Powdered Activated Carbon

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Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Powdered Activated Carbon

Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Powdered Activated Carbon

Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized through nickel ion (Ni 2+ ) impregnation of powdered activated carbon (PAC). Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using acetylene gas, in the presence of hydrogen gas, was employed for the synthesis process. Various percentages (1, 3, 5, and 7 wt. %) of Ni 2+ catalysts were used in the impregnation of Ni 2+ into PAC. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyzer (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), zeta potential, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) were utilized for the characterization of the novel composite, which possessed micro and nanodimensions. FESEM and TEM images revealed that the carbonaceous structure of the nanomaterials was fibrous instead of tubular with average width varying from 100 to 200 nanometers. The PAC surface area increased from 101 m 2 /g to 837 m 2 /g after the growth of CNF. TGA combustion temperature range was within 400 ∘ C and 570 ∘ C, while the average zeta potential of the nanocomposite materials was −24.9 mV, indicating its moderate dispersive nature in water.
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Performance of Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Combined with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition for the Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater

Performance of Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Combined with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition for the Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater

Abstract  Membrane technology is one of the alternative solutions to overcome industrial wastewater treatment de- veloped nowadays. The addition of PAC (Powdered Activated Carbon) in the activated sludge using Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid Bioreactor (SMAHBR) is expected to increase the organic material removal. The pur- pose of this study was to determine the performance of sub- merged membrane bioreactor and activated carbon ad- sorption capacity of organic materials in wastewater. This study used SIER (Surabaya Industrial Estate Rungkut – Surabaya, Indonesia) waste as activated sludge operated at Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS) concentrations of 8000 and 15000 mg/l, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations of 1500, 2500 mg/l, Sludge Retention Time (SRT) of 10;20; and 30 days and activated carbon variables of 0%; 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; 10%. The results showed that the fouling potential occurred at high MLSS where the COD removal occurred at PAC addition of 10% reaching 91.86%. High Soluble Microbial Product (SMP) accumulation (± 10 mg/l) occurred in short SRT and high MLSS concentration. PAC addition resulted in decreased microorganisms in the reactor and better effluent of SMAHBR, as a result, the performance of the submerged membrane bioreactor would be restored.
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Removal of radio N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from drinking water by coagulation and Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) adsorption

Removal of radio N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from drinking water by coagulation and Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) adsorption

method detection limits are 0.91, 0.98, 1.23, and 1.45 ng / L of NDMA at scintillation intensity ratios of 10:10, 5:15, 15:5, and 2.5:17.5 (sample: scintillation liquid), respectively. The scintillation intensity in all cases is linear (R 2 >0.99) and is in the range of 0 to 100 ng / L of NDMA. In addition, because scintillation intensity is independent of solution pH, conductivity, and background electrolyte ion types, a separate calibration curve is unnecessary for NDMA samples at di ff erent solution conditions. Bench-scale experiments were performed to simulate individual treatment processes, which include coagulation and adsorption by powdered activated carbon (PAC), as used in a drinking water treatment plant, and biosorption, a technique used in biological treat- ment of waste water. The results show that coagulation and biosorption may not be appropriate mechanisms to remove NDMA (i.e., hydrophilic based on its low octanol-water partitioning coe ffi cient, Log K ow = 0.57).
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Does Waste Water Treatment Plant Upgrading with Powdered Activated Carbon Result in Reduced Water and Sediment Toxicity of the
Receiving Stream?

Does Waste Water Treatment Plant Upgrading with Powdered Activated Carbon Result in Reduced Water and Sediment Toxicity of the Receiving Stream?

Advanced waste water treatment technologies based on e.g. an additional powdered activated carbon stage are in the focus of today’s science and politics. Despite the abundance of detailed information on the efficiency of these new technologies in the literature, little is known about their effects on the connected surface waters. The present study focuses on a large waste water treatment plant in Ravensburg (Southern Germany), which has been equipped with an additional cleaning stage (powdered activated carbon in late autumn 2013. Within the scope of a pre-post study, effluent samples of this WWTP as well as sediment and surface water samples from the connected River Schussen were investigated by chemical analysis and the fish embryo test with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) over a period of 2 years prior and after the WWTP upgrade. Our results clearly show the additional purification step based powdered activated carbon to result not only in a considerable reduction of micropollutants in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and surface water, but also to improve sediment and surface water quality in respect to a significant reduction of embryotoxic effects. Our study thus revealed the ecological and toxicological relevance of the PAC adsorption technology in wastewater treatment.
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Impact of Powdered Activated Carbon and Anion Exchange Resin on Photocatalytic Treatment of Textile Wastewater

