We examine the research topic from the perspective of various actors in aiming to create a picture of the reform as a social process. Our data consists of statements of municipalities (total 24 mu- nicipalities, two statements from each) from two different regions (Greater Helsinki region, Tam- pere city region). Beside we use the official material drawn up by the government and parliament (reports, protocols, government proposals) and material produced by media or other actors such as researchers (e.g. articles, opinion writings). The total number of analysed documents is about sixty (N=60). On the basis of the material we aim firstly to represent the diverse views of different actors and secondly to contemplate a reliable description of the discourses existing in the imple- mentation phase of the local government reform. By doing this we are thirdly able to illustrate social factors creating complexity in the public sector reforms. We have used qualitative content analysis aiming to note central themes and discourses and building a logical chain of evidence and in formulating our conclusions (see Kvale 1996; Miles & Huberman 1994; Silverman 1993). Our analysis is also partly based on participatory interpretation as we have been involved in the reform as, for instance, evaluators, preparers and consulted experts. This involvement in the discussions enables us to interpret the various opinions and in the data material.
This thesis is composed of three independent papers (chapters 2, 3 and 4); each paper draws on methods in economics to evaluate three different interventions/reforms that happened during the period of economic prosperity in Ecuador. In each paper, I use quasi-experimental methods where institutions generate situations close to random assignment, to recover the causal effects of interest (Angrist and Krueger, 1999). In Chapter 2, I investigate the short- and long-term effects of Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH) on young people’s education and labor market outcomes. BDH is the main cash transfer program in Ecuador. It was initially advertised as a condi- tional cash transfer program requiring mothers to take children to health checkups and to enroll them at school. However, soon after its implementation, it became an unconditional transfer due to lack of administrative capacity to monitor the con- ditions. Several short-term evaluations show that BDH has had positive effects in enrollment and cognitive and socio-emotional development among treated children; as well as negative effects on child work (Edmonds and Schady, 2012; Schady et al., 2008). However, until recently there were no studies on the long-term effects of this program and much less evidence on the persistence of its short-term effects in the long-run.
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Implementation of the Process of Performance Contracting in Kenya began in 2004 in state corporations (GOK, 2007). Performance contracting is supposed to enhance job satisfaction for the employees with the hope that their satisfaction would lead to improved job performance. The improved job performance should in turn lead to tangible and improved financial performance. The Economic recovery strategy for wealth and employment creation (2003-2007) outlines the Government’s commitment to improve performance, corporate Governance and management in the public service through the introduction of Performance Contracts. The policy paper opens with a bold statement that the public sector has become a bottleneck to the overall development of Kenya. The primary role of any Government is to maximize on the welfare of its citizens and its development goal is to achieve broad based, sustainable improvement in the standards of the quality of life for its citizens. The public service plays an indispensable role in the effective delivery of public services that are critical to the functioning of a state economy. When the delivery of public services is constrained or becomes ineffective, it affects the quality of life of the people and the nation’s development agenda. Public institutions therefore have to continuously strive to improve on their service delivery process by adopting management programmes such as the performance contracting (GOK, 2007).
Rooted in the growing diversity, critics see the danger of developing into irreconcilable directions with a negative impact on Germany’s international competitiveness: the Bildungsföderalismus might promote unequal chances and decreases educational mobility (Hepp, 2013), both between school forms and between federal states (Brautmeier, 2013). The scattered G8/G9 pattern enforces this problem. With the shock of the PISA-results in 2000, a trend to hold the Bildungsföderalismus responsible for the bad performance emerged. This is partly rooted in the strong political interweaving (Politikverflechtung) through the distribution of tasks, which makes it unclear for citizens which actor is responsible (Brautmeier, 2013). Frequent reforms enhance this feeling of uncertainty (Brautmeier, 2013). Transferring the issue to the G8, the “reforms of the G8-reforms” may lead to further resentment of the Bildungsföderalismus. A unified G8/G9-rule could therefore be argued as beneficial. Due to the provisions of the GG, such a unified model could solely be rooted in a KMK resolution (see 4.3.). With the present situation of strongly differing models of G8/G9, socio-economic disparities are widened and hinder the goal of enhancing nation-wide competitiveness.
