Presence and absence

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Salmonella Serovar Identification Using PCR Based Detection of Gene Presence and Absence

Salmonella Serovar Identification Using PCR Based Detection of Gene Presence and Absence

Overall, among 20 strains that were used in both CGH and real-time PCR analysis, less than 6% of total gene absence/ presence predictions were incongruent and about two-thirds of these discrepancies were called absent in real-time PCR but present in CGH. For all strains, genetic distance calculations identified isolates from the correct serovar as the closest match in the CGH data matrix (Table 3). One sample, strain R18, was supposedly an S. enterica serovar Gallinarum isolate but cor- related instead with serovar Paratyphi B isolates in the CGH data. To determine if this misassignment was due to limitations in the real-time PCR assay, we performed a subsequent com- parative genomic hybridization experiment using the same DNA preparation. The CGH data revealed the DNA to indeed be of serovar Paratyphi B origin. Therefore, real-time PCR was able to correctly identify the closest genovar and the correct serovar for all 24 subspecies I isolates. However, the almost 5% divergence of Salmonella bongori orthologues from their sub- species I gene counterparts (unpublished data) precluded suc-
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Implementation of Presence and Absence of Blocking Effects: A Categorial Grammar Approach to Chinese and Korean

Implementation of Presence and Absence of Blocking Effects: A Categorial Grammar Approach to Chinese and Korean

The goal of this paper is to provide computational algorithms that can handle presence and absence of blocking effects. The algorithms will be developed by combining Steedman (1996, 2000)’s Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) and Chierchia’s Binding Theory, which will be called a CCG-like system.

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Taking stock: provider prescribing practices in the presence and absence of ACT stock

Taking stock: provider prescribing practices in the presence and absence of ACT stock

Furthermore, assessments of prescribing and dispen- sing practices in the absence of data relating to ACT stock at the time and place of presumptive or parasito- logical diagnosis may underestimate the intent of health workers to prescribe recommended first-line treatment. Poor ACT coverage and a failure of health- care workers to prescribe them may not always be attributable to lack of adherence to guidelines or fail- ures of training programmes, but may also reflect the quality of the PSM or weaknesses within health sys- tems. Assessments of prescribing practices and of the processes involved in treatment outcomes in the absence of stock information may lead to misguided assumptions and the development and implementation of interventions targeted at health workers that fail to demonstrate significant impact. The aim of this review is to assess evidence from health facility surveys on the extent to which prescribing of ACT and alternative anti-malarials in Africa varies in the presence and absence of stock of ACT.
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Chemiluminescent Studies of T-Butylhydroperoxide with Phenyl Hydrazine Hydrochloride in the Presence and Absence of Luminol

Chemiluminescent Studies of T-Butylhydroperoxide with Phenyl Hydrazine Hydrochloride in the Presence and Absence of Luminol

The chemiluminescence (CL) accompanying the oxidation of phenyl hydrazine with t-butylhydroperoxide in alkaline medium was studied in the presence and absence of luminol. The reaction occurring between phenyl hydrazine and alkaline (KOH) solution of aqueous t- butylhydroperoxide leads to the production of nitrogen gas with simultaneous emission of light (CL), which has been detected by PMT and recorded with the aid of PC using interface. The CL intensity was enhanced by addition of 10 -3 M luminol solution. The influence of concentration of various constituent

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Defining the inflammatory signature of human lung explant tissue in the presence and absence of glucocorticoid

Defining the inflammatory signature of human lung explant tissue in the presence and absence of glucocorticoid

Lung tissue was dissected into 30–100 mg (wet weight) pieces and incubated for 24h in RPMI 1640 (with 2.05 mM L-glutamine and 25 mM HEPES) (Sigma, 51536C) containing Antibiotic Antimycotic Solution (PSF, penicillin, streptomycin and fun- gizone) (Sigma, A5955). Following initial incubation, media was replaced, and following the addition of LPS or IL-1 β (1 µg/ml or 10 ng/ml respectively) or vehicle controls in the presence or absence of 1 µM dexamethasone, the tissue was incubated for a further 24h, followed by the collection of supernatants. All experi- mental conditions were prepared in duplicate.
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Micellization  Behavior   of  Cetyltrimethylammonium  bromide  in 	 Presence and Absence of Na2SO4 and MgSO4 in Aqueous media

