PovertyAlleviation Programme was an interim measure put in place in 2000 to address the problem of rising unemployment in the society and to increase the productiveness of the economy (Anger, 2010:141). It was designed to coordinate and monitor povertyalleviation effort and ensure that Nigerians were provided with steady sources of income, high purchasing power, equality education, water, healthcare and housing, stable and affordable power supply, among other (Anger, 2010:142). However, due to lack of coordination and commitment, lack of continuity, improper appreciation of the roots and magnitude of the problem, poor funding of the programmes, policy inconsistency, deficient infrastructural facilities and corruption, these remains the major set back of the fight against povertyalleviation (Mno, 2007).
The feature of the povertyalleviation system was analyzed to understand the design and components, and relevant features of the systems. In fact, this proposed system has been added the relevant feature, which is essential for analysis the people data and presents it properly. Apart from this system shows the reason of poor using charts and a table for the specific reason or a person. The online system presented in this paper may be used for both government and non-government purpose. Some features of the system are given below.
During the last two decades, literature in academics has witnessed a surge of interest on female entrepreneurship in the global arena. According to Carter and Cannon (2011), women entrepreneurship is seen to attract considerable amount of attention as a subject of academic debate in its own right. Verhcuil (2012) posits that such interests are due mainly on the fact that female entrepreneurs are now considered important forces in economic growth and development of their nations which is the crux of povertyalleviation. Women entrepreneurs are women who take part in entrepreneurial activities either in full time, or part time small scale or large scale or even in a multinational environment. In support of the above, Chinonye (2010) affirmed that women entrepreneurs are simply women that participate in total entrepreneurial activities, who take risks involved in combining resources together in a unique way so as to take advantage of the opportunities identified in their immediate environments through the production of goods and services. This no doubt hinges on the fact that women have been and are still agents of povertyalleviation because any meaningful growth and development must address the tenets of povertyalleviation.
Despite the fact that microfinance has been used for decades as an important development tool and as a formidable programme for povertyalleviation, development practitioners still know little about the possible efficiency of microfinance activities in reducing poverty (Khandker, 2005). Consequently, little efforts have been advanced to study the effect of these programmes on the rural poor particularly in the study area of this research. This exercise will be the foremost study in this geographical area when an independent research will be conducted to study the impact of microfinance on the rural poor. The study is expected to spur the government policy directed to empower the poor with adequate credit facilities and necessary infrastructure for economic development. In this study, an attempt was made to appraise the content and performance of Micro- Finance Bank as a catalyst for enhancing economic growth, income redistribution and poverty eradication particularly in South-West Nigeria, having adjudged that Micro- Finance Banks have a key role to play in povertyalleviation programmes.
The main objectives of the study are to elucidate the concept of rural development, to examine povertyalleviation programs implemented by the government and effects of such programs on rural life. Rural development aims to improve basic requirements of rural like sustainability in terms of social and environment, Provide them proper finance, jobs, pure air, clean houses, child education, hospitals and all those basic requirement which will be needed to fulfil the basic need of human being.
The role of Islamic values and principles were well documented theoretically but not empirically. Today many researchers have shifted their focuses on understanding the complex dynamic of povertyalleviation towards Islamic point of view. Since their inception in the mid 1975s, Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) have considered povertyalleviation as one of their major areas of interest. However these successes lead to the new and emerging approach which is introducing interest-free microfinance (Islamic Microfinance). Since the fact is Microfinance can only success in every Muslim country if it is -compliant. As in Islam, charging interest (Riba) is prohibited because by Islamic teachings, money is not an asset for earning profit and thus interest cannot be used by and for the Muslims.
