Public Sector Reforms

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EU-driven public sector reforms

EU-driven public sector reforms

The adapted version employed in the case study of reforms under fiscal consolidation in Italy basically singles out the last factor, i.e. the size of adoption costs, in order to enable to link the externally imposed costs and benefits of adopting prescribed fiscal consolidation measures and public sector reforms, contrasted with the domestic adoption costs. However, for other cases in this special issue, notably the Greek and Irish ones, also the size and speed of reward as well as the credibility of threat and promise might be factored in the equation: so the size and speed of reward lie, e.g., in the amount and speed in transferring a tranche of the loan; and the credibility of threat and promise may consist e.g. in the withholding of the tranche of a loan. In the case of Italy these latter were deemed as less significant as there were no direct loans involved, rather a programme of purchase of government bonds backed by the European Central Bank (ECB): whilst at the outset the ECB intervention was to some extent ‘conditional’, after a certain point the ECB could not really threaten to end the
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THE COMPLEX RELATIONAL DYNAMICS IN PUBLIC SECTOR REFORMS

THE COMPLEX RELATIONAL DYNAMICS IN PUBLIC SECTOR REFORMS

We examine the research topic from the perspective of various actors in aiming to create a picture of the reform as a social process. Our data consists of statements of municipalities (total 24 mu- nicipalities, two statements from each) from two different regions (Greater Helsinki region, Tam- pere city region). Beside we use the official material drawn up by the government and parliament (reports, protocols, government proposals) and material produced by media or other actors such as researchers (e.g. articles, opinion writings). The total number of analysed documents is about sixty (N=60). On the basis of the material we aim firstly to represent the diverse views of different actors and secondly to contemplate a reliable description of the discourses existing in the imple- mentation phase of the local government reform. By doing this we are thirdly able to illustrate social factors creating complexity in the public sector reforms. We have used qualitative content analysis aiming to note central themes and discourses and building a logical chain of evidence and in formulating our conclusions (see Kvale 1996; Miles & Huberman 1994; Silverman 1993). Our analysis is also partly based on participatory interpretation as we have been involved in the reform as, for instance, evaluators, preparers and consulted experts. This involvement in the discussions enables us to interpret the various opinions and in the data material.
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Public Sector Reforms: Changing Contours on an NPM Landscape

Public Sector Reforms: Changing Contours on an NPM Landscape

Public Sector Reforms: Changing Contours on an NPM Landscape NOEL HYNDMAN AND MARIANNUNZIATA LIGUORI* Abstract: Previous studies suggest that public sector accounting has moved from Public Administration (PA) to New Public Management (NPM) ideas and, more recently, towards a New Public Governance (NPG) approach. These systems are presented as mutually exclusive and competing. Focusing on accounting changes in the UK central government, this paper explores whether movements towards NPG ideas can be identified at the level of political debate. No evidence is found that NPM is a transitory state. Rather, the findings demonstrate that political debate continues to utilise predominantly NPM arguments, with the three systems viewed as containing complementary, rather than competing, schemes.
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Public sector reforms and Public Private Partnerships: Overview and research agenda

Public sector reforms and Public Private Partnerships: Overview and research agenda

Lægreid, 2008; Osborne & Gaebler, 1992). Internationally, public sector reforms, and particularly PPPs, have also given rise to the need for producing and auditing new financial and performance reports and required new forms of accountability. From a global perspective, while individual countries are moulding their own unique approaches, it is possible to identify general trends in new public sector reforms, such as in PPPs which are being increasingly used internationally in order to hide some government deficits. These changes in the governance of these complex and hybrid organisations became to be known as New Public Governance (NPG). NPG has its origins in the radical changes introduced in the 1980s and 1990s, and can be partly regarded as a response to the NPM-oriented developments in the public sector, especially with respect to ‘marketization’ and
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Performance contracting strategy, public sector reforms and performance of public institutions in the transport sector “in Kenya”