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Pollitt and Bouckaert (2004) mentioned that, this new management approach in the public sector creates the changes to the structures and processes of public sector organisations with the objective of getting them to run better. The introduction of this new management approach in the public sector is to promote a culture of performance (Baehler, 2003; Mir and Rahaman, 2006; Jansen, 2008) is to achieve cost-efficiency, budget accountability and to adopt a customer focus in service delivery (Hamburger, 1993; Tanzer, 1993; Kennedy, 1995; Dixon et al., 1996; Lane, 2000; Barzelay, 2001; Alam and Nandan, 2008; Groot and Budding, 2008). More precisely this new approach is centered on NPM ideals (Hood, 1991; Dunleavy and Hood, 1994; Hood, 1995). The term „New Public Management‟ is used to describe the changing style of governance and administration in the public sector. The most definitive characteristic of the NPM is the greater salience that is given to what has been referred to as the three „Es‟- economy, efficiency and effectiveness (Barrett, 2004). NPM is the commonly used label for the ambition of government organisations in many countries to run the public sector in a more businesslike manner (Jansen, 2004). During the 1980s and 1990s the term NPM was used to denote a number of reforms that were carried out by several countries in the world (Sahlin-Andersson, 2001). Maor (1999) also observed that NPM has shown a remarkable degree of consensus among the opinion makers of various countries about the desired nature of change.
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None of the above mentioned studies, however, explicit deal with the extent to which the Global Financial Crisis and the public sector reforms affected urban tourism policy making and the changing DMOs governance. The present paper addresses these gaps in research with findings from the ongoing changes in the destination strategy and DMO governance taking place in Christchurch (New Zealand). The city has been used as case study for previous research in urban tourism, particularly in a post crisis context (see Amore and Hall 2016a and Hall et al. 2016 for reviews), but the governance changes affecting the local DMO (i.e. Christchurch & Canterbury Tourism (C&CT)) have, so far, been overlooked. This paper reprises the relevance of meta-narrative in tourism planning and policy (Dredge, Jenkins & Whitford, 2011) with respect to DMOs to illustrate how changes in governance and the urban built environment go hand in hand in the shaping of what has been termed the
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Corbett (1996) observed that as well as being indispensable for planning and for accountability, government budgets are crucial for management and control within the public sector. In the selected researched organization emphasis is placed on budgeting to ensure targets are met through the controlling of costs and revenue at all levels of business. However, controlling costs in the public sector is not same as the private sector. The researched organization has adopted program budgeting, under which planned expenditure is allocated to particular programs. It is an innovation in the public sector which is not present in the private sector. This budgeting program is the product of the Financial Management Improvement Program of the public sector reforms initiatives in Australia. In the researched organization, the objectives of the programs are stated in the Budget Paper. In the Budget Paper the department sets the priorities. These are the strategic and operational issues that are to be pursued during the year. In the Budget Paper The Department also mentions business and corporate strategies, output classes, strategic indicators, accountability indicators and statistical measures (DHCS, 2006- 2007, 2007- 2008 ). These elements formed the new structure of signification and showed how purpose and meaning are attributed to everyday activity in the researched organization.
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Tusla is responsible for improving wellbeing and outcomes for children and operates under the Child and Family Agency Act (CFAA), 2013 (Tusla, 2018). It is an independent legal entity, comprising of the Health Service Executive (HSE) Children and Family Services, the Family Support Agency (FSA) and the National Educational Welfare Board (NEWB), as well as incorporating some psychological services and a range of services responding to domestic, sexual and gender-based violence (Tusla, 2018). The main motivation for moving the social work service away from the health services was “to emancipate our child protection and welfare services from the monolith of the health services where for too long in the past they were lost and rudderless” according to the Minster for Children (Irish Department of Children and Youth Affairs [IDCYA], 2013a). Key features of the reform were leadership, enhanced accountability and more efficient interdisciplinary and inter-agency working (IDCYA, 2013b). As the formation of this new agency, with separate a legal entity, and the new Department of Children and Youth Affairs (IDCYA), was during the time of austerity, this major reform had minimal transition funding and was led by staff from the Department and HSE. Furthermore, the decision makers in the establishment had experience of delivering the service previously and would have responsibility for managing the organization going forward, a rarity in public sector reforms (Irish Institute of Public Administration [IPA], 2017). However, as identified by Buckley and Burns (2015), there were significant threats to the reform and its ambition given the period of austerity and retrenchment of public services that were on going at the time. In particular, would the change management process and the delivery of the services be adequately resourced (Buckley and Burns, 2015). The establishment of Tusla was challenging, involving 4,000 staff and a budget of over €600 million and is considered to have been relatively successful (IPA, 2017). Tusla now has over 4,000 employees and an annual operational budget of over €750 million (Tusla, 2018).