Micellization Behavior of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in Presence and Absence of Na2SO4 and MgSO4 in Aqueous media

viscosity with increase in concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in presence and absence of salts where as the decrease in surface tension with increase in concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in presence and absence of salts. The viscosity of CTAB was observed lowest in pure water and increases in presence of MgSO 4 and then more increases in presence

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Efficiency of disinfectants against Rotavirus in the presence and absence of organic matter

Efficiency of disinfectants against Rotavirus in the presence and absence of organic matter

This study used liquid suspension tests to accurately compare disinfectant efficacy in the presence and absence of organic matter. Disinfectants are more efficient in suspension at reducing viral titre than on a farm, where viruses are often surface associated or dried. However this study demonstrates how organic matter and disinfectant type have a significant impact of disinfectant efficacy. Bi-OO-cyst was the only disinfectant effective against porcine rotavirus in high organic matter conditions but peroxygen compound based disinfectants (Vanodox and Virkon S) and the glutaraldehyde-based disinfectant GPC8 all were effective in the presence of low organic matter. MS2 phage served as a model for porcine rotavirus and gave similar, although slightly lower, log 10 reduction titres than
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A Mechanistic Approach on the Solvolysis of Cinnamoyl Chloride in the Presence and Absence of Mercuric Chloride Catalyst

A Mechanistic Approach on the Solvolysis of Cinnamoyl Chloride in the Presence and Absence of Mercuric Chloride Catalyst

To study the effect of electrophilic catalyst on the solvolysis of cinnamoyl chloride, hydrolysis is carried out in aqueous acetone and aqueous acetonitrile in the composition range of 85 to 92.5% organic component in presence of mercuric chloride. The concentration of mercuric chloride used is in the range from 0.001M to 0.005M at different temperatures. In this range of solvent composition the electrophilic catalytic activity is solely due to unionized mercuric chloride molecule. The order with respect to mercuric chloride both in aqueous acetone as well as in aqueous acetonitrile are found to be very small in the range of only 0.25 ( Table -1). The order with respect to water remains unchanged (~2.6) in presence and absence of mercuric chloride which reveals that there is no mechanistic change in presence of mercuric chloride. Very low order with respect to mercuric chloride confirms an S N 2 mechanism as already mentioned for the solvolysis. In addition mercuric chloride may not be involved in the rate determining step of the reaction. Therefore the catalytic activity is due to the increase in the extent of solvation of the transition state thus lowering the activation parameters mainly the enthalpy and free energy of activation. This is in agreement with the observed decrease in the enthalpy and free energy of activation (Table 2). The interaction of HgCl 2 molecule with the ClÉ end of the substrate molecule further loosen the loose transition state complex formed in the S N 2 path thus lowering the activation parameters. This interaction also enhances the detachment of the leaving group from the substrate. Thus the increase in rate of the reaction in the presence of catalyst is due to the combined effect of increase in the transition state stabilization and the abstraction of the leaving group from the transition state of the substrate.
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Successive crops of lettuce fertilized with bovine manure in the  presence and absence of mung bean

Successive crops of lettuce fertilized with bovine manure in the presence and absence of mung bean

The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with treatments arranged in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. The treatments involved the combination of four concentrations of bovine manure (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 kg m -2 of bed on dry basis) and the presence and absence of mung bean as the green manure. The bovine manure was obtained from the heifers of the cattle sector of UFERSA, raised in intensive animal farming, fed with a concentrate comprised of the aquatic grass Echinochloa polystachya (Kunth) Hitchc as bulk. Five samples of the manure were taken to the Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Laboratory of the Department of Environmental and Technological Sciences of UFERSA for analysis of pH, N, OM, P, K + , Na + , Ca 2+ ; and Mg 2+ (Table 2). The soil preparation consisted of a harrowing followed by raising of the beds, using a mechanized rotating hoe tool. The irrigations were done by micro-sprinkler, with daily watering in two applications (morning and afternoon). When necessary, manual weeding was performed as culture treatment. We incorporated the bovine manure 15 days before sowing the
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Bounds of resemblance meaures for binary (presence/absence) variables