Performance contracting strategy, public sector reforms and performance of public institutions in the transport sector “in Kenya”

2.5 Public Sector Reforms in Kenya According to Schultz (1998), the public service can be defined as a body of government officials employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. Well-ordered societies usually recruit and promote officials on the basis of a merit-and-seniority system, which may include examinations; elsewhere, corruption and patronage are more important factors. They often serve as neutral advisers to elected officials and political appointees. The officials “though not responsible for making policy” they are charged with its execution.
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Evaluating public sector reforms in Botswana : performance management, privatization and anti-corruption reforms

Evaluating public sector reforms in Botswana : performance management, privatization and anti-corruption reforms

The results of these two objectives were presented in chapter four. A general observation of the second phase of Botswana’s public sector reforms is that while performance management and the DCEC provide room for optimism, by virtue of its inertia, the privatization process has provided little cause for optimism so far. Although the DCEC could be regarded as having achieved the most success in the pursuit of its objectives, PMS has yet to achieve effective implementation. While the three reform initiatives were developed internally and not, as in many developing countries, external prescriptions, when viewed from a broader perspective they bear some resemblance to reform frameworks seen in more developed countries. Performance management systems and to a limited extend privatization can be said to carry some elements of New Public Management and its underlying ideas, while the establishment of the Directorate of Corruption and Economic Crime has reflected global reform trends towards the ‘good governance’ agenda.
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Public Sector Reforms, Privatisation and Regimes of Control in a Chinese Enterprise

Public Sector Reforms, Privatisation and Regimes of Control in a Chinese Enterprise

Public Sector Reforms, Privatisation and Regimes of Control in a Chinese Enterprise Abstract The Chinese economic reform has recently become a major focus of attention around the world. The underlying rationale for the Chinese government’s privatisation and public sector reforms is the view that reformed state enterprises and privately managed firms will demonstrate superior management control and better performance, and hence encourage economic growth and employment. There are very few intensive case studies published in English journals studying whether firms privatised in China have reversed previous losses and introduced better management controls, leading to increased investment, productivity, and overall organizational effectiveness and efficiency. The researchers do not seek to deny the control problems of Chinese SOEs, but question the consequences of the new controls installed during the post-privatisation period. The paper also reveals a declining tendency in employment; altered distributions of wealth - especially to the state - and labour, and a lack of improvements in the accountability of privatised companies. Overall, the paper argues, the aims of reform policies in China, including better control, increased profitability and an improved working life for Chinese people, have not materialized.
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Global remedies for local needs- Corporate governance and public sector reforms in Fiji.

Global remedies for local needs- Corporate governance and public sector reforms in Fiji.

Global remedies for local needs- Corporate governance and public sector reforms in Fiji ABSTRACT This paper examines the public sector reforms in Fiji, especially the restructuring of the economy insisted upon by international financial agencies. The tension between profit seeking and provision of public service is explicated. The case study method is employed. The empirical evidence is interpreted using institutional theory. Empirical evidence from two public sector organisations in Fiji that underwent structural reforms is used to illustrate the difficulties of transformation; and how the local needs were not met for the purpose for which the organisations were established. In the telecommunication organisation, for example, the early stage of corporatisation was resisted by employees owing to cultural and political issues specific to Fiji. Such cultural and political influences may not be so pertinent in Western industrialised countries, but are prevalent in developing countries.
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Public Sector Reforms in Africa: A Collection of Essays

