Psychologicalcapital is a construct that enables positive work-related outcomes and positive organisational change that are beneficial to organisations, like organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) (Luthans, Youssef & Avolio, 2007; Organ, 1988). When OCBs are positively orientated towards organisations, PsyCap may be their likely precursor (Fredrickson, 2003). Therefore, the study also aimed to extend previous research that concentrated on the antecedents and predictors of OCB (see Shahnawaz & Jafri, 2009) and investigated PsyCap as a positive predictor of OCB in a government organisation. Because employee resistance to change (RTC) is a key barrier to organisational change (Armenakis & Bedeian, 1999; Strebel, 1996), the authors investigated the role that RTC plays in moderating positive organisational change processes.
The fitting degree indexes of the model are shown in Tables 3-5. As we can see from the figure and table, the conception model of organizational support’s influence on psychologicalcapital fit the actual data very well. The standardized coefficients of organizational support’s influence path to psychologicalcapital are shown in Table 6. Data analysis results show that organizational support has significant positive influence on the four as- pects of psychologicalcapital, and the degree of influence is very high. If employees feel that the organization is supportive for their work, they will: setting up clear goals, and taking various measures to achieve work target, being full of hope to job prospects; they tend to explain the incidents in work in a positive way, and think it is just a temporary phenomenon even when they encounter difficulties and setbacks. They will believe the sky will be clearer after the rain, they often keep the stable mood, do things firmly and calmly, they have great confi- dence in their work, and believe they can finish the work very well. On the other hand, if employees feel that organization does not support their work or the support is not enough, then employees may show negatively. They not only have no confidence in their work and muddle along, but also have no clear work target and be lacking in initiative and be irritable, etc. Through inspection, our research hypothesis 1, 2, 3, 4 in this part are all valid. We can see from Table 6, organizational support has an obvious effect on employees’ psychological cap- ital, therefore, a good organization atmosphere, service management is very necessary.
colleagues in a study entitled psychologicalcapital and the growth of an entrepreneurial spirit found that the capital has a significant positive effect on the entrepreneurial spirit. Psychologicalcapital as well as theoretical studies argue that there is a positive relationship between psychologicalcapital and organizational performance. For example, from the perspective of Adams and colleagues (2002), hope has a significant positive correlation with the performance of athletes and academics. In another study came to the conclusion that employees with higher levels of optimism are more in search of opportunities to achieve success and will be doing their jobs with greater commitment to others in the organization. Also, according to research by Patterson and Luthans (2003) hope level in managers, the unit's financial performance, employee job satisfaction has a high positive correlation between entrepreneurial orientation staff. Ski and Kar (2009) conducted a research on the relationship between psychologicalcapital, entrepreneurial and performance of newly launched investment. They concluded in their study that there is no significant relationship between capital and intangible assets such as capital funding human and entrepreneurial organizations to function, and there is at the same time a positive and significant relationship between psychologicalcapital with performance and dynamic entrepreneurial environment. In another study
The study led by Gallup leadership institute of university of Nebraska-Lincoln in America in 2006 found that psychologicalcapital has significant positive correlation with employees’ performance and job satisfaction; em- ployee’s work performance can be improved by the psychologicalcapital training . Luthans, Avery and Avolio (2006) have found that the rate of return on investment of psychologicalcapital can be as high as 270% through intervention studies. With the help of psychologicalcapital scale (include three indicators: hope, optim- ism and resilience), which is developed by Fred Luthans, Fred Luthans, Bruce J. Avolio, Fred O. Walumbwa, Weixing Li (2005) took Chinese employees as samples to study the relationship between psychologicalcapital and performance and found that the psychologicalcapital and work performance   (include the executive director’s evaluation and pay for performance) were significantly positive correlated. Luthans Kyle W., Jensen, Susan M. (2005) studied the relationship between nurses’ psychologicalcapital and work performance, the re- sults showed that the psychologicalcapital has significant positive correlation with the intention to stay , the targets of the unit and work commitment. Susan M. Jensen, Fred Luthans and others (2006) found through re- search that the leaders’ psychologicalcapital were positively correlated with employees’ cognition of leaders’ integrity. Zhong Lifeng (2007) found that the three dimensions of psychologicalcapital (hope, optimism, resi- lience) have a positive influence on job performance, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior . The author (2009) found through research that, under the background of Chinese culture, psy- chological capital structure include: calm, hope, optimism, confidence.
