A recent market survey indicates a presence of stiff competition against Multichoice Kenya products like GoTv and DSTv from its competitors like StarTimes and Zuku (CCK, 2014). The stiff competition is as a result of existence of many company in the Pay industry , where each company want to secure and protect its market share , this has prompted them to use different promotion tools in an attempt to increase on sales revenue, (Procter & Gamble, 2007). Promotional activities in the industry are seen as determinant of demand of a product and service hence the campaign are geared towards making organizations offering perfect acceptability by the population, (Kotler & Armstrong, 1998). In order for any company in the pay TV industry in Kenya to survive , there is a need to engage in promotion activities (Deliotte, 2012).
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This study is being carried out among doctors in tertiary health institutions in some Nigerian cities to gain insight into the impact of drug promotional activities on their practices. The purpose of this study is not to indict you or any organization. It is a self- sponsored research for academic purposes only. Your honest response is therefore important and will be greatly appreciated. You are to respond on the basis of anonymity and your responses will be given the utmost confidentiality required. Thank you.
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The project titled “Effectiveness of Sales Promotional Activities in Unique Roof Private Ltd., Coimbatore” was carried out with the objectives of studying the effectiveness of sales promotional activities such as advertisement, public relations and sales promotional techniques and recommend suggestions to the company for more effectiveness in sales promotional activities. The data were collected with the help of a questionnaire, which contained three sections - advertisement, public relations and sales promotional techniques. The study was conducted by using responses from 100 customers from various domains. Simple percentage analysis, weighted average analysis, chi-square analysis and ANOVA were used for the analysis. The study found that the advertisement, public relations and sales promotional techniques were effective. There were no relationship between nature of business and purchase of product and there is relationship between annual income and purchase of product and between tele-marketing and tele-selling workforce. There were no difference of opinion among the respondents in effectiveness of advertisements through radio, internet, intercity billboard and posters, brochures and exhibition in purchase of the products. On the basis of the findings, the management should provide more sales promotional activities to make their sales more effective. In order to face the competition prevailing in market, it is very much essential for the organization to promote their products. The organization should focus on providing good quality products to the people with good service. The digitalized marketing can be done with innovative ideas. The usage of social media is increasing today. So the advertisement can be posted on social media. This helps to bring more customers. So this helps in producing product according to the customers taste and preference and helps to maintain a good relationship with the customers.
The emerging results lead to some robust implications for businesses. To begin with, the background colour was found to have significant importance across all promotional activities. It should be carefully selected, though, given that in promotional activities where a cool colour background is used, more positive attitudes and behavioural intentions are stimulated compared to those having a warm background colour. This can be explained by evidence on the ground of previous research underlining cool colours’ relaxing theme in contrast to warm colours’ arousal power (Bellizzi & Hite, 1992). This effect is shown to be stronger when the promotional activity is addressed to consumers being in a positive mood state or those being in a low involvement condition.
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In a case of r ∈ ( ) 0,1 , the information value to the H type firm increases with r up to r . That is, when r is small, a (small) increase in r enhances a firm’s profit through a promotional patent. This may seem to imply that start-up firms have a stronger incentive to obtain patents for potentially using them in promotional activities. In fact, this discussion seems consistent with recent empirical evidence. This result seems consistent with recent empirical evidence. Aoki and Spiegel  reports that after the American Inventor’s Protection Act of 1999, in the U.S., approximately 10% of all applicants opt-out of publication in order to keep their information confidential. However, almost all individual applicants choose to disclose, implying that information revelation of patents is important for applicants with little reputation (Graham and Hedge ).
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To take care of health , it is essential to get the proper and effective treatment at affordable cost. And it is responsibility of the government that every single citizen should get medication at affordable cost. So to provide the common man of society government is promoting reduced cost of medication.Though the government has decided implementation of cheaper generic medicines to prescribe by medical practitioner ,there is less awareness about the use of generic medicines among the doctors and patients. The authors reviewed four research literature on various issues regarding prescription of generic drugs.The literature describes study regarding awareness and use of generic drugs in various region of India as well in other country. The study described various dimensions about awareness of generic drugs and promotional activities supported by the government.The authors concluded that there is requirement to develop a legal policy with regard to give assurance about the safety, quality ,manufacturing standards of generic medicines.The practitioner should be imparted education regarding the use of generic medicines. So that the common man could decrease the out-of-pocket payment for medical
Egypt, as the largest Arab middle-income country, with a population of about 85 million people and central to modern Middle Eastern politics, plays an influential role for pharmaceu- tical companies ’ promotional strategies [6,7]. For example, approval for the manufacture and sale of medicines in Egypt is seen as an opener to the pharmaceutical markets of other Arab countries [8 – 10]. Egypt is the largest pharmaceutical manufacturer in the Middle East and North Africa region, holding 30% of the regional market share, . From among 47 pharma- ceutical producers active in Egypt, 37 belong to the public sector, 4 to the local private sector and 6 are multinational companies. Multinational and local private companies hold more than half of the total market share . In 2009 the expenditure for pharmaceuticals in Egypt was EGP 21,000 million (US$ 3,559 million) in total and EGP 253 (US$ 42.89) per capita . Demographic, epidemiological and social transitions increase medicine consumption, making Egypt a lucrative market for pharmaceutical companies.