Public Sector Reforms in Africa: A Collection of Essays

Concerned with the slow pace of implementation of its reform initiatives, the government took a Cabinet decision in September 2004 to formally prescribe Results-Based Management (RBM) as its strategy for changing the culture and modus operandi of the public sector (OPM/PSTD, 2010, cited in Isahakia, 2010). RBM is a program approach to management that integrates strategy, people, resources, processes, and measurements to improve decision-making, transparency, and accountability (CIDA, 2009). It focuses on achieving outcomes, implementing performance measurement, learning, adapting to change, as well as reporting performance. It is not a management tool, but rather a way of working that looks beyond activities, processes, and outputs to focus on actual results—the outcomes of RBM projects and programs. To operationalize the RBM strategy, a rapid results approach was adapted by the government as a structured methodology for building and practicing RBM, This led to the introduction of a rapid results initiative (RRI). The RRI was introduced to cultivate a strong focus on results and was used to attempt to fast track improvements in service delivery and/or working conditions by several public sector institutions. According to OPM/PSTD (2010, p.3, as cited in Isahakia, 2010), “many RRIs succeeded in delivering tangible results to citizens and helped consolidate support for reform”. It was further deemed that some of the building blocks for institutionalizing and mainstreaming RBM had been put in place. They included strategic planning, performance contracting, annual work plans, and service delivery charters (OPM/ PSTD, 2010, cited in Isahakia, 2010).
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Public Sector Reforms and New Public Management: Exploratory Evidence from Australian Public Sector

Public Sector Reforms and New Public Management: Exploratory Evidence from Australian Public Sector

This study is about the exploration of public sector reform agendas in the context of New Public Management initiatives in Australia. Australian public sector has been adopted as the field for investigation. The purpose of this study is to understand how new public management ideals become embedded in the new financially and managerially oriented Australian public sector which may be a learning for public sector in Southeast Asia. Evidence supported that the Australian Public Sector has operated within the context of a range of reformed government policies, strategies and laws. The primary catalyst of reforms in Australia was generated by government regulatory policies. It is also evident that the Australian Public Sector had made changes in their structure and operation to achieve cost-efficiency, budget accountability and an improved customer focus in service delivery. The research also demonstrates that implementation of reforms initiatives are the functions of New Public Management in the key areas of financial management. These findings are consistent with the view that changes to the Australian public sector promoted managerial accountability and a culture of performance.
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Adapting Risk Management Principles to the Public Sector Reforms

Adapting Risk Management Principles to the Public Sector Reforms

Every industry has unique challenges and managing risk for the public sector is no different. Public organizations, such as municipalities or public utilities, are generally large and slow-moving, making it difficult to get any sort of risk management plan up and running. Given their nature, public entities are also especially open to scrutiny from the media and the public. While this kind of oversight keeps people honest, it makes public entities more susceptible to defamation lawsuits, claims of unfair trade practices and reputation risk. Additionally, public entities often undertake high-risk activities that private firms never consider – from public gatherings to police departments, disaster response and water supplies – without receiving a decent profit to offset the risk exposure.
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Implementation of public sector reforms : Unravelling the G8 reform

Implementation of public sector reforms : Unravelling the G8 reform

Based on the cross-case analysis of Saarland, Hessen and Lower-Saxony, an answer to SQ4 “Do these factors explain the reversion of the G8-reform in practice?” can be proposed. As the empirical findings correspond mostly to the theoretical expectations, it can be assumed that the level of goal achievement and level or resilience as well as their respective sub-items are the decisive factors of successful public reform implementation. However, some sacrifices have to be made: not all of the analyzed determinants of success might have the same impact on the decision to revert the reform. This indicates an avenue for further research, which could examine if the presence of one factor might override the others in their importance. Reflecting on the theoretical framework, the “alignment of stakeholder positions” has been the most frequently featured determinant of success across the work of all scholars. Therefore, it could be explored if the alignment of stakeholder position ranks higher in priority as the other determinants of success. For a better answer to SQ4, the G8-reform must once more be considered in its overall context. Being a measure of education politics, a full explanation of the phenomenon must go beyond the implementation perspective. Particularly the pedagogical components in the design of the reform are expected to provide further explanations. In conjunction with the implementation perspective, an interdisciplinary approach to G8 could provide a more elaborate explanation about the success of educational reforms and therefore facilitate the lives of those affected by it.
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The History of and Prospects for Public Sector Reforms in Sri Lanka