Impact of Powdered Activated Carbon and Anion Exchange Resin on Photocatalytic Treatment of Textile Wastewater

Although color was removed by PCO from aqueous RB4 solutions used as simulated wastewater, the minerali- sation of RB4 by this process was poor. The addition of chloride and sulfate concentrations found in real textile wastewaters did not deteriorate the efficiency of photocatalytic RB4 degradation. However, the radical scaven- ger hydrogen carbonate depressed efficiency of PCO as shown by experiments with model wastewater prepared in a tap water matrix. Color as well as TOC removal by PCO was intensified when sorbents (powdered activated carbon or the anion exchange resin Lewatit) were added to the PCO process. It turned out that RB4 was more efficiently adsorbed to PAC and Lewatit when TiO 2 was present. This could not be explained by the presented
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Effect of Powdered Activated Carbon Base Material and Size on Disinfection By-Product Precursor and Trace Organic Pollutant Removal.

Effect of Powdered Activated Carbon Base Material and Size on Disinfection By-Product Precursor and Trace Organic Pollutant Removal.

unintended consequence of increased lead levels at consumer taps (Edwards and Dudi 2001). Also, it is unclear whether risk reduction is truly accomplished with chloramination given recent evidence that many nitrogenous DBPs are more potent cytotoxins and genotoxins than the currently regulated THMs and HAAs (Richardson et al. 2007, Plewa et al. 2008). Therefore, (cost-) effective treatment options should be investigated that focus on the enhanced removal of DBP precursors. One option for DBP precursor removal that has received limited attention to date is the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC). Advantages of using PAC for drinking water treatment include the low capital investment requirement, relatively low material cost, and the option for seasonal application (Knappe, Matsui, and Snoeyink 1998). Some utilities effectively use PAC for DBP precursor removal, and a few publications suggest that reasonable PAC doses can lead to meaningful TOC and/or DBP precursor removal (Uyak et al. 2007; Najm et al. 1991; Kristiana, Joll, and Heitz 2011). Recent reports also suggest that superfine PAC (S-PAC) is more effective for NOM removal than traditional PAC (Matsui et al. 2004, Matsui et al. 2005). To date, the understanding of the factors that control the effectiveness of PAC for NOM and DBP precursor removal are quite limited.
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Removal of orange 16 azo dye by adsorption on powdered activated carbon

Removal of orange 16 azo dye by adsorption on powdered activated carbon

A BSTRACT : The objective of this work is to study the possibility of removal of orange 16 azo dye by adsorption on powdered activated carbon and the effect of different reaction parameters. During the experimental study, adsorption tests were carried out in reactor static solutions of this compound in distilled water. Following for kinetics adsorption showed that the best results were obtained after 15 minutes of agitation of a solution of 100 ml of orange 16 10 -4 M with 10 mg of PAC. The initial amount of the dye and the pH of the medium influence greatly the rate of retention.
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Removal of violet 5R azo dye by adsorption on powdered activated carbon

Removal of violet 5R azo dye by adsorption on powdered activated carbon

A BSTRACT : The objective of this work is to study the removal of violet 5R azo dye by adsorption on powdered activated carbon. Following for kinetics adsorption showed that the best results were obtained after 10 minutes of agitation of a solution of 100 ml of violet 5R 10 -4 M with 10 mg/l of PAC. The initial amount of the dye and the pH of the medium influence greatly the rate of retention.

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Removal of Biochemically Active Compounds by Powdered Activated Carbon Adsorption Processes.

Removal of Biochemically Active Compounds by Powdered Activated Carbon Adsorption Processes.

Biochemically active compounds (BACs), such as endocrine disrupting chemicals, antimicrobial compounds, and pharmaceutically active compounds, are ubiquitous in wastewater treatment plant effluents and in drinking water sources that are impacted by wastewater discharges. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption is one water treatment process that can effectively remove BACs, but little information is available on factors that affect BAC removal by PAC. The principal objective of this study was to identify factors that control the BAC removal effectiveness of PAC adsorption processes. Specific objectives were to determine the effects of the following factors on BAC removal: 1) PAC type (coal-based, wood-based, lignite-based); 2) PAC particle size (as-received and submicrometer-sized PAC, or S-PAC); 3) background water matrix; 4) solution/coagulation pH; 5) presence of metal hydroxide floc; and 6) timing of PAC addition relative to the addition of the coagulant.
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Removal of Perfluorinated Compounds by Powdered Activated Carbon, Superfine Powder Activated Carbon, and Anion Exchange Resin.

Removal of Perfluorinated Compounds by Powdered Activated Carbon, Superfine Powder Activated Carbon, and Anion Exchange Resin.