email@example.com, 2 Eltallasuliman@gmail.com, 3 firstname.lastname@example.org, 4 email@example.com Abstract: The study aimed to identify the reality of psychologicalcapital among Employees in Palestinian universities, and in order to achieve the objectives of the study, the descriptive and analytical approach was used, and the study population consisted of all the administrative Employees in Palestinian universities: the Islamic University, Al-Azhar University, Palestine University, and Al-Quds Open University, whose number is (1104) Male and female employees, and a proportional stratified sample consisting of (320) male and female employees was selected, where the study tool represented by PsychologicalCapital questionnaire was applied to them, and of them (294) male and female employees responded with a response rate of (91.90%). The study reached several results, the most important of which was that the level of PsychologicalCapital was high in Palestinian universities, where the relative weight reached (80.23%), and the field of optimism came first with relative weight (82.05%), then the field of self-efficacy with relative weight (80.75) The field of hope with relative weight (79.75%), and finally the field of flexibility with relative weight (78.37%), and the results also showed that there are no differences between the respondents' responses about PsychologicalCapital due to the variable of gender and years of service, while the Differences attributable to the age variable in favor of the category (more than 50 years old, and 31-40 years old), differences in favor of undergraduate and postgraduate studies at the expense of the diploma, and differences attributable to the variable of work status in favor of the academic in an administrative position. In light of the results of the study, the researchers recommend that the employee be given tasks and responsibilities that enhance his tendencies and positive outlook on the nature of his work, and provide a work environment that supports creativity and has the necessary vitality and interest in building human relationships.
DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.95081 1247 Theoretical Economics Letters Further,  defined Psychologicalcapital as ‘‘positive appraisal of circumstances and probability for success based on motivated effort and perseverance’’ (p. 550). Literature has supported four positive psychological characteristics of Psy- chological capital namely; Hope , Optimism , Resilience  Self-Efficacy . According to , hope is related to mindset which encompasses enthusiasm to achieve chosen goals. Optimism is related to expectations that decent and constructive things will take place in the future time .  explained resilience as one’s competency to meritoriously acclimatize it when facing prominent hardship and negative situations. Self-Efficacy means an individual’s perceived capability to achieve explicit behaviors .
Stress arises when one confronts a difficult situa- tion and lacks the required resources to manage that. Psychologicalcapital (PC) is increasingly regarded as a resource to deal with stressful conditions. By posi- tively influencing one’s understanding of stressful situ- ation, PC alleviates one’s negative psychological and physical reactions to the stressors. 13,14 Higher level of
The validity of the data was controlled before being transferred to the computer. While the two scale items consisting of five-point Likert items were scored as “1-Strongly disagree” and “5-Strongly agree”. In the analysis of data, arithmetic mean and standard deviation were used to define the teachers' technostress and psychologicalcapital levels. In order to determine the relationship between the two scales, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was used. In addition, a structural equation model (SEM) has been developed with maximum likelihood estimation from regression analysis, which is a frequently used method  to determine whether technostress is a determinant of psychologicalcapital. Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI) and Chi-square Goodness of Fit (χ 2 /sd) fix indexes which
However, a review of previous studies shows that the factors influencing study engagement are divided into individual factors and environmental factors, among which the individual factors are mainly demographic variables and indi- vidual characteristic variables, which are usually immutable or difficult to de- velop. With the gradual rise of the research on positive psychology and positive organizational behavior, psychologicalcapital, a state-like construct that con- forms to the criteria of developable, measurable and performance-oriented posi- tive organizational behavior, has attracted extensive attention (Jafri, 2013). At present, researches on psychologicalcapital are mostly carried out with organi- zational employees as samples, and some studies show that psychologicalcapital has a significant positive impact on employee performance. Through literature review, foreign studies have been conducted on college students, and some stu- dies show that psychologicalcapital has a significant positive impact on college students’ learning performance. Therefore, a total of 211 students from universi- ties and colleges were selected as samples to explore the influence of psychologi- cal capital on students’ study investment through questionnaire survey.