The History of and Prospects for Public Sector Reforms in Sri Lanka

After obtaining the Master‘s degree in Development Administration from the Australian National University (2000), my determination and curiosity in learning public policy and day-to-day aspects of public administration in Sri Lanka (SL) grew more and more over the years. Being a career bureaucrat attached to the Sri Lanka Administrative Service (SLAS) I was very keen to find out how public administration and public policies contribute to the daily life of Sri Lankans. The media very often criticises the public service as inefficient. With each passing year criticisms of the public service grow. Both the United National Party (UNP) and the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), which have alternated in power since Independence (1948), when in power and/or in Opposition have always voiced their intentions to reform the public service; and they have established various reform committees and altered the Constitution but nothing has happened. What has in fact really happened is that the public service has been politicised and made not only more inefficient but also corrupt. Furthermore, the World Bank and Central Bank of SL (CBSL) continuously highlight in their reports that the Sri Lankan Public Service (SLPS) has been overstaffed. According to the 2009 annual report of CBSL, the public service cadre accounts for over 1.2 million to serve the population of 20.4 million (mid-year population in 2009). The excess of staff 2 in the public service is in fact wastage of ‗the workforce‘. The wastage of ‗the workforce‘ is wastage of money. Furthermore, it badly affects the private sector development because there is a shortage of educated manpower for private sector employment (World Bank, 2004). These criticisms and ideas encouraged me to explore the following puzzle in this research.
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Essays on the impact evaluation of social programs and public sector reforms

Essays on the impact evaluation of social programs and public sector reforms

3.8 Conclusions In this paper, I evaluate the impact on in-hospital mortality of a reform that made all health professionals working part-time switch to full-time contracts at public hospitals in Ecuador. The reform was born from the need to homogenize wages at all public institutions, not in response to deficiencies in certain areas of the public health system. Adoption was progressive according to the resolutions issued by the Ministry of Labor which established a particular adoption date for each of the different groups of hospitals that constitute the public health system (Ministry of Health, IESS, and others), and a more specific schedule that set the order of adoption for hospitals within those groups. I argue that the timing of adoption was exogenous to hospital performance. This statement is based on the evidence from parallel trend analysis showing that three years before adoption, mortality was not different across hospitals that adopted the reform earlier and later. Furthermore, the results from the event study were robust to the inclusion of pre-treatment characteristics which could have been used by policymakers to decide the order of implementation.
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The role of public sector reforms in consumer protection : China and the UK

The role of public sector reforms in consumer protection : China and the UK

It may be beneficial to import the British 'Next Steps', 'Citizen's Charter', and 'Modernising Government' into the Chinese civil service to facilitate the governm[r]

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. 1. Public sector reforms in the OECD countries

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. 1. Public sector reforms in the OECD countries

Development agencies have a number of basic options to consider for aggregating or summing up performance and results achieved at the agency-wide or corporate level. At the two extremes -- project outputs and country-level sector statistics -- aggregation of indicator data may be relatively easy. But in the case of outputs, the question "so what?" may be raised. With country level statistics, it is rarely possible to credibly link changes to a single agency's interventions, especially on a year-to-year basis. In the middle are project outcomes, which should be more significant than outputs, yet should be more clearly attributable to agency activities than national statistical trends. The problem here is that often there is great diversity in project/program outcomes and in their performance measures, so aggregation using comparable standard indicators is often not possible. Some agencies have overcome this by developing rating systems that score a project's (or program’s) performance in meeting its intended outcomes and then sum the performance rating across the portfolio – e.g., the numbers and percentages of projects/programs that were successful or unsuccessful in achieving their targets.
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SOME EMERGING ISSUES OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND PUBLIC                                  SECTOR REFORMS IN INDIA

SOME EMERGING ISSUES OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND PUBLIC SECTOR REFORMS IN INDIA

CONCLUSION The purpose of this paper has been to locate' a role for human resource management within the field of development administration. Since the latter is at least partly about public sector management there is a high degree of overlap and a number of avenues through which this objective could be realised. The most general area is that of the need for reform of bureaucratic structures and the growth of administrative capacity this reform seeks to address. In the development reform policy debate, most attention has been focused on macro-economic policy and how to get "good policy" adopted through particular political structures. Bates and Kreuger's recent collection of case studies provides material on the difficulties of this from the perspectives of both economics and political science, emphasising the dilemma that good policy is not always good politics (Bates and Kreuger 1993:454ff).
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Accession Of Serbia And Montenegro To The EU-The Frontrunners Or Laggers In Public Sector Reforms?