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are surfactants used in the manufacturing of numerous consumer products, including stain repellents, nonstick coatings, and water repellent fabrics. Because of their persistence, PFCs can be detected globally in aquatic environments, including drinking water sources. In 2009, the EPA issued a drinking water Provisional Health Advisory for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at 0.4 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, to protect consumers against adverse health effects resulting from short-term PFOA and PFOS exposure. In New Jersey, a health-based PFOA guideline of 0.04 μg/L was developed as a protective measure against long-term PFOA exposure. PFOA levels of 0.04 μg/L are not uncommon in drinking water sources. To date, little is known about the effectiveness of drinking water treatment processes for the removal of PFCs at drinking water relevant concentrations. The objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and anion exchange processes for the removal of PFCs from drinking water sources.
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A Mathematical Model for Adsorption of Surfactant onto Powdered Activated Carbon

A Mathematical Model for Adsorption of Surfactant onto Powdered Activated Carbon

Removal of two surfactants, both cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LABS) that are in detergent are presented at household and industrial wastewater due to use of detergent for different aim, by powdered activated carbon (PAC) was investigated. The influences of surfactant concentration and PAC amount on the adsorption values of surfactant have been determined. Increasing PAC amount causes the increase in the adsorption values of surfactant; however, a lesser amount of PAC for CTAB than LABS was used to achieve the same degree of adsorption values.
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Removal of 2-Methylisoborneol and Geosmin by High-Silica Zeolites and Powdered Activated Carbon in the Absence and Presence of Ozone.

Removal of 2-Methylisoborneol and Geosmin by High-Silica Zeolites and Powdered Activated Carbon in the Absence and Presence of Ozone.

Algae and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are responsible for many episodes of unpleasant taste and odor in drinking water sources (e.g. Izaguirre et al. 1982, 2004, Jüttner 1983, Burlingame et al. 1986, 1992, AwwaRF and Lyonnaise des Eaux 1987, 1995). Taste and odor problems in drinking water continue to be widespread; e.g., utility responses to a survey conducted by Suffet et al. (1996) showed that 43% of North American utilities experienced taste and odor episodes that lasted more than one week. Among the most frequent and challenging taste and odor problems are those associated with earthy and musty odors attributed to the presence of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and (E)-1,10-dimethyl-9-decalol (geosmin). MIB and geosmin present treatment challenges to utilities because of (1) their low odor threshold concentrations, (2) their resistance to oxidation by common oxidants, and (3) the moderate effectiveness of activated carbon adsorption processes.
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Development of Hybrid Polymeric Polyerthersulfone (PES) Membrane Incorporated with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment

Development of Hybrid Polymeric Polyerthersulfone (PES) Membrane Incorporated with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment

The results showed a trend where the membrane with higher concentration of PAC integrated will have better performance in both pollutant removal ability as well as the [r]

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Adsorption Studies of Trimethoprim Antibiotic on Powdered and Granular Activated Carbon in Distilled and Natural Water

Adsorption Studies of Trimethoprim Antibiotic on Powdered and Granular Activated Carbon in Distilled and Natural Water

Contamination of drinking water sources by Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) has raised concerns due to associated negative effects on the ecosystem, which include reproductive and hormonal malfunctions in some living organisms. In addition, occurrence of antibiotics in aquatic environment has been associated with development of antimicrobial resistance. However, the conventional water and wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing such organic micro-pollutants from the source waters, hence most of such contaminants find their way through the systems with minimal restrain. Hence accelerated effort to find technologies to enhance removal of recalcitrant organic micro-pollutants from the water and wastewater. The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of Trimethoprim (TMP) from natural water using Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). Adsorption experiments were conducted following batch process using natural water and distilled water. We also investigated the effect of pH changes on adsorption of TMP from the water. We obtained better performance for PAC in the removal of TMP compared to GAC. The removal efficiency decreased as a function of TMP concentrations in the aqueous solution. The optimal pH for adsorption was found to be 7, whereas pH values below or above 7 exhibited decreased adsorption of the antibiotic. There was no significant difference in the adsorption of TMP in both natural water and distilled water, which was attributed to limited organic matter in the natural water that was used.
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Coagulation and Chlorination of NOM and Algae in Water Treatment: A Review