traditional livelihood occupations such as agriculture, fishing and handicraft production. This means that tourism expenditure has the potential to generate a large multiplier effect, which can stimulate various parts of the local economy. The economic multiplier in tourism is greater than in many other industries, especially in the informal sector, with its low entry barriers in terms of investment and skills. While many less economically developed countries struggle to develop their tourism due to inadequate infrastructure, lack of trained personnel and corrupt, inefficient and inexperienced government bodies (Harrison, 2001), attention has turned to initiatives that develop tourism from the bottom up such as ‘community- based tourism’, ‘pro-poor tourism’, or ‘alternative tourism’. A number of reasons for this new focus exist: if tourism is to be a tool for development it must focus attention on povertyalleviation. Evidence from the literature suggests small-scale enterprises present greater opportunities for control and profit by local people (Rodenburg, 1980) and that guesthouses import less than hotels and as a result the multiplier is greater (Milne, 1992). Furthermore, Britton argued that small- scale tourism enterprises have a greater impact on improving rural living standards, reducing rural-urban migration and countering structural inequalities of income distribution (Britton, 1982: 183). Small-scale tourism places value on natural and cultural resources and can be developed without great capital investment in remote and marginal regions where a disproportionate number of the poorest people live. Much of the labour requirements are for unskilled workers, improving the opportunities for women and disadvantaged groups to earn money (Roe and Khanya, 2001). As tourism can stimulate employment, the drive for young people to migrate to urban areas is reduced, leaving a more balanced population in remote rural areas. Tourism is also considered to stimulate small-scale and micro-enterprises empowering previously disadvantaged members of communities, and further helping to alleviate poverty.
country’s relative world ranking. Export trade has been diversified in the recent past, easing reliance on ready made garments and through growth of industries such as pharmaceuticals and more recently, shipbuilding and electrical appliances. It is important to note however, that by and large the merits of these achievements are attributed to the fast growing private business sector. The resultant economic growth associated with the unprecedented strides made by a host of the non government organizations (NGOs) especially in rural Bangladesh have helped alleviate poverty over years. This is indicated as the proportion of people living below the poverty line fell over the last decade. This advancement of moving from below the poverty line to above the poverty line is well regarded by public and private policy bodies since this indicates an easing of the burden or sufferings of the extreme poor, also known as the poorest of the poor. However, the povertyalleviation or the easing of incidences of poverty in Bangladesh seems to be a suboptimal strategy in view of a number of concerns. Firstly, poverty line defined as $1.25 is used to identify the extreme poor people and not the poor in general. Given that a high majority of the population of the country is still poor, the povertyalleviation successes in a dynamic context may often convey misleading message as to what has been actually happening with the standard of living of the poor. This is so because many of the extreme poor who experience alleviated poverty fail to maintain the pace of improvement of their livelihood, and hence may face fluctuating living standards; in the worst case scenario of which they fall back below the poverty line for a short of prolonged span of time. There are a number of reasons why this may happen so. Secondly, poverty is often understood in terms of the money income of the poor and issues such as socio economic opportunities and the contexts in which the poor are exposed to are disregarded, although these aspects have been heavily emphasized by the group of economists led by Sen (1976, 1985, 1999). Thirdly, objectives of many of the rural advancement programmes including those promoting micro credit led by Grameen Bank could be often dubious or multifaceted. For example, micro credit programmes are known to have achieved both povertyalleviation and women empowerment in rural Bangladesh.
Poverty exists through the world as a curse and a big trouble in the way of development. When people deprived of their basic needs such as food, cloth, shelter, education, treatment and so on is termed as poverty .This paper is to examine empirically the impact of micro-credit on povertyalleviation in Bangladesh. The regular growth of the micro finance concerned parties has been promoted not only by market forces but also by conscious actions of national governments,Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the donors who view microfinance as an effective tool for eradicating poverty. This paper argues that microfinance can be considered as an important element for an effective poverty reduction strategy especially in rural areas. This study is developed by descriptive analysis based on secondary data. After the analysis of collected data and information, it shows evidence that practically microcredit can be considered as an effective tool for poverty reduction in developing countries like Bangladesh. To be more ensure that how much and how the microcredit really reduces poverty, further study and research should be carried out in future .