Bounds of resemblance meaures for binary (presence/absence) variables

In choosing a coefficient, each measure has to be considered in the context of the data-analytic study of which it is a part (Gower and Legendre 1986, sec. 5). Because there are so many resemblance measures for binary variables to choose from, it is important that the different coefficients and their properties are better understood. For example, Gower (1986), Fichet (1986), Gower and Legendre (1986), and Bren and Batagelj (2006) studied metric and Euclidean properties; Batagelj and Bren (1995) discussed results on (ordinal) equivalence relations over coefficients; Baulieu (1989, 1997) presented classifications of presence/absence coefficients using certain de- sirable properties in different axiomatic frameworks; Janson and Vegelius (1981) and Gower and Legendre (1986) investigated Gramian properties and positive semidefiniteness of coefficient matrices; finally, Boyce and Ellison (2001) studied presence/absence coefficients in the context of fuzzy set or- dination.
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Does the Presence or Absence of DESH Predict Outcomes in Adult Hydrocephalus?

Does the Presence or Absence of DESH Predict Outcomes in Adult Hydrocephalus?

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The DESH (disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space hydrocephalus) pattern of “tight high- convexity and medial subarachnoid spaces, and enlarged Sylvian fissures with ventriculomegaly” is used to determine which patients undergo an operation for adult hydrocephalus at many centers. Our aim was to review adult hydrocephalus cases when DESH has not been a criterion for an operation to determine the prevalence of DESH among the cohort and compare the surgical outcomes in the presence or absence of DESH.

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In Solitary Rabbits, Does the Presence or Absence of a Mirror Affect Stress, Fear and Anxiety?

In Solitary Rabbits, Does the Presence or Absence of a Mirror Affect Stress, Fear and Anxiety?

Four studies were reviewed in this knowledge summary. Despite the small number of papers available, the controlled trials and their methodologies provide strong evidence that the behavior of solitary laboratory rabbits is affected by the presence or absence of mirrors. This evidence also indicates an effect on their welfare.

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Evoking the sublime: Absence and presence in live electroacoustic performance

Evoking the sublime: Absence and presence in live electroacoustic performance

key scene in his film Mulholland Drive (2001) exploits the eerie sensation that arises from the disembodiment of recorded sound. The film’s two young protagonists, Rita and Betty, arrive at the nightclub Silencio. On stage, a musician is playing a jazz tune on the trumpet. After finishing a few musical phrases, the player slickly removes the trumpet from his mouth, but surprisingly the music continues. The charismatic show-master draws our attention to the fact that this is all an illusion, it is “all recorded… it is all a tape”. A singer then enters the stage and sings a heart-rending song. Rita and Betty burst into tears when the singer suddenly collapses, seemingly dead, and is carried away on a stretcher while her voice continues to resound within the space. An ambiguity of absence and presence creates an uncanny atmosphere; rather than feeling that we are being fooled in a ‘fake’ performance, we are mesmerised by this ambiguity. Though this initially seems like a familiar performance situation (a musician on stage playing an instrument or singing), it soon transforms into an unfamiliar, surreal state when we, the audience, realise that what we thought was ‘live’ is probably not so. The spectator’s awareness of illusion serves to increase the sublime affect rather than diminish it. So too, the context and setting of this performance – the show-master and the venue along with the play of screens, lights and shadows – are essential in evoking the sublime and the uncanny.
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Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

Finally, we investigated the usefulness of this method to diagnose MDD and BD in patients followed for 1 year or longer. It was clarified that analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC is useful to diagnose these diseases. Since therapeutic drugs administered to MDD and BD patients were not standardized, and effective drugs varied among patients, we investigated the relation- ship between cerebral local atrophy and therapeutic drugs. Responses of each disease could be divided into two groups on the basis of the relationship between the therapeutic effects of serotonin stabilizers related to depression, dopamine stabilizers related to intractable depression and BD, 2 and
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Presence within absence