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with its experience as it participated in the privatisation of distribution companies in Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Columbia. The wholesale prices have also been reduced where privatisation has been introduced (Ibid: 5292). In England the most notable results of power sector reforms is the reduction in prices (Thomas, 2005:5265) this is because of major cost reductions for generators after privatisation, real fossil fuel prices paid by the British generators have fallen by 50 percent for coal and 30 percent for gas during the reform process, 1990-2001 and the introduction of more efficient generating plant, the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) became available (Ibid:5266). In Philippines power sector reforms brought economic growth by introducing private participation in the sector which resulted in reduction of government investment in the power sector so that the much investments could be made on social services such as water and sanitation (Toba, 2003:29). The other benefit was the gains in generation, arising from additional competitive pressures on National Power Corporation (NPC) from presence of Independent Power Producers (IPPs), the IPP’s efficient operation and technology transfer to NPC and the envisioned privatisation of the NPC. The presence of additional investments in the sector allowed the government to go for extra spending on social welfare activities and economic development (Ibid:26).
The responses to our various hypotheses show that the factors underlying private investment in Côte d'Ivoire affect certain macroeconomic variables. Most of them are public investment, credit to the private sector, external debt and the long-term real exchange rate. But in the short term public investment, external debt, real exchange rate and lagging GDP. Although GDP is lagging, it affects private investment negatively. Secondly, the results of our estimates show us that in Côte d'Ivoire public investment promotes private investment in the process of economic growth through socio- economic infrastructure. In addition, credit to the private sector does not encourage private investment in the growth process. In order to promote investment in the growth process, the State must clean up the financial sector which plays an essential role in the private sector, hence the growth process. Second, private investment promotes a country's economic growth, insofar as its dependence on the outside world is not significant. This is in line with our results. In this paper, we analyze the function of private investment in Côte d'Ivoire using 1980-2016 time series data and two-stage cointegration model Engle and Granger (1987). These results show that factors that have a significant impact on private investment in Côte d'Ivoire include public investment, private sector credit, external debt and the long-term real exchange rate. And that in the short term public investment, external debt, the real exchange rate and GDP have a significant impact on private investment. Thus, these results show that public investment leads to private investment. These results also show that the variables that favor investment in the Ivorian economic growth process are investment public, external debt, and real exchange rate.
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becomes an inevitable pre-requisite. With increased capital mobility, the demand for domestically defined monetary aggregates may become more sensitive to international interest rate differentials making it more difficult to identify a stable domestic monetary aggregate. Opening up the capital account therefore reinforces the adoption of a more eclectic monetary framework and a move towards giving more weight to exchange rates in monetary assessments. Bank regulation is another important aspect of monetary reforms. Before most of the physical aspects of financial reform such as those discussed above are put in place, there is a need to put a basic financial structure such as auditing, accounting, legal systems, and basic regulation in place (Caprio (1997)). The main goal of prudential regulation is to lower the risks and costs associated with institutional failure while achieving the increased efficiency of the financial system. This implies that while the government should leave the economy to the market, it should enhance its role to ensure fair and honest markets through prudential regulations without using it to perpetuate the controls existing before the reforms. When reforms are implemented without first putting appropriate regulation in place in an economy where the banking system is under-capitalised or insolvent, bank distress can result as has been seen in many African countries. The resulting distress can in turn complicate monetary management and limit the effectiveness of stabilisation policies. The presence of information asymmetries magnifies the need for appropriate regulation early in the reforms. When information asymmetries are prevalent as is the case in most developing countries, problems of adverse selection lead to the setting of imprudently high interest rates. Banks end up attracting very risky borrowers resulting in high levels of non-performing loans. Putting appropriate regulation in place allows the markets to provide correct signals while helping to ensure that this takes place at acceptable costs and in an orderly manner. When liberalisation precedes prudential regulation,