The coverage of PP AF is currently limited, compared to the needs. That it did not so far had a significant impact on povertyalleviation in the areas of its operation appears to be supported by a study conducted by Gallup. Almost 60% of those surveyed did not experience any increase in their income. PPAF was established because of the encouraging experience of micro- enterprises loan of the World Bank distributed through Banker’s Equity Limited wherein loan was extended to successful ongoing enterprises. The extent to which PPAF can achieve such a primacy is difficult to determine. Micro credit is not generally targeted to the poor. However increased access to credit facilities for those with out collateral can serve as a powerful instrument for income generation and povertyalleviation, if lending rates are not inordinately high and entrepreneurial training is also included in the package. It may be of interest to note that the partner organizations of PPAF have not been able to cover all costs from interest income despite high interest rate charged from the borrowers.
Rural development has assumed global attention especially among the developing nations. It has great significance for a country like India where majority of the population, around 65% of the people, live in rural areas. The present strategy of rural development in India mainly focuses on povertyalleviation, better livelihood opportunities, provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative programmes of wage and self-employment. This article overviews the role and function of the Government and its’ programmes for rural development in India. Science and technological interventions in the field of rural development have been discussed briefly and efforts being made to document some of the appropriate technologies developed by several research institutes, organizations suitable for application in rural areas are listed. Besides, the actual realization achieved during the X th plan and the proposed target and strategy of the XI th plan have been highlighted to showcase the recent trend of developmental activities under the Ministry of Rural Development.
Similar the totals average of monthly saving before credit utilization was Rs, 135000 and totals average of monthly saving after credit utilization was increased and reached to Rs, 400000. This study also concluded that all the results are highly significant and due to micro credit the literacy rate of several families have increased and some was remained unchanged. On the basis of pair t-statistic the null hypothesis is rejected (ho: lesser the role of micro credit, lesser would be the chances of povertyalleviation) and accepted the alternative hypothesis that (HI: higher the role of micro credit, greater would be the chances of povertyalleviation). This study shows that micro credit plays very vital roles in povertyalleviation and government and regulatory authority should try to increase the volumes of micro credit and subsidized the micro credit institutions to facilitate and enlarge the volume of credit. The government should stop misuse of the poor people caused by expensive informal credit. As compared to informal loans, Government should provide small and inexpensive loan to the poor people of the country at relatively lower cost. Socially and economically viable projects should be financed. To create greater employment opportunities. To improve standard of living on sustainable basis and reduce accelerate growth and poverty, which is the most important objective of this report.
Pro-poor tourism suggests that a variety of stakeholders’ support functions at a diverse scale of operations to ensure that the tourism is spread broadly to help ease poverty (Scheyvens and Russell, 2012). Meanwhile, the sustainable livelihood approach in developing countries promotes collaboration among stakeholders in tourism projects and in identifying the causes of poverty from the perspectives of the local people (Norton and Foster, 2001). The increasing number of tourist arrivals and tourism receipts globally motivates stakeholders’ to be involved in tourism and contribute to povertyalleviation policies, also help the local communities’ generate income (Spenceley and Meyer, 2012). At the same time, tourism is unable to be a dominant business in a country (Morgan et al., 2003). Therefore, tourism requires driving forces, resources and skills from agriculture, manufacturing, aviation, and construction to alleviate poverty (Sonne, 2010). The support of stakeholders from various directions are essentially important in this study. Especially, the local government, private tourism organizations and semi-government tourism businesses to implement new policies on povertyalleviation, to promote the local tourism products and services, to share tourism ideas and convey information on tourism planning, and development. A study in Costa Rica and the Netherlands have concluded that tourism contributes to communities’ livelihood, especially those with the involvement of stakeholders. The support of stakeholders’ especially those from private sector provides an access to the marketing facilities and linkages to international networks to build the tourism chain worldwide (Duim and Caalders, 2008). Based on past studies, hypothesis H2 is structured;
Social entrepreneurship is now creating new business model. It also bridges an important gap between business and social action. Social entrepreneurship, commonly defined as „„entrepreneurial activity with an embedded social purpose‟‟ . Social entrepreneurship is perceived to be about applying the expertise, talents and resources of entrepreneurs to the variety of problems developing countries face, such as education, health, personal safety and security, povertyalleviation, social advancement, environmental sustainability, and so forth . Social entrepreneurship has developed a global phenomenon that influences the society by using innovative approaches to elucidate social problems . Therefore, Duke University‟s Fuqua School of Business, the Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship (CASE) writes, Social entrepreneurship is the process of recognizing and resourcefully pursuing opportunities to create social value with the innovative method. Social entrepreneurs are innovative, resourceful, and result-oriented, who draw upon the best thinking in both the business and nonprofit worlds to develop strategies that maximize social impact. These entrepreneurial leaders operate in all kinds of organizations: large and small; new and old; religious and secular; non-profit, for-profit, and hybrid .
