as our research context. Universities, like other institutions, are concerned with the commitment of their employees, as weak commitment leads to low performance and loss of confidence and loyalty of employees. The research question derives from the proposed relationship as to what point is positive psychological capital a mediator of the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Descriptive analytical research will be conducted on the case of Al-Azhar University, which has more than 600 employees, including academics and administrative staff. In order to answer the research question, we follow the research logic, first reviewing the literature on authentic leadership, organizational commitment, and positive psychological capital.
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Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: The mediating role of positive psychological capital

Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: The mediating role of positive psychological capital

Luthans and Youssef (2004) even suggest that resilience is a long journey throughout life as part of people's development process, taking into account the context and the environment, and that it is a process and not a goal. Considering our results, we wonder about the actual nature of resilience. That is it is a more personal construct, unlike the other dimensions of positive psychological capital, and therefore cannot be determined by variables external to the individual, such as authentic leadership. Rather than undermining an established framework, these results may be a factor in the development of new studies, aligning the perspective of Popper (2003) of a need for refutation of situations (a particular established theoretical framework) to progress this same theoretical framework.
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The Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Coping Styles: A Study on Young Adults

The Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Coping Styles: A Study on Young Adults

The concept of psychological capital can be defined as an individual’s posi- tive psychological resource, which consists of four components which are self-efficacy/confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience. Positive Psychologi- cal Capital (PsyCap) is a recently developed higher order construct applied in the context of organizations, which has been hypothesized to aid employees cope with stress effectively in workplace increasing their psychological and physical well-being. Coping strategies refer to the specific efforts, both beha- vioural and psychological, that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stressful events by using rational, detached, emotional and avoid- ance coping. This study aims to explore the nature of Positive Psychological Capital (PsyCap) and Coping styles among male and female young adults and the relationship between PsyCap and Coping styles. Data were collected by using Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) & Coping Styles Question- naire (CSQ), administered on 100 participants aged between 18 - 25 years, from different colleges of Kolkata, using stratified simple random sampling method. Results indicated the following: 1) Hope and Resilience are signifi- cantly higher among female young adults than their male counterparts. 2) Detached and Avoidance coping style are significantly higher among male young adults & emotional coping style is significantly higher among female young adults. 3) Positive correlations exist between all the dimensions of PsyCap and functional coping style and negative relationship exists between dimensions of PsyCap and dysfunctional coping style. The study implies the effective use of PsyCap to promote positive outcomes, fostering development in young adult population.
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Authentic Leadership and Positive Psychological Capital:  The Mediating Role of Trust at the Group Level of Analysis

Authentic Leadership and Positive Psychological Capital: The Mediating Role of Trust at the Group Level of Analysis

noted that although several researchers have called for integrating all actors in the leadership process, namely, followers, leaders, and the context they are embedded in, a dearth of research has actually tested the role of followers in the leadership process while offering conclusions about their impact on the bottom line. To this end, the current study aims to advance leadership and organizational behavior research by extending the integrative theory of authentic lead- ership. Included in this theory are the roles of both positive psychological capital (PsyCap) and trust as contributors to firm performance. Furthermore, our study considers the group level of analysis in order to capture what Meindl (1995) deemed necessary for understanding the social construction of leadership. As such, we measure followers’ group-level percep- tions of authentic leadership, group-level psycho- logical capital, and group-level trust in management as related to group-level financial performance. This level of analysis is based upon social contagion the- ory, which captures the importance of peer influence among followers in an organizational setting. Finally, we feel that this study adds value to the literature by investigating these constructs in the specific context of a small family-owned business, similar to the types of businesses that represent approximately 50% of the nonfarm United States gross domestic product (Joel Popkin & Company, 2002).
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The Relationship between unfinished tasks and perceived distress and the role of positive psychological capital in a student sample

The Relationship between unfinished tasks and perceived distress and the role of positive psychological capital in a student sample

