Herbal medicine is most popular in curing many chronic disorders. An examination to determine macroscopic and microscopic characteristics is the first step towards establishing the identity and the degree of purity of herbal materials, and should be carried out before any further tests are undertaken 13 . The objective of present was to perform pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical investigation on bark of F. bengalensis.
constituents (Table 2). Analysis of these various extracts showed presence of tannins, flavonoid, saponins and cabohydrates So bark of Bauhinia variegata show presence of specific moiety utilized for pharmacological investigation. Aqueous extract also gave positive tests for carbohydrates. Methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extract indicated presence of phenolic compounds.
Circular discs of 6mm (diameter) were prepared from Whatman No. 1 filter paper and sterilized in an autoclave. These discs were impregnated with extracts in the respective solvents for overnight and placed on nutrient agar plates with tested bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 O C for 24 hrs. 1mm and the values are recorded and tabulated the incubation period zone inhibition was measured. Here various extracts are used to bacteria, like Ethyl acetate, Ethyl and chloroform extracts for leaves. Separate discs were prepared by impregnating with only solvent as control. The values of negative control are deducted from the tested value for analysis. The tests were repeated 3 times to ensure reliability of the result. Premilinary Phytochemical screening was carried out using the methods adopted by (Wagner et al., 1984; Harbone, 1973).
Natural compounds can be a lead compounds, allowing the design and rational planning of new drugs, biomimetic synthesis development and the discovery of new therapeutic properties not yet attributed to known compounds (S.M.K. Rates, 2011). The present study has made an attempt to evaluate the microscopic characters of Neolamarckia cadamba by determining leaf constants, trichomes and stomata, Phytochemical screening by using Qualitative chemical tests & column chromatography. The study includes biological evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activity. Phytochemical screening of the crude methanolic extract of the leaves of Neolamarckia cadamba showed the presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Steroids and Glycosides. In Biological Evaluation, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (50, 75, 100 μg/ml) of Neolamarckia cadamba were tested against Gram-positive— Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative—Escherichia coli. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of standards like Amikacin for antibacterial activity and fluconazole for antifungal activity Post hoc analysis showed the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the anti-bacterial organisms and a minute inhibition for anti-fungal organism.
15 Read more
The present study was conducted to explore the preliminary phytochemicals and assess the antibacterial activity of Barleria cristata leaf extracts. Leaf extracts were prepared from powdered plant materials with various solvents such as acetone, aqueous, dimethyl ether, chloroform and ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals in the leaf extracts showed positive for alkaloids, vitamin C, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides and saponin. Antibacterial activities of the extracts were evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The extracts exhibited significant effects against all bacterial pathogens. The ethanol extracts of leaf showed more inhibitory activity followed by chloroform extract. This present study supports the traditional use of B. cristata for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases and might be helpful for further investigation of the plants to assess their chemical prospective in future research.
Herbal medicines are increasingly gaining popularity as they possess minimal or no side effects therefore, authentication of the crude drugs are necessary to ensure that the herbal drugs so obtained are safe and of optimal quality. In the present study, various pharmacognostical parameters such as organoleptic evaluation, macroscopic evaluation, microscopic evaluation, physico chemical evaluation (moisture content, loss on drying, ash values, extractive values), and phytochemical evaluation were conducted for the plant E. debile Roxb. (Equisetaceae). Pharmacognostic evaluation helps to identify the commercial varieties, substitutes, adulterants and any other quality control parameter of the drugs. It is a simple and reliable tool, by which complete information of the crude drugs can be obtained (WHO 1998). Pharmacognostical evaluation helps to establish the authenticity of the drugs, it also helps to differentiate the drugs from other species and it also helps to detect any form of adulteration.
CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation revealed the presents of bioactive compounds namely phenols, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, and insulin in the polyherbal antidiabetic formulation. The HPTLC fingerprint analysis confirmed that the formulation possess many phytoconstituents. The polyherbal formulation is considered to be a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Further studies are needed to investigate the pharmacological profile of the formulation using in vitro and in vivo models.
Preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and terpinoids (Table1). All the extracts showed the anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner at 5 to 25 mg/ml. The chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of A. suma revealed significant anthelmintic activity 20-22 . The hydroalcoholic extract shown better paralytic value and death at 10mg/ml than the standards (Fig 1 and 2). The chloroform extract also showed satisfactory results at concentration of 10mg/ml. The presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins may be the responsible chemical constituents 23,24 for demonstrating anthelmintic activity. The possible mechanism of tannins may to interfere with energy generation by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation or they may interfere with glycoprotein of cell surface. It was also possible that alkaloids may act on central nervous system and caused paralysis of the Pheretima posthuma worms.
The present study showed the pharmacognostical and phytochemical analysis the leaves, stem, root and Bark of Jasminum auriculatum Vahl. Pharmacognostical studies like organoleptic, miscroscopic evaluation, physicochemical, phytochemical analysis of leaf, stem, root and bark extracts of Jasminum auriculatum Vahl. provides valuable information for the standardization of this plant materials. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of the alcoholic leaf extract revealed the presence of glycosides, alcoholic stem and bark extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alcoholic Root extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, Tannins and glycosides.
Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure phytoconstituents or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. In the present investigation include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active compounds from Syzygium alternifolium (Wight) Walp. Isolated phytoconstituents were forwarded to phytochemical screening and chromatographic techniques such as Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) . Crude bark extract of Syzygium alternifolium was extracted and forwarded to preliminary phytochemical investigation which shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, proteins and carbohydrates. Based on extractive value, methanolic extract was fractionated with hexane and ethyl acetate. The hexane fraction of methanolic extract was forwarded to column for isolation. Three triterpenoids and sterol, which were isolated and characterized by chromatographical and spectroscopical analysis as friedelane, friedelin 3â-friedelinol and stigmasterol, respectively.