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While the court does not question its earlier decisions, in which it had implicitly endorsed the new economic policy of disinvestment, 15 the Supreme Court has also not ruled out the possibility of assessing the constitutionality of specific economic policies in the context of socialism being a basic feature of the Constitution. It is true that the disenchantment with India’s mixed economy and economic planning has seized the Supreme Court too and that the judges have often thrown their weight behind economic reforms – yet, judicial policy preferences may still come to haunt the liberalization process. In this respect, the main arguments advanced here concern the distinction drawn by Ashutosh Varshney (1999) between elite- and mass politics in the process of economic liberalization: “Elite concerns – investment tax breaks, stock market regulations, custom duties on imported cars – do not necessarily filter down to mass politics” (Varshney 1999: 223). They also do not impinge too much on the social revolution as not too many people are affected by them in a direct or obvious manner. On the other hand, if India’s economic reforms shift further towards the terrain of mass politics – privatization of the public sector, restructuration of labour laws, agricultural reforms and the reduction of fiscal deficits to low levels (Varshney 1999: 225) – the judges will be bound to encounter much harder choices and greater problems reconciling between liberalization and the social revolution. Thus, the first central contestation of this article is that the Supreme Court, a key actor within the institutional matrix of economic reforms, will function as a powerful – yet often ignored – policy maker whenever liberal reforms conflict with the goals of the social revolution. In the words of Justice Banerjee:
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Furthermore, central government through OPC assent authority over the Water Boards by appointing their Board of Directors. However, the performance of Board members leaves a lot to be desired. Paradoxically, though the Water Boards are in principle autonomous in their management and operation such that the managers are to be accountable for their results; the public managers are frustrated that they don’t have exclusive decision making authority though they are held accountable for the results. This is because the governance structure currently in place provides a bleeding ground for political interference which correspondingly frustrates the spirit of autonomization. Projects are diverted and managers hired to execute agency functions end up serving interests of their political masters in order to save their jobs at the expense of serving the communities they are mandated to serve. The situation is compounded by the fact that the Board of directorate appointed to oversee the Water Boards are mostly appointed according to their political affiliation rather than on merit. The Water Works Act No. 17 of 1995 which established the Water Boards is silent on who has to be in the Board hence appointments into the Board are not competency based.
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The lending rate for loans in excess of Rs. 200,000 that account for over 90 per cent of total advances was abolished in October 1994. Banks were at the same time required to announce a prime lending rate (PLR) which according to RBI guidelines had to take the cost of funds and transaction costs into account. For the remaining advances up to Rs. 200,000 interest rates can be set freely as long as they do not exceed the PLR (Arun and Turner, 2002; RBI, 2004a; Shirai, 2002). On the deposit side, there has been a complete liberalization for the rates of all term deposits, which account for 70 per cent of total deposits. The deposit rate liberalization started in 1992 by first setting an overall maximum rate for term deposits. From October 1995, interest rates for term deposits with a maturity of two years were liberalized. The minimum maturity has subsequently lowered from two years to 15 days in 1998. Thus, the term deposit rates were fully liberalized in 1997 (RBIs, 2004a). Scheduled Commercial Banks have now the freedom to set interest rates on their deposits subject to minimum floor rates and maximum ceiling rates. The four per cent differential interest scheme has been officially withdrawn. Though the Committee recommended reduction of target for priority sector advances from 40 per cent of total credit to 10 per cent, the Government did not agree to it.
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The literature on the reforms trends at international level shows that nearly all cross-national comparisons of public management reforms focus on countries with similar backgrounds, such as industrialized democracies with mature welfare states or from the same regional area. However, most of this literature concentrates on the industrialized world. This homogeneity leaves also a potentially important element of historical-institutional context in the dark. Along with our research, we hope to contribute to the effort to redress this deficiency. Four public administration traditions can be identified in Europe (Kickert, 1997:28; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2000; Peters 2000) the Germanic countries that are characterized by a basically Weberian bureaucracy model, an administrative practice marked by an overriding legalistic philosophy (Rechtsstaat); the Anglo-Saxon as the United Kingdom, the United States, and Anglo American administrative systems- antithesis of the Germanic tradition and the state as such doesn’t not exist as a legal entity; the Southern Europe like France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Belgium, referred to as Napoleonic countries (Ongaro, 2009), legalistic states; on the other hand, the Nordic countries(Kickert , which are unitary states with a public administration citizens ‘oriented and evolved from a legalistic to a pluralistic/consensual government style; and transition countries analysis that are preferring the terminology of NWS model when are talking about public administration trends of reforms (Cepiku and Mititelu, 2010).