7 operationally defined as “an individual’s positive psychological state of development that is characterized by: (1) having confidence (self-efficacy) to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks; (2) making a positive expectation (optimism) about succeeding now and in the future; (3) persevering toward goals and, when necessary, redirecting paths to goals (hope) in order to succeed; and (4) when beset by problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond (resilience) to attain success” (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007, p. 3). It has been argued that psychological capital prohibits individuals from perceiving the demands of the external situation to be beyond their perceived ability to cope (second order appraisal). Through effective coping, this should result in lower stress. Additionally, because individuals with high levels of psychological capital have the needed capacities to successfully deal with their external environment, they are less likely to experience feelings of uncontrollability and unpredictability and therefore do not feel the necessary discomfort to the stressor that is needed for a possible distress development (primary appraisal) (Avey, Wernsing, & Mhatre, 2011). Thus, positive psychological capital is argued to influence the second order appraisal and possibly the primary appraisal of threat.
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Experimental Analysis of a Web-Based Training Intervention to Develop Positive Psychological Capital

Experimental Analysis of a Web-Based Training Intervention to Develop Positive Psychological Capital

ant & Cvengros, 2004; Carifio & Rhodes, 2002; Luthans, Avolio et al., 2007; Magaletta & Oliver, 1999; Youssef & Luthans, 2007) in the positive psy- chology and positive organizational behavior liter- ature. In addition, allied theoretical support for PsyCap as a second-order core construct can be found in psychological resources theory (see Hob- foll, 2002) and Fredrickson’s (2001) broaden-and- build theory of positive emotions. Law, Wong, and Mobley (1998) have also suggested that multidi- mensional constructs such as psychological re- sources, or, in this case psychological capital, may be better understood in terms of an underlying core factor. This is especially evident when constructs are highly related yet integrated with each other. For example, faced with a setback, if highly resil- ient employees with the ability to bounce back are also self-efficacious and highly hopeful, they will be motivated to persist and put forth the required effort to overcome the problem, as well as pursue alternate pathways in order to return to their orig- inal level or beyond where they were before the adverse event. Moreover, those high in optimism may have a positive perspective in general, but combined with efficacy and hope, may also have the persistence to pursue many alternative path- ways when necessary to achieve their optimistic expectations and goals.
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Impact of authentic leadership on performance:
Role of followers’ positive psychological capital
and relational processes

Impact of authentic leadership on performance: Role of followers’ positive psychological capital and relational processes

Authentic leadership may be able to influence the development and maintenance of exchange relationships with followers. The components of self-awareness, balanced processing, internalized moral perspective, and re- lational transparency together demonstrate the integrity, respectability, and trustworthiness of authentic leaders (Illies et al., 2005). These characteristics constitute the central elements of high-quality exchange relationships (e.g., Avolio et al., 2004; Blau, 1964; Illies et al., 2005). First, by eliciting diverse viewpoints from followers, au- thentic leaders are viewed as showing respect for and trust in each of their followers. This gesture is likely to be reciprocated by respect and trust on the part of followers (Avolio et al., 2004; Norman et al., 2010). Second, au- thentic leaders are true to themselves and display high levels of moral integrity. Such leaders are viewed by fol- lowers as honest and morally worthy, and therefore enhancing followers’ trust in the leaders and willingness to cooperate with them (e.g., Clapp-Smith, Vogelgesang, & Avey, 2009; Gardner et al., 2005; Norman et al., 2010). Third, authentic leaders share information with their followers in an open and transparent manner, that is, they transparently convey their attributes, values, aspirations, and weakness to followers, and encourage them to do likewise, thus fostering trust and intimacy with followers (Avolio et al., 2004; Norman et al., 2010). Moreover, relational transparency also means accountability in the relationships with followers (Burke & Cooper, 2006; Il- lies et al., 2005). Such accountability facilitates a shared understanding about future actions and each party’s re- sponsibilities, thus leading to high quality of exchange relationships over time (Burke & Cooper, 2006; Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995). Taken together, authentic leaders are likely to develop positive social exchanges with their fol- lowers. We thus propose the following hypothesis:
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Job insecurity and work outcomes: The role of psychological contract breach and positive psychological capital

Job insecurity and work outcomes: The role of psychological contract breach and positive psychological capital