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Achumba (2002) defined sales promotion as those marketing activities, other than personal selling, advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness, such as displays, shows and expositions, demonstration. Blattberg and Neslin (1990) opined that sales promotions are action-focused marketing events whose purpose is to have a direct impact on the behavior of the firm‟s customers. Sales promotions is an activity in which different business areas need to get involved and coordinated, such as the marketing, commercial and production departments. Therefore, according toPerianez (2002), sales promotions as: The combined activities undertaking by a firm as a result of an incentive offer, during a given period of time, involving different functional areas in the organization and in order to achieve certain business objectives. Aworemi, Oyedokun, Ajagbe and Wojuade (2008) noted that sale promotion are usually short campaigns often run in association with media, most of which involve the collection of either from product, produced or services rendered by the advertisers or published in the newspapers. Thus, advertising can be used as a means of communication to inform potential customers about the incentives offered for sales promotion, personal selling can as well include communication to individual customers. But, sales promotion differs from advertising and personal selling in terms of its approach and techniques. Sales promotion adopts short terms, non recurring methods to boot up sales in different ways. These offers are not available to the customers throughout the year. During festivals, end of the season, year ending, and some other occasions these schemes are generally found in the market. Thus, sales promotion consists of all activities other than advertising and personal selling that help to increase sales of a particular commodity.
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The objective of this research is to provide an inside scenario about the internet marketing in Bangladesh. Basically this study investigated the impact of prior purchase experience of customer, product quality, price, availability, distribution system and promotional programs on future purchase intention. Primary data were collected by using Dichotomous scale from the northern region of Bangladesh and the sample size was 150. In the present era, every business organization is using internet for conduction business activities. The Internet has become an indispensable tool for today’s businesses. Bangladesh has also stepped into the arena of e-commerce slowly but surely. Our study found that quality products, attractive promotional activities, efficient distribution channel, awareness about online marketing and product availability positively influenced purchase intention but prior online purchase experience, perceived social benefits and price can't influence purchase intention in online shopping context. Our study will help the marketer for knowing the factors regarding the purchase intention of customers. The study was limited to the attitudes and perceptions of the selected sample respondents and may not be universally applicable. There was a possibility of the respondent bias in self-reporting perceptions of the survey. Prior research can't describe the impact of prior purchase experience of customer, product quality, price, availability, distribution system and promotional programs on future purchase intention of customer. Upon the study results some necessary recommendations has been given in this study.
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Online shopping is in advance thrust in India Inc. With internet penetration improving in the country, smart phones becoming inexpensive and lifestyles becoming excited, the way people used to shop are varying. Also with a huge portion of young and working population, Indian demographics are a delight for E-Retailers. As a shopping medium, internet is attracting humans. Youthful people can get used to newer technologies in very short span. Hence they can adapt internet as an instrument for shopping. In order to get the trust and attention of Indian consumers in this virtual shopping world there are numerous aspects of consumer behavior which call forexploration. This research has tried to analyze the online shopping behavior and online shopping activities of UG & PG students in engineering colleges in RangaReddy Region. This study finds out whether students studying in Engineering Collegesare comfortable with the click-of-the mouse purchase, any particular factor of online buying which delights him. To answer such questions the present research provides an insight. This study aims to classify the most important factors which influence online buyer considers while making online purchases by Correlation analysis. The results have shown various reasons like time saving, less price, promotional activities offered by E-Retailers, Ease in payment are the factors influencing online shopping behavior of Student respondents Research results show that both male & female are more interested to purchase goods such as Apparels, electronics, Books.