Luthans et al. (2007) define psychologicalcapital as a positive psychological state comprised by the personal resources of hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism. Specifically, hope refers to a cognitive process driven by a sense of success in fulfilling individual goals (Snyder, 1995). Efficacy denotes confidence linked to one’s own conviction about having the abilities to effectively execute a task (Bandura, 1997). Resilience refers to positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity (Bonnano, 2004; Rutter, 1987; Masten & Reed, 2002). Finally, optimism denotes a positive expectation that individuals’ goals can be achieved in future (Scheier & Carver, 1992; Peterson, 2000). Drawing on the theoretical integration underlying these personal resources (Luthans et al., 2007), most of research has adopted a higher-order factor comprising hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism (Avey, Reichard, Luthans, & Mhatre, 2011; Luthans et al., 2007). This approach is valuable and appropriate when the aim is to understand broader outcomes entailing wide-ranging information about the phenomenon of interest, such as general work performance. But, when the interest is to have a more detailed understanding of the outcome studied, for instance a multidimensional approach to performance, paying attention to the specific characteristics of the psychologicalcapital dimensions is
The South African manufacturing sector contributes significantly towards the economic development of the country. Manufacturing had the fourth largest contribution towards the gross domestic product of about 13.0% in 2015; general government expenditure of 17.4% after finance, insurance, real estate and business services of 20.9%; wholesale and retail trade, catering and accommodation of 15% [Industrial Development Corporation (IDC), 2016, p. 5]. Furthermore, the manufacturing sector is also the fourth largest employer in the South African economy. According to the IDC (2016), the manufacturing sector is responsible for about 11.5% of the total employment numbers. Given the contribution of the manufacturing sector towards socio-economic development, it is crucial to understand the importance of the stability of the manufacturing industries in terms of employees’ organisational commitment. That is why more should be done to enhance psychologicalcapital (PsyCap) and psychological climate.
The second strongest publication in this field is Luthans (2008b): Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., & Patera, J. L. (2008). Experimental analysis of a web-based training intervention to develop positive psychologicalcapital. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7(2), 209-221. In this research, they hypothesized that psychologicalcapital with components of hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resiliency, is a “state-like” construct and thus open to development. They analyzed whether such psychologicalcapital can be developed through a highly focused, 2-hour web-based training intervention. Using a pretest, posttest experimental design (n = 187 randomly assigned to the treatment group and n = 177 to the control group), they found support that psychologicalcapital can be developed by such a training intervention.
Abstract: In this globalization era, burnout has been known as one of the critical issues in organizations. Overlooking the issue of burnout could lead to negative consequences, such as negatively affecting the overall organizational performance, and poor mental health among employees. It is crucial to know the factors that can help to improve burnout. One of the factors that can reduce burnout is psychologicalcapital. Psychologicalcapital is known as one of the elements that could help to reduce negative emotions. However, it was claimed that the influence of psychologicalcapital is remained unexplored. Hence, this article reviewed the past studies that were conducted in the past decade (2008-2018) on the linkage between psychologicalcapital and employees’ burnout. From the findings, it was revealed that there are inconsistency of the findings in the past studies. Hence, this has triggered a need for further exploration on the linkage between psychologicalcapital and employees’ burnout. It is suggested that more empirical researches to be conducted in the future to provide a more concrete evidences on the linkage between psychologicalcapital and employees’ burnout.
Hmieleski and Carr proposed that psychologicalcapital (PsyCap) is a vital individual trait required by entrepreneurs to lead their businesses throughout their entrepreneurial practices. However, inadequate empirical studies have examined this. Furthermore, psychologicalcapital has been argued to have positively linkages with desirable attitudes and negative linkages with the undesirable attitudes. Unfortunately, past researchers ignored the influence of psychologicalcapital on positive attitudes like future growth intentions of entrepreneurs’. Based on these reports it is reported and found out that the study is needed to understand the perceptions of entrepreneurs towards their Psychologicalcapital in their overall development.