Hypotheses 4a and 4b proposed that PsyCap moderates the relationship between job insecurity and in-role performance (4a) and organizational deviance (4b) via psychological contract breach. Therefore, we examined the conditional indirect relationship between job insecurity and in-role performance and organizational deviance through psychological contract breach at two levels of PsyCap: high (one standard deviation above the mean), and low (one standard deviation below the mean). The results indicate that the negative indirect relationship between job insecurity and in-role performance through psychological contract breach was significant when PsyCap levels were low (B= -.06, p< .05), but not when they were high (B= .01, p>.05). For organizational deviance, the results were similar: the positive relationship between job insecurity and organizational deviance through psychological contract breach was significant when PsyCap levels were low (B = .06, p< .05), but not when they were high (B= .01, p>.05). Figure 3 depicts the conditional indirect relationships, that is, bootstrap mean estimates and the 95% confidence interval of job insecurity’s indirect relationship with in-role performance and deviance across a range of PsyCap (i.e., moderator). The negative indirect relationship between job insecurity and in-role performance was significant for low levels rather than high levels of PsyCap. For organizational deviance, the result was similar. Therefore, the positive indirect relationship between job insecurity and organizational deviance was significant for low levels of PsyCap but not for high levels. These results support hypotheses 4a and 4b (Table 3).
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The Effect of Positive Psychological Capital on Emotional Labor

The Effect of Positive Psychological Capital on Emotional Labor

Hope has been driven by the work of Snyder and colleagues in POB literarture (Snyder, 1995, 1996; Snyder & Taylor, 2000; Snyder, Rand & Sigmon, 2002). They (Snyder, 1994; Snyder et al., 1991) define hope as “goal-directed thinking in which people perceive that they can produce routes to desired goals (pathways thinking) and the requisite motivation to use those routes (agency thinking)” (Lopez, Snyder, & Teramoto-Pedrotti, 2003, p. 94). Hope theorists argue that if an individual can consider many alternative routes to accomplishing a definite goal, they will remain hopeful in goal accomplishment as there will always be an alternative route to pursue (Snyder, 1994: 247). Furthermore, when a person high in hope is faced with a very large, insurmountable goal, rather than being discouraged and de-motivated, they may break the goal into several sub-goals and maintain motivation for the overall goal to be accomplished. Peterson and Byron (2008) found that management executives with higher hope produced solutions higher in quantity and better in quality to work-related problems, suggesting that hope may be vital in overcoming obstacles in organizations. Youssef and Luthans (2007) also showed that hope was related to job performance, employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work happiness. Seligman (1998) describes optimism as an explanatory style in which individuals attribute positive events to internal, stable, global causes, and attribute negative events to external, unstable, specific causes. In other words, an optimist would see a positive event as the result of his or her actions, with an expectation that these actions would continue to occur in the future and he/she would be helpful in handling other situations in his or her life. Seligman (1998) has shown that optimism has a significant and positive relationship with employee performance when directly applied to the workplace. Luthans and colleagues have also linked optimism to job performance (Luthans et al., 2005; Youssef & Luthans, 2007), job satisfaction, and work happiness (Youssef & Luthans, 2007), as well as leadership authenticity and effectiveness (Avolio & Luthans, 2006; Jensen & Luthans, 2006; Luthans, Norman, & Hughes, 2006).
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Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Well-Being Over Time

Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Well-Being Over Time

In conclusion, this article provides preliminary evi- dence that PsyCap may be a positive resource used to en- hance employee PWB. While well-being has been shown to have reciprocal effects on work-related outcomes such as job satisfaction, the means for understanding and af- fecting these reciprocal processes have received little at- tention. To that end, rationale from positive psychology, conservation of resources and psychological resource the- ories, in general, provide a theoretical grounding to bet- ter understand the mechanisms by which these recipro- cal interactions may be fostered. The relationship found in this study between PsyCap and well-being over time provides an important potential construct in which to in- fluence well-being and better understand its impact on more explicit occupational health outcomes. Additional research is now needed to understand other predictors of PWB and which, including PsyCap, may be the most appropriate technique for enhancing employees’ PWB to meet specific personal and organizational challenges.
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The relationship of psychological capital with social capital among students

The relationship of psychological capital with social capital among students

2- Luthans F, Luthans K, Luthans BC. Positive Psychological Capital: Going bgehond human and social capital. Bus horiz 2004; 47 (1):45-50. 3- Robbins S, Millet B, Caccioppe R, Waters- Marsh T. Organisational behaviour, 2 nd Edn. Australia: Prentice Hall; 1998.