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However, capital is never complacent about the risks associated with ideology. In its relentless and ever-expanding drive toward totalizing power over people and non-human resources and over time and space, late capitalism has mapped out consciousness as its final frontier. This involves a deeper order of production and continuous reproduction of ideology and public persuasion necessi- tated by the service character of the digital economy and aimed at cultivating passivity, the promo- tion of desire, and the construction of materialist identities. What do I mean by propaganda? To begin with, propaganda refers to organized doctrinal texts communicated throughout the voice, print, and audio/visual media in the service of state and corporate interests (and of aspiring power interests). Systemic propaganda means the penetration of promotional activities into almost every sphere of public life: the conduct of domestic politics and foreign affairs, the selling of public policy, the marketing of goods, services, and public and private institutions, the profusion of consumption within the “culture-ideology of consumerism” (Sklair 2001), with social psychological inducements to self-commodification (adoption of the insignia, habits, and discursive practices of the commodity culture) and an informalized “prosumer” labor force. It is also found in the wholesale infomercializa- tion of news and spectacularization of mass media, joined by intensified subterranean and sublimi-
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Table 1 shows significant relationship of family income and impulse buying behavior at 10% level of significance. Results of regression model reveals that impulse buying can be increased by 0.086 units with the per unit increase in income of a family while the affect of other variables held constant. Education plays very most significant role in generating impulse buying behavior at 0.000 P-value as shown in Table 1. Per unit increase in education can cause an increase in impulse buying behavior by 0.594 units while the affect of other independent factors kept constant. Gender and age are non-significant variables according to the results of the study. Promotional activities and display of a store are significantly associated with generating impulse buying behavior at 10% significance level. Per unit increase in promotional activities can increase 0.108 units of impulse buying behavior whilst the affect of other factors remain unchanged. Whereas 0.104 units of impulse buying behavior can be boost up with the unit increases in display of a store while the affect of other variables held constant. Results indicate significant effect of sales person’s behavior on shoppers’ impulse buying behavior at 5% level of significance. Furthermore, Table 1 shows very effective role of social media in triggering impulse buying behavior of a shopper at 5% level of significance. Results shows per unit increase in social media can increase 0.1 units of impulse buying behavior whilst the affect of other factors remain unchanged. Results of regression model reveal that the time spending on social media doesn’t have significant effect on impulse buying behavior.
Alternatives which can be chosen in the consumer’s universe are bounded by competitors, their products and imaginations. This limitation expresses a great field that today’s enterprises are not able to overcome on their own. Enterprises have to place their goods and services offered to marked in to consumers’ alternative basket prior to their competitors in this large field. This placement is conditioned to two factors. First, goods and services offered to market should be noticed before the competitors and second, brand differences should be significant for the consumers. In this regard, creating a brand becomes the best alternative for the enterprises in order to bring their goods and services into the forefront. This study aims to figure out level of brand awareness of local consumers about local products. Data were collected through a questionnaire which includes two parts which are demographic questions and brand awareness scale. Study was conducted with a sample of 383 college students from different grades except freshman year. This study indicates that firms are far away creating brand awareness in local consumers’ mind. Local consumers have tendency to purchase competitors’ brands through lack of promotional activities of local firms.
DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.83041 632 American Journal of Industrial and Business Management attention to the relationship between different promotional methods and con- sumers’ perceived value, emphasizing the importance of matching promotional methods to the different personality traits of consumers. In contrast, this study focuses on the impact of different promotional frameworks and background colors on consumers. Visual stimuli have an important influence on consumers’ product preferences. From the perspective of the overall visual experience brought by promotional posters, people are most likely to perceive their colors. When the information conveyed by different promotion methods is consistent with the perception given by different background colors to consumers, it can help consumers better identify product values and make purchase decisions more easily. on the contrary, when different promotions and background colors match, the conflicting information delivered will lead to confusion and even dis- trust in the consumer’s understanding of promotional activities. This study con- cludes that: When the promotion frame matches with the background color, the consistency of the customer’s psychological perception will make it easier to the overall impression that the promotional product is consistent and unified, and will positively influence the consumption experience of the activity, which will help the customers to have a more positive attitude towards the promotional ac- tivities. In this paper, the effects of different promotional frames and back- ground colors on the perceived value judgment of promotional activities are discussed through experiment one and experiment two.
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Tourism promotion covers activities aimed at attracting buyers to a particular area and persuading them to purchase certain products and services in the place where the tourist resides, as well as on his travels (*Panov, N,&Talevska, М.2013). The main promotional activities in tourism are tourism propaganda, product sales and services and public relations. Promotion is a way of communicating to attract tourists to a particular area such as Mavrovo. The policy of promotion of tourism organizations must be developed into a marketing oriented policy so that supply will be determined by demand. The first task of promotion in tourism is to bring buyers to the place where the tourist product is sold and to demonstrate products that can only be used there. When the tourist has already chosen the place of use of the service the other possibilities should be mentioned. It has a special role to play in tourism propaganda as an instrument to raise funds and to promote promotional tourism activities for the tourism offer of the natural and social values of the Mavrovo region, ie international leaflet guides for major tour operators containing travel programs to a specific tourist destination that is Mavrovo. Promotional tourism activities require significant investment by central and local government and the private sector due to competition from other tourist sites in the country and the region. The Mavrovo resort is already attractive throughout the Balkan region, with Zare Lazareski Ski Resort, Mavrovo Lake, Radika River and other natural and social resources, but to become popular it needs to understand a better way of tourism management and quality of tourist offer.