Accession Of Serbia And Montenegro To The EU-The Frontrunners Or Laggers In Public Sector Reforms?

Progress report for 2016 is again saying that Serbia is moderately prepared with the reform of its public administration. In 2016 good progress was achieved because Serbia adopted the public financial management reform programme, e-government strategy, a strategy on regulatory reform and policy making, new law on general administrative procedures, public salaries and civil servants at provincial and local government level. On the other hand, Commission is also saying that Serbia has been slow in some areas with the implementation of the public administration reform and that no progress was made with amending the legal framework for central government civil servants. Strong recommendations for Serbia in the coming year are to: align the National Plan for the Adoption of Acquis with the medium-term budget plan, provide costing for actions, and update it with a view to setting a legislative programme that promotes better regulation based on impact assessment and timely inter-institutional and public consultations; amend the civil service law through an inclusive and evidence-based process to guarantee the neutrality and continuity of the public administration and ensure merit-based recruitment, promotion and dismissal procedures, notably by eradicating exceptions and transitional arrangements in appointments; ensure systematic coordination and monitoring ad regularly report on the implementation of the public financial management reform programme 2016-2020.”
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A systemic and public value approach to integrated public sector reforms: a case for South African municipalities

A systemic and public value approach to integrated public sector reforms: a case for South African municipalities

4 1. Introduction Public sector reform at municipal (local council) government level cannot be effectively implemented without highlighting the negative impact on organisational, institutional and community development arising from the structural and functional constraints and controls imposed by an authoritarian and hierarchical government system. Accountability, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness in respect of implementing the 17 United Nations Sustainability Development Goals (17 UN-SDGs) have not been escalated to the prominent place it deserves in municipalities. The adoption of an integrated public service system (IPSS) and the generation of public value (PV), sets in motion the dynamic mobilisation of communities, municipalities and a core group of network stakeholders to implement programmes and projects at the local level. An IPSS is driven by shared common objectives based on the needs, demands and expectations of communities and broad socio-economic PV goals, many of which are congruous with the 17 UN-SDGs. It is assumed upon evidence, that the IPSS and the generation of PV, as juxtaposed to the current Weberian municipal system, will lead organisations and communities to achieve well-being and social progress, i.e. a qualitatively higher standard of life achieved through the progressive application of quality standards.
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A Review of Economic Status and Public Sector Financial Management Reforms in Kenya

A Review of Economic Status and Public Sector Financial Management Reforms in Kenya

Since 1997, the government of Kenya has been implementing public sector reforms aimed at strengthening government finance and accounting functions to improve public-sector financial management, accountability, and transparency of public funds (Diamond & Khemani, 2006, p. 116). Nevertheless, Bagaka (2009, p. 188) argued that a look at Kenya’s reform initiatives since the mid-1980s found that more emphasis has been placed on efficiency and economy and less attention has been given to social equity. Coleman (2013, p. 81), on the other hand, reported that Kenya’s macroeconomic performance improved considerably in the period of 2004-2007, with real GDP growth averaging 6 percent per year. Coleman (2013, p. 81) argued that this was achieved through the implementation of sound public financial management reforms, along with a favourable external environment. Coleman (2013, p. 81) noted that the support of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) programme, under the International Monetary Fund, ensured significant progress in structural reforms in Kenya, including reforms in the financial sector and in public-financial management and governance.
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