The present study revealed that a result of Methanol Extract of celosia cristata flowers contains Phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, Carbohydrates, phenolis, Tannins, Alkaloids compounds by phytochemical investigation with respect to chemical tests and TLC chromatographic techniques. Treatment with concluded that the Methanol Extract of celosia cristata flowers showed potent anthelmintic activity and was equipotent to standard anthelmintic drug. The potent anthelmintic activity could be due to presence of glycosides, flavonoids and sterols. So, from the above findings, it was concluded that Methanol Extract of celosia cristata flowers posse’s significant wormicidal activity property. Further carried out to isolate, purify, and characterize the active constituents responsible for the activity of these plants and also to evaluate the exact mechanism of action.
14 Read more
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening: The extract was then subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of various phytoconstituent. The results show presence of Steroids, Saponins, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins in the chloroform extract 13 .
ABSTRACT: Delonix regia Rafin. belonging to family Fabaceae and subfamily Caesalpinioideae is flowering plant native to Madagascar and East Africa. Delonix regia reported to have anti-diarrhoeal, anti- inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activity. The present study was carried out to establish the pharmacognostical studies, physico-chemical parameters along with preliminary phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of Delonix regia Rafin. stem bark. The macroscopical and microscopical characteristics of drug powder were studied. The transverse section of stem bark indicated the arrangement of various cells in cork, cortex, phelloderm and pith region. The preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrate, protein, glycosides, flavonoids, sterols, phenolic and tannin compounds. The physico-chemical parameters such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, water insoluble ash and sulphated ash (8, 2.005, 3 and 1.4 %w/w respectively), loss on drying (45 %w/w) extractive values, foaming index, swelling index and fluorescence analysis of stem bark powder were studied. These studies will be helpful to establish standards for quality, purity and sample identification of Delonix regia Rafin. .
Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed that aqueous extract contains protein, sugar, flavonoids and alkaloids, ethanol extract contains sugar, flavonoids, steroids and fats & oil, methanol extract contains protein, sugar, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and fats & oil, acetone extract contains sugar, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, fats & oil. (Table 2)
The plant Eulophia ochreta Lindl have some important characteristic features In tubers in order to identifying the plant material. It find application in ayurvedic and other traditional system of medicine. The macroscopic and microscopic and macroscopic charaters reveal the presence of important diagnostic characters and structures which help in identification of plant material. The physicochemical studies are carried out on herbal crude drugs sample in order to establish appropriate data that may be utilized not only for identification but also to establish the purity and standard of plant sample, those supplied in powder form.  The other commonly applied parameter for the identification is estimation of ash value, which establishes the quality and the purity of the drug. Ash value can also detect the nature of the material added to the drug for the purpose of adulteration.  The percentage weight of loss on drying, which is an indication of the moisture content of the material .The phytochemical screening of the drug is very important to identify the different phytoconstituents present in plant material. It is a very important in the process of standardization and quality control because the constituent vary from plant to plant and also in different samples of the same species depending upon various atmospheric factors and storage conditions. TLC detection, has found a variety of analytical uses in the Pharmaceutical industries. TLC method has emerged as an important tool for the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of herbal drugs and formulations. Chromatographic analysis is the first step towards understanding the nature of active principles and their detailed phytochemistry. 
11 Read more
The present study is related to pharmacognostical, physical constants and preliminary phytochemical screening of Ocimum basilicum Linn. leaves provided useful information about its correct identity and evaluation. It helps to differentiate from the closely related other species of Ocimum basilicum Linn. Phytochemical study is also useful to isolate the pharmacologically active principles present in the drug. The other parameters observed are also useful for the future identification of the plant and serves as a standard monograph for identification and evaluation of plant.
The present work deals with the preliminary phytochemical investigation of various extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol) of the whole plant of Trigonella foenum, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa to identify the major group of photochemical and also identification of free radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay.
In G.edulis, almost all the biochemical compounds were found. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarin in all the extracts. The concentration of Quinone was comparatively very high concentration in all the extracts. Alkaloid has high nutrient value and a good anti-oxidising agent in animals. It was identified that all the extracts have better results for reducing sugars.
The shade dried leaves of Mussaenda frondosa was subjected to successive continuous hot extraction by using different solvents like petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, butanol. The chemical investigation of leaves of Mussenda frondosa lead to the isolation of six compounds β-sitosterol, lupeol, mussaendoside, mussaendoside-M,3-palmitoyl lupeol, sanshide- methyl ester . The constituents isolated and characterized from the leaves of the plant Mussaenda frondosa can be categorized under triterpenoids, flavonoids, steroids and phenolic compounds. Mussaendoside, lupeol, β-sitosterol were isolated from petroleum ether extract by column chromatogram using petroleum ether: acetone as mobile phase.Mussendoside-M, 3-palmitoyl lupeol were isolated from ethyl acetate extract by column chromatography using ethyl acetate::chloroform as mobile phase. Samshide-methyl ester were isolated from ethanol extract by column chromatography using methanol : ethyl acetate as mobile phase.The different extracts of leaves of Mussaenda frondosa were subjected to in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity
By considering the drawbacks of synthetic antimicrobials the attempts were made to evaluate the potentiality of the plant extract Sophora interrupta against standard micro-organisms. Sophora interrupta belongs to the family Fabaceae. There are more than hundreds of species belongs to this family which have various pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antibacterial. From the preliminary phytochemical studies it was identified that it has constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, carbohydrates and proteins. 
12 Read more