Whether positive emotion can explain the formation mechanism of em- ployees’ psychologicalcapital has been partially studied, mainly involving expe- rimental research on individual resilience. Fredrickson in 1998 proposed the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. The theory is that positive emo- tions can build personal resilience, stress response, happiness, trust, mental health and physical health of resources. Through the experimental research, Tu- gade and Fredrickson (2007) found that positive emotion is an effective factor of mental toughness, high tenacity individuals use positive emotions from the stressful events cheer up and find a positive meaning to get recovered, Anthony (2006), such as the resilience into the study of emotion and stress recovery in daily life, through the study of stress response diary everyday life form, found that positive emotions will enhance in everyday life to find the positive signific- ance of stressful life events, so as to achieve the pressure recovery. The above re- search evidence seems to show that his broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions provides a theoretical basis for the development and improvement of employees’ psychologicalcapital level.
1990s, Taiwan 410 education reform movement, and it push the education reform. Such as the promotion of school-based management and the implementation of the nine-year curriculum, the twelve-year compulsory basic education, which is nothing more than in the pursuit of quality school performance, creating excellent quality of education. In 1999, National Compulsory Education Law Amendment that principals and directors select way from the assignment system to select the external system is in practice on performance responsibility. On the establishment of the teachers ' organizations, Educational Evaluation Committee and the Curriculum Development Committee, people focused on the high quality of education, and it makes the challenge of facing the talents competition both in and out of the school. The impact of the declining birthrate and a heterogeneous population structure derivative students discipline problems, the phenomenon of bullying, and it is inevitable teachers‟ physically and mentally exhausted, but less people pay attention to this part. In the Education reform, it‟s rarely to discuss on teachers‟ attitude. This article through discuss on the psychologicalcapital, taking into account the inherent psychological attention, awareness, attitudes.
Psychologicalcapital can be used to treat mental illnesses, raise hopes of rate and to improve living standards in healthy subjects, increase levels of psychological well-being, enhance mental strength and strengthen defenses against stress, and prevent a variety of health promotion; since this issue significantly increases social and interpersonal communication skills. Therefor with increasing psychologicalcapital, individuals’ psychological wellbeing also will increase. Other findings of the study showed that psychologicalcapital has a positive relationship with social capital. Meaning that by increasing psychologicalcapital, social capital level also increases which is in contrast with the existing conclusions of this study, the reason of which might be difference in statistical population, sex, sampling conditions, and etc.
cultivating the power of reason and judgment, the capability of facing with problems and the method of appropriate interactions with individuals for meeting one's needs is one of the most important necessities of today. Through this way, one can distinguish the right path from wrong. Parents are the most important individuals in one's life and they can play a considerable role in cultivating their children's psychologicalcapital. Thus, parents' education for achieving this goal is necessitated more than before. Students entering the third millennium need to be able to think for themselves, have the skill of self-instruction, self-regulation, self- direction and rational judgment. In other words, they should be equipped with psychologicalcapital. Similar to other studies, this research was faced with some limitations, including educating parents in a limited number of sessions with insufficient time, and the possibility of conducting the instructional plan in a limited number of schools. Therefore, the following is suggested: for the purpose of cultivating children's psychologicalcapital, parents should always be provided with professional consultation services for being aware of the democratic relationships effectiveness in the family space, and after approved by the experts of this field, the instructional contents of this study and similar ones should be provided for efficient teachers in schools for equalization of the instructional plan, so that a similar instructional plan is utilized for parents throughout the whole educational year (not just a temporary period).
Background & Objective: Psychologicalcapital is a new concept in the field of positive psychology and plays an important role in an individual’s perceived and psychological health. The current study was undertaken with the aim of determining the relationship among and predicting organizational commitment and effective training through psychologicalcapital and with regard to the mediator role of social capital.
Organizations need to employ committed individuals for their survival and development as well as to achieve their short- and long-term goals. In account of this, successful organizations are those with committed managers and staff. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors influencing organizational commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of psychologicalcapital in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and organizational commitment among employees of Ardabil University of medical sciences using a correlational method (structural equation modeling). Regarding the desirable size of the sample (n=125) for structural equation modeling, 183 employees were selected using convenience sampling method. The results showed that the direct effect of spiritual intelligence on organizational commitment and the direct effect of psychologicalcapital on organizational commitment are statistically significant. Also, the spiritual intelligence may effect organizational commitment through psychologicalcapital as mediator (p≤ 0.01, β=0.41).