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AJUCO: Archbishop James University College; CAS: Central admission system; CUHAS : Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences; HESLB: Higher Education Students ’ Loans Board (HESLB); HKMU: Hubert Kairuki Memorial University; IMF: International Monetary Fund; IMTU: International Medical and Technological University; KCMUCo: Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College; KIUD: Kampala International University Dar es Salaam; LMICs: Low- and middle-income countries; MHEST: Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology (MHEST); MUHAS: Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences; PPP: Public private partnership; SAP: Structural adjustment programmes; SFUCHAS: St. Francis University College for Health and Allied Sciences; SJCAHS: Joseph University College of Allied and Health Science; TCU: Tanzania Commission for Universities; UDOM: University of Dodoma; UDSM: University of Dar es Salaam; WB: World Bank; WHO: World Health Organization
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Cash basis IPSAS issued to encourage those entities who only record and maintain cash transactions, this standard enhance the accountability in cash receipt, cash payment and cash balance of those entities which compliance their GPFR, s with this standard. Cash basis IPSAS consists of two parts: mandatory and non-mandatory. The financial reports of every entity must comply with the mandatory standards and be prepared per cash basis IPSAS. These include the requirements of presentation of financial statements on cash basis, disclosure of accounting policies with supporting notes, and presentation of budget information. The non-mandatory requirements of cash basis IPSAS identify additional accounting policies and guidelines for public entities interested in migrating to accrual basis accounting in the future (Handbook reference). The basic objectives of the adoption of this standard are as follows:
Maori approaches to Maori development have been historically holistic insofar as they do not recognise public sector demarcations between social, cultural and economic areas. Attempting to modify concepts of Maori development to fit within government sectors has been a challenge for many Maori and they have often walked away from discussion tables in sheer frustration. Public sector strategies also tend to mask the fact that Maori well being may depend less on the delivery of health and social services than on macro policies that relate to employment, housing and education. Good health owes as much to good housing, a decent job and education as to health services.20 The impact of public sector changes on Maori policy in the 1 990s is examined further in chapter six, From Policy to Purchasing. In general, the public sector move towards mainstreaming meant major changes for Crown agencies. One Crown agent that was particularly affected by the restructuring was the Ministry of Maori Development - Te Puni Kokiri.
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Civil service reform began with five pilot ministries and subsequently was extended to nine MDAs (ministries, departments and agencies). In each instance, internal consultations were performed while verification exercises were conducted to update personnel records and payroll data. Organizational structures for the reforming ministries were reviewed and rationalized, while the appropriate professional skills needed were identified. Redundancy packages and retraining programs were offered to severed staff. Government pay scales have also been reviewed. The federal government consequently opted to increase wages by 15 percent, beginning in January 2007, with further upward revisions being dependent on further implementation of the public service reforms. Various public sector benefits such as housing and cars were also monetized and consolidated with basic salaries. Only four non-regular allowances remain: job-specific allowance (e.g. for doctors on call), risk-related allowance (e.g. for employees in risk-prone areas), relocation allowances (e.g. for employees posted abroad), and scarce skills allowance (e.g. for information technology specialists). Finally, government payroll systems are being computerized with the introduction of an Integrated Personnel and Payroll Information System (IPPIS) to assist in monitoring staffing numbers in the federal civil service (Ikhide & Alawode, 2002)
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The competitive climate in the Indian insurance market has changed dramatically over the last one decade. At the same time, changes have been taking place in the government regulations and technology. The expectation of customers is also changing. The existing General Insurance companies have to introduce many new products in the market which have competitive advantage over the products of Private Insurance. The Private Insurance companies have introduced some new innovative services to attract the customers by offering more bonus facilities and attractive services. The survey indicates that though a large number of studies have been conducted on non-life insurance sector at the international level, but at the national level researchers have mainly emphasized on life insurance sector. Although a few studies have been conducted on the performance of the general insurance sector prior to reforms, but no worthwhile research relating to the measurement of the overall performance of the general insurance companies in the post-reform period has been conducted, making a comparative study of the public and private sector general insurance companies. No proper study has been conducted to assess the impact of reforms on profitability and efficiency of the public sector general insurance companies and the comparative service quality level offered by the public and private sector general insurance companies. Time may not be sufficient for
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