In the BoP perspective, the key to growth and scalability is profitability associated with competitive advantage. Indeed, the BoP perspective relies on the view that unmet societal needs are also potential business opportunities (London & Hart, 2004; Prahalad, 2004; Prahalad & Hart, 2002). BoP ventures are viewed as operating under a hypothesis of mutual value creation; the greater the ability of the venture to meet the needs of the poor, the greater the return to the partners involved (Hart & Milstein, 2003; Wheeler et al., 2005). While the specific outcomes from and boundary conditions for the interaction between profits and povertyalleviation require deeper exploration and careful monitoring (Leonard, 2007; London, 2007b; Walsh et al., 2005), this relationship clearly points to self-financed growth as a critical aspect of both the BoP venture’s economic and societal performance.
Abstract : Infrastructural development is a key driver for economic development and progress in a country and a critical enabler for productivity and sustainable economic growth. The paper identified infrastructure as a major factor that determines the people’s wellbeing and by extension their level of prosperity or poverty. It also identified the following; education, transportation, health, clean water and sanitation, social service and electricity supply as critical components of infrastructure. This paper reviewed the status of these critical infrastructure in Nigeria and the level of the effectiveness of past povertyalleviation programmes in Nigeria. A survey method was used. It was found that the past povertyalleviation programmes of government had been unsuccessful because of many factors, among these were, the lack of continuity of programmes and the low level of infrastructure addition and the deterioration of the existing ones. It was found that Nigeria suffers high degree of infrastructural deficit caused by poor funding, mismanagement of available funds, poor infrastructural maintenance management and corruption. All these continued to perpetuate poverty. Recommendations to use infrastructure as a panacea to alleviate poverty were listed.
Workfare models have in general been based on the contributions of Besley and Coate (1992,1995) which provide a detailed analysis of workfare as an in- come maintenance (or povertyalleviation) program. They introduce a static model of adverse selection in which the primary aim of the social planner is to minimize the costs of a PAP and also ensure that all individuals are above a minimum income level, when income-generating ability is unobservable. Work- fare takes the form of a requirement to work in an unproductive public-sector job. They analyse two distinct incentive arguments to justify the use of work requirements in such programs: a screening argument suggesting it may serve as a means of giving transfers only to deserving individuals and a deterrent argu- ment defending it is a device to encourage poverty-reducing investments such as acquiring additional education. In case workfare is implemented, it crowds out some private-sector output by reducing time spent in private-sector work. It is shown that workfare may be part of a cost-minimizing policy when the govern- ment is unable to observe wage rates and incomes and also when incomes (but not wage rates) are observable. In a two-class model (Besley and Coate, 1992), the high ability individuals are o¤ered no bene…ts whereas those claiming to be of low ability are o¤ered an income transfer in exchange for a work requirement. However, those of high ability have no incentive to pretend to be of low abil- ity. In fact, the optimal work requirement is chosen so as to make high-ability individuals indi¤erent between claiming to be of low ability and receiving no bene…t at all. The optimality of workfare is more likely to occur if there is a large wage di¤erential between high and low ability workers and if the fraction of low-ability workers is small relative to the whole target population. When those conditions are met, the crowding-out e¤ect from workfare is modest and the cost-saving from excluding high-ability workers from bene…ts dominates the crowding-out e¤ect.