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Psychological Capital Research in Social Sciences: A Bibliometric Analysis

Psychological Capital Research in Social Sciences: A Bibliometric Analysis

44 numbers show their occurrences and the second ones show their total link strength. “Positive organizational behavior” was the second (15; 29), “positive psychology” and “well-being” were the third and fourth ones (15; 21), “positive psychological capital” was the fifth one (15; 15). The other terms were; “work engagement” (14; 27), “job satisfaction” (12; 16), “psycap” (12; 13), “authentic leadership” (10; 17), “job performance” (9; 14), “hope” (8; 25), “stress” (8; 7), “optimism” and “resilience” (7; 25), “leadership” (7; 8), “performance” (6; 10), “burnout” (6; 9), “efficacy” (5; 19), “subjective well-being” (5; 8), “leader-member exchange” (5; 7), “China” and “psychological well-being” (5; 5). In those publications, “psychological capital” was the main concept, PsyCap is the contraction of it, “positive psychological capital” is the other name of this concept, “positive psychology” is the broader field from which PscCap was derived, and China was used in keywords as the name of a Country. Except for those keywords, the other concepts in this list show the most frequently studied concepts in the aspect of their relationships with psychological capital.
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The Effect of Psychological Capital on Innovation in Information Technology

The Effect of Psychological Capital on Innovation in Information Technology

The previous research findings demonstrate that the integration of all four dimensions of psychological capital (i.e. self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) provides a better prediction for the rational results (Luthans et al., 2007). Focusing on previous studies, Avey et al. (2010) argued that psychological capital has a significantly greater added value for favorite organizational outputs than self-evaluation and personality dimensions of an individual. Psychological capital such as psychological characteristics of the employees could pave the way for emergence of innovation in organizations. According to Luthans and Youssef (2004), creation and also establishment of innovation depends on a capital change within the organization. Individuals with positive psychological capital have a high capability to propose and implement innovative ideas for achieving the planned goals (Avey et al., 2008). These people accept the organizational changes and are able to develop new ways for obtaining their goals (hope); have the required self-confidence to use new ways for reaching their goals (self-efficacy); benefit from a positive vision for the future (optimism); and adapt themselves to any new change or difficulty (resilience); which all of these characteristics are effective in implementing the new ideas within an organization (Avey et al., 2008; Luthans et al., 2007). Although the demand for creativity and innovation may stimulate stress or frustration among employees, a positive psychological capital as a potential to meet the stressful demands, development and implementation of innovative ideas seems to be essential (Sweetman et al., 2010). Therefore, according to Luthans et al. (2007), psychological capital includes four dimensions of self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Therefore, based on these four dimensions, the present research hypotheses are discussed below:
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Positive psychological change in people with rheumatoid arthritis

Positive psychological change in people with rheumatoid arthritis

There appears to be little known about the psychometric properties of the SLQ-38, specifically in people with RA, therefore the scale could be improved by creating disease specific measurements for RA, in order to assess PPC. Attention should be paid to standardising the scale to develop a more comprehensive and sensitive version in order to develop special disease measurement to evaluate positive change in people with RA and expanded health status scales with excellent measurement properties, and this would be valuable in RA clinical trials and in outcomes research. In addition, it seems that although SLQ-38 has been well defined and focuses on the patient’s experience as a consequence of their illness, as discussed in the introductory chapter, it is important to realise the proportion of people who display PPC, as there has been no clear cut-off point in the scale established in the past research. Therefore, further research should continue to explore this further. Also worth noting that having a single cut-off could be seen as essential to make a clear assumption about the proportion of the illness; however, this thesis suggests that having a single cut-off might be too arbitrary to take into account real situations, as recommended by Brain (2002). Moreover, it is not easy to decide how many deviations would be enough to confirm PPC, even though the cut-off point is agreed. This is due to supporting the viewpoint that there could be a continuum of PPC. This thesis suggested that PPC is not all or none phenomenon, it is about ‘the level’ or the ‘continuum’. This means people can have a minimum, over the SLQ mean, or even they can have a maximum level of PPC. The suggestion of continuum of PPC is the other way of getting round the issue of deciding just what PPC is to go about it a completely different way and look at it based on clinical judgement rather than SLQ-38 cut-off. This thesis suggested that the resolution might be to look at those items that the majority of the study participants scored positively to clustering the items that seem to go together to interfere the meaning of PPC. This could help to come across to establish certain concepts that might be underling the concept of PPC in people with RA which can be a useful way when considering what the characteristics of those with RA are who reported PPC. In this case, the greater the PPC, the more people might have the self- efficacy to control their arthritic pain and fatigue and the other way around.
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The influence of employees’ cross-cultural psychological capital on workplace psychological well-being