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The perspective of the total demand forecast, both regular and promotions, performance is two-fold. The management is interested in a good overall aggregated, based on the highest product and retailer hierarchy level, performance. On the other hand, users focus on detailed level, looking at each individual stock keeping unit (hereinafter shortened as SKU) at the lowest product and retailer hierarchy level. This research focus is on forecasting promotional demand. Therefore, from this moment on all information about forecasting refers to promotional demand forecasting, unless stated otherwise. The promotion demand volume forecast can be divided in two levels: macro and micro. Macro level is the top-down perspective where the forecast performance is measured on average and aggregated over all underlying promotions per year, per retailer and at the highest product hierarchy level. By way of contrast, micro level is considered to be the bottom-up perspective where the performance is measured at detailed level for each individual SKU, product group and retailer at the lowest hierarchy level. The performance on macro level is said to be good, according to the management, based on internal research at Unilever. However, looking at the performance from a micro level perspective there is often a discrepancy between expected demand volume by the users and the demand volume forecast by the predictive model. When the accuracy of the demand volume forecast of these individual SKUs is low this frustrates users, since they are judged by the performance of the individual SKUs within their customer or product group. Typical users are the Mid Term Planner (hereinafter shortened as MTP) and the Commercial Assistant Manager (hereinafter shortened as CAM). Due to these frustrations, users do not trust the output of the entire model and use their own alternative working method (e.g. Excel files). These workarounds do not contribute to Integrated Operations’ desired situation of a data driven, one version of the truth and fully integrated volume demand forecast.
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cles with a promotional tone” as a set of positive examples. We extracted a set of 26,000 untagged articles to form a noisy set of negative examples, which may contain some promotional articles that have not yet been tagged by Wikipedia editors. To counter this noise, we repeated the experiment us- ing Wikipedia’s Featured Articles and Good Articles (approx. 11,000) as a set of clean negative exam- ples. We used 70% of the articles in each category to train language models for each of the three cate- gories (promotional articles, featured/good articles, untagged articles), and used the remaining 30% to evaluate classifier performance using 10-fold cross- validation.
Promotional mixes are crucial to a company to promote their products and develop companies with more consistent. This research had three objectives of a study to investigate the relationship between promotional mixes and impacts on SMEs business performance, to identify the promotional mixes that can drive SMEs business performance, to identify the most effective promotional strategies for SMEs to promote their products and the respondents are SME food products around Melaka. Data were collected from questionnaires and structured quantitative response was formed in the 5- Likert scale. Researchers have carried out the data analysis using correlation coefficient and simple linear regression. The results of this study have shown that the promotional mixes were affected the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable, business performance. In addition, the study found that SME food products using promotional mixes more show business development more rapidly than SMEs that were not using promotional mix. Researchers want to recommend further research to study the effect of the use of the promotional mix in other states as well as studies using other research methods to reinforce the findings. Finally, the researchers also suggested that SME food products using appropriate promotional mix to increase their business performance.
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West, a master of provoking attention, teamed up with Tidal to release The Life of Pablo (TLOP) in February 2016. The release strategy was innovative not only due to its streaming-only format, but also because it was exclusive to one platform. West, then a shareholder and executive at Tidal, promoted Tidal and TLOP to his 27 million Twitter followers, encouraging them to download the app to access the album. On 15 February 2016, West tweeted: ‘My album will never never never be on Apple. And it will never be for sale… You can only get it on Tidal’ (in McCormick, 2016). This data and promotional event
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Fig. 3 PAR1 promoted VM formation in vitro through Twist1. a and (b) The transcriptional regulatory activities of AP1, STAT3, NF- κ B, and MYC (a) and Twist1, Twist2, Snail1 and Slug (b) were measured with the Dual-luciferase Reporter Assay and data was collected with the Luminoskan Ascent Reader System. PAR1 overexpression in PLC-PRF-5 cells significantly increased the transcriptional regulatory activities of AP1, STAT3, NF- κ B, and MYC (a) and the transcriptional activities of Twist1, Twist2, Snail1 and Slug (b). c The expression levels of endothelial and mesenchymal markers of PLC-PRF-5 cells were examined by Western blot when transfected with vectors of pcDNA3.1-PAR1 or pcDNA3.1-Twist1, pcDNA3.1- PAR1/pcDNA3.1-Twist1 and pcDNA3.1-PAR1/pRNAT-U6-siTwist1, respectively. d The number of VM tubes in Matrigel was increased when PAR1 was overexpressed in PLC-PRF-5 cell lines and decreased after Twist1 was knocked down in HepG2/M- and PAR1 overexpressing PLC-PRF-5 cells. e PAR1 overexpression can increase the transcriptional activities of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VE-cadherin, while Twist1 knockdown decreased the promotional effects in PAR1 overexpressing PLC-PRF-5 cells and high PAR1-expressing HepG2/M cells. (mean ± sd; n = 3 in triplicate; * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01)
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