Presence within absence

When considering the objects of daily life within the home, I drew inspiration from the contemporary British artist Rachel Whiteread. Whiteread casts various negative spaces, which frame architectural elements of the home, or the whole home itself, as seen in the piece to the left. The work created for “Presence within Absence” has similar traits with Whiteread’s work, but draws upon the human connection with the object presented. It is stated that her work triggers memory for “emptiness activates memory, or anyway the attempt to imagine what the

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A history of the absence (and emergent presence) of independent public universities in Mombasa, Kenya

A history of the absence (and emergent presence) of independent public universities in Mombasa, Kenya

So, while the opportunity to pursue a university education is available to Mombasa (and coast) residents, the offerings are particular to fields of study that characteristically have a low financial overhead. I explore this point more fully in a later chapter on reactive discourses of strategizing given the absence of an independent comprehensive public university at the coast. However, I believe the comments included here begin to point to the ways in which a partial presence of university programming is seen by some at the coast as evidence of how they marginalized, and as a reason to pursue other options elsewhere. As some of the people with whom I spoke asked, where are the other engineering options open to students from the coast who did not have the exam results necessary to gain entrance to one of the existing public universities? Where are the medical training options? Where - by way of one often cited example - are the marine sciences programs? If all the university efforts at the coast seemingly fall into these easily offered, low overhead cost types of programs, how else should what the government provides to the people of the coast be viewed, except as evidence of marginalization?
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Presence and Absence

Presence and Absence

10. Nine months after my uncle passed my sister announced she’d be having a child. I would soon have another nibling to look after. I widely smiled a few days after her birth, in the living room she would soon overtake with toys. I tried to act cool about it, but others clearly saw as I reached out to gush over her. After that I couldn’t help but adore her presence, though I hid it well from the family, like the edgy teenager I was trying to be.

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Lung cancer CT screening: psychological responses in the presence and absence of pulmonary nodules

Lung cancer CT screening: psychological responses in the presence and absence of pulmonary nodules

Our study assesses short and medium-term psychological responses amongst a sample of participants, with or without pulmonary nodule(s) identified on their first CT scan, within the Early Cancer Detection Test-Lung Cancer Scotland Study (ECLS Study).(26) This is a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a blood test for lung cancer screening, measuring autoantibodies against seven antigens (Early CDT®-Lung test).(26, 27) A positive Early CDT®-Lung test is associated with a significantly increased risk of malignancy in the presence of pulmonary nodules 4-20mm in diameter(28), and the consequent potential for adverse psychological effects. This study is therefore timely in assessing psychological impacts of this test and subsequent CT scanning.
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Lung cancer CT screening: : psychological responses in the presence and absence of pulmonary nodules

Lung cancer CT screening: : psychological responses in the presence and absence of pulmonary nodules

Our study assesses short and medium-term psychological responses amongst a sample of participants, with or without pulmonary nodule(s) identified on their first CT scan, within the Early Cancer Detection Test-Lung Cancer Scotland Study (ECLS Study).(26) This is a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a blood test for lung cancer screening, measuring autoantibodies against seven antigens (Early CDT®-Lung test).(26, 27) A positive Early CDT®-Lung test is associated with a significantly increased risk of malignancy in the presence of pulmonary nodules 4-20mm in diameter(28), and the consequent potential for adverse psychological effects. This study is therefore timely in assessing psychological impacts of this test and subsequent CT scanning.
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Physics of Electrical Current Flow through an Asperity in the Presence and Absence of an Adsorbed Film.

Physics of Electrical Current Flow through an Asperity in the Presence and Absence of an Adsorbed Film.

Radio frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) switches have many promising advantages over solid state switches, particularly with respect to cutoff frequency, insertion loss, linearity, and power consumption characteristics. [1, 2] They are, however, highly susceptible to a variety of different failure mechanisms associated with high resistivity and adhesive bonding.[3,4] The uptake and control of hydrocarbon films adsorbed on their contacts are central to this, [5,7] since both the contact resistance [5,6,7] and contact adhesion [8,9] are highly sensitive to the presence of thin adsorbed films. Studies of switch performance in varying environments may help to find the best conditions to improve switches characteristics and prolong their lifetime. Vacuum environments are, for example, directly applicable to certain space applications that require open packaging. Nitrogen
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