The cross-section estimation shows the positive impact of microfinance on povertyalleviation at the macro level. The larger impact of the percentage of female borrowers has been observed in multidimensional poverty. The impact of the number of active borrowers and gross loan portfolios is much higher than that of any other explanatory variable included in the analysis. We also find that the key variables of our analysis remain negative and statistically significant after including the regional dummy. Results for regional dummies show that East Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and North America have negative and statistically significant coefficients with reference to South Asia at a 5% level of significance. In the meantime, Africa has a positive coefficient although statistically insignificant, suggesting that in Africa, the effect of MFI activities on poverty is not great. Table 8 shows the impact of microfinance on poverty in terms of head count ratio and poverty gap using level data of explanatory variables instead of log variables. The different columns represent the estimation showing the microfinance activities effect with and without regional dummies on poverty. In all specifications, the results are statistically significant but magnitudes are relatively small. Table 9 shows the microfinance effect on three dimensions of poverty: living standard, health and education. We use a log-level model for this estimation. The cross-sectional regression shows a significant impact of microfinance activities on these three dimensions of poverty. Table 10 demonstrates the cross-sectional regression interaction between poverty and legal status of MFIs and region. The estimated coefficient shows that a higher number of female borrowers can decrease the poverty head count ratio. Table 12 shows the cross-sectional regression for instrumental variables used to remove the simultaneous equation problem from our model. Our main objective with the instrumental variable estimation is to remove or solve the problem of endogeneity of the microfinance activities and poverty incidence. The coefficient of the number of active borrowers is negatively and statistically significant at a 5% level, overcoming the heteroscedasticity with and without regional dummies. We conduct three tests: an F test for weak identification, Sargan’s test for over-identification, and an under-identification test. We observe from these tests that we fail to reject the null hypothesis, which is that our instrument has no correlation with the error term. Table 11shows the validity of our instruments; if we use only one instrument - legal origin - we observe that poverty reduces the impact of the number of active borrowers.
Still on the findings, the impact of microfinance on income and consumption goes through links from investment to the pattern of income change and from the pattern of income change to povertyalleviation. However, from the study the driving consensus is that gains were larger for the women who received higher loan than the ones that received lower. Contrarily, if any of the beneficiaries face hard time in repaying back loans from new business within short period of time irrespective of how much she received, it may affect the income. Difference in capital or loan received and the skill associated with the women’s business is another thing that might have caused the lower beneficiaries not to be empowered economically or other wise. This will also lead to disparity between their incomes as well. Those who received higher loans may be optimistic in investing in new technology and seem to have more knowledge in how to improve their businesses and how to finance investments.
Abstract: The village Kalesang Program is a government business of Buru Regency to improve the lives of the village community with part icipatory planning patterns that come from the government and society. The Kalesang village includes the planning and implementation of Village development conducted jointly between the Government and the village community. This research is a qualitative study aimed at describing the implementation of the village's Kalesang program as a povertyalleviation instrument in rural communities. The research location focuses on Lala, N amlea and Marloso with the consideration of different social economic characters with other villages in Namlea subdistrict. The number of informant interviewed was 45 people divided into communities, village apparatus and community leaders. Analytical techniques used to follow the concept of Miles and Huberman where activities in the analysis of qualitative data are conducted interactively and continuously. The results showed that the village's Kalesang program was able to become a development instrument and empowerment that was able to foster cooperation from the Community and government to plan and implement development and to keep watching it Through active participation. The end goal of the village Kalesang in the form of poverty te sting made easy in the frame of harmonization and synergy between the government and the community to cooperate in resolving the problem of Village development.