The influence of employees’ cross-cultural psychological capital on workplace psychological well-being

(e.g. diversity training) or personal resources (e.g. individuals’ cross-cultural competencies) to obtain work outcomes such as psychological well-being (Johnson et al., 2006; Ng & Earley, 2006). Regarding the role of personal resources in this model, past research showed the importance of intellectual, social and psychological capital as key in global leaders’ ability to be effective in cross-cultural environments (Javidan & Teagarden, 2011). Building on the work of Javidan and Teagarden (2011), Dollwet and Reichard (2014) introduced the construct ‘cross-cultural psychological capital’ (cross- cultural PsyCap) by applying workplace PsyCap (Luthans, Youssef & Avolio, 2007) to cross-cultural contexts. They focused on how PsyCap as a personal resource may enable employees to interact across cultures in a more effective manner. In addition to the JD-R model, Hobfoll’s (2002, 2011) conservation of resources (COR) theory further explains how individuals constantly try to secure resources to help them attain or maintain psychological well-being, and avoid psychological distress. Cross-cultural PsyCap represents such ‘a type of cross-cultural dynamic competency in the family of personal resources’ and ‘can be regarded as a cross- cultural personal resource in Hobfoll’s (2002, 2011) COR theory’s resource family’ (Liu, 2014, p. 83). As a resource, it may help employees to be less vulnerable in demanding cross-cultural situations.
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Positive psychological resources, management responsiveness and psychological contract violation: A mediating effect of psychological contract breach

Positive psychological resources, management responsiveness and psychological contract violation: A mediating effect of psychological contract breach

In contrast, this study aims to discuss psychological contract violation from the opposite direction, i.e. the endogenous construct viewpoint. Using PLS-SEM, the five exogenous constructs i.e. the management of responsiveness, efficacy, hope, resiliency and optimism were posited as predictors of the psychological contract violation. Psychological contract breach, on the other hand was inserted as the mediator.

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The Relationship between Psychological Capital and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment

The Relationship between Psychological Capital and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment

People with a higher rate of psychological capital tend to be more hopeful about achieving their goals, are optimistic about the occurrence of positive outcomes, and believe that they are able to create positive changes in their workplace with a high degree of efficacy [10]. More specifically, psychological capital encompasses certain attributes and capabilities which can affect both employees and the entire organization. At an individual level, it can promote individual performance, and from an organizational viewpoint, it can help to increase the assets and earnings of the organization and improve the general performance [11].
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The Manifestation Of Familiness Resources And Psychological Capital As Familiness Capital:  A Conceptual Analysis

The Manifestation Of Familiness Resources And Psychological Capital As Familiness Capital: A Conceptual Analysis

Similar to the explanation of familiness as contributing to family-firm performance, PsyCap is deemed to be leading to positive organizational outcomes. PsyCap has been recognised as a core construct in constructive organizational functioning, such as employee well-being (Luthans, Youssef, Sweetman and Harms, 2013) and work performance (Avey, Reichard, Luthans and Mhatre, 2011; Peterson, Luthans, Avolio, Walumbwa and Zhang, 2012). As PsyCap is regarded as an alignment of the flow between personal and organizational goals (Luthans et al., 2004), similarly FamCap is seen as the optimal flow of familiness in family firms (Van Wyk, 2012). FamCap is seen as the functioning of familiness in an optimal flow and alignment between the family, the firm, and its resources. Familiness functions on a continuum between constrictive ineffective organizational energy and distinctive organizational energy (Habbershon and Williams, 1999; Van Wyk, 2012). Only when familiness is functioning optimally and constructively in a positive flow does it function as FamCap with sustained organizational energy. This is represented in Figure 1 (Van Wyk, 2012). As far as could be ascertained, the prevalence of PsyCap and its relationship with familiness and FamCap have not been investigated.
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