Coagulation and Chlorination of NOM and Algae in Water Treatment: A Review

Abstract: Due to health concerns of natural organic matter (NOM) and algae presence in surface water and difficulties encountered in their removal in the water treatment, this paper reviews coagulation and chlorination processes which are largely used in water treatment technology. In the conventional water treatment, coagulation and slow filtration treatments have better efficiency to reduce the NOM in water especially for the hydrophobic portion than the hydrophilic one. However, the pre-chlorination treatment for raw water has been proved to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration due to the lysis of algae cells and disinfection by-products formation. The impact of water treatment processes on disinfection by- products formation remains complex and variable, as demonstrated by recent literature. It is concluded that no pre-, no inter-, only post-chlorination preceded by optimised coagulation for NOM and algae removal is the best available technology for the conventional water treatment which would be reinforced by at least adsorption on powdered activated carbon or nanofiltration in the short terms. Finally, the conventional water treatment will not remain a viable solution for drinking water from source waters containing NOM as their quality deteriorates and water quality standards become more difficult to achieve.
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Activated Carbon and Clay Minerals for the Sorptive Removal of Denatonium Ions from Denatonium Benzoate Solutions

Activated Carbon and Clay Minerals for the Sorptive Removal of Denatonium Ions from Denatonium Benzoate Solutions

Granular activated carbon (GAC) produced via steam activation of bituminous coal and acid washing was obtained from NORIT Company ® in virgin form with grain sizes between 0.4 and 1.68 mm. The carbon had a reported (BET) surface area of 1175 m 2 /g, apparent density of 480 g/L, and moisture content of 2%. The re- ported GAC pore volume distribution is 0.35 cm 3 /g, 0.22 cm 3 /g, and 0.26 cm 3 /g for micropore, mesopore, and macropore volumes, respectively. This commercially manufactured carbon is widely used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and water applications to remove impurities. Sorption experiments used as-received activated carbon in granular form and activated carbon in powdered form. To obtain powdered activated carbon (PAC), as-received GAC was ground and sieved using a no. 325 mesh sieve to obtain <0.045 mm sized particles. The PAC was then rinsed with ultrapure water and oven-dried for 30 minutes at 100 ˚C prior to use. A 1500 mg/L PAC carbon slurry was prepared in ultrapure water for use in experiments. Phosphoric acid and HPLC-grade acetonitrile was purchased from Fisher Scientific and used as received.
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A Comparative Study on the Removal Technologies of Acetylsalicylic Acid from Water

A Comparative Study on the Removal Technologies of Acetylsalicylic Acid from Water

Adsorption was considered as the next treatment method and showed encouraging results. In terms of the best type of carbon, powdered activated carbon showed the best results with an adsorptive capacity of approximately 80%. Since adsorption is an interaction of charges, this is a useful method as the charges on the adsorbent and adsorbate could be manipulated to enhance adsorptive capacity. If the surface of the adsorbent, activated carbon is neutral or near basic in nature, that is, if it has surface neutral or negative charges, then maximum adsorption would be obtained if the aspirin solution medium is buffered to be acidic and maintained at pH 4 (so that positive ions dominate) which is the optimal pH for aspirin adsorption on this adsorbent.
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Performance Assessment of Received and Formulated Carbon Animalis: A Comparative Adsorption Isotherm Test

Performance Assessment of Received and Formulated Carbon Animalis: A Comparative Adsorption Isotherm Test

With the stated advantages of finer adsorbent of high surface area, why then do manufacturers design unspecified active carbons of granular size even for the removal of medium size particles? This research attempt to provide one of such answers. A batch equilibrium adsorption study was carried out to assess the adsorption capacity and intensities of methyl red dye onto “Received” Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and “formulated” Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC). The equilibrium data obtained were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms. The data fitted best with the Langmuir model which was predicted by the highest R 2 value (0.981). The experiment carried out demon-
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Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Tetracycline Biosorption by Pre-treated Posidonia oceanica

Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Tetracycline Biosorption by Pre-treated Posidonia oceanica

Study of acid orange 7 removal from aqueous solutions by powdered activated carbon and modeling of experimental results by artificial neural network.. oceanica and organ[r]

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Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE) And Polystyrene (PS) Into Fuel

Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE) And Polystyrene (PS) Into Fuel

(1g) ZnO and 10g Activated Carbon to fuel according to their wave number and spectrum band following types of functional groups are appeared in the analysis (Figure 3 and table 2). In the spectrum field we noticed that higher wave number are emerged in the initial phase and middle index of the spectrum in higher wave number small and bulky both functional groups are available and in low wave number double bond and single bond functional groups are available such as methane group, trans and alkene group etc. Hereafter wave number 3647.98 cm -1 functional group is Free OH, wave number 3435.53 cm -1 , functional group is Intermolecular H bonds, wave number 2938.23 cm -1 functional group is C-CH 3 , wave number 2077.45 cm
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