Disposal is the final step in the radioactivewastemanagement system. The safety, mainly achieved by isolation, is attained by placing barriers around the radioactivewaste in order to restrict the release of radionuclides into the environment. The barriers can be either natural (natural clay or rock having high sorption capacity of radionuclides) or engineered (stone concrete or metal) and an isolation system can consist of one or more barriers. During the period when the radioactivewaste is contained by the system of barriers, the radionuclides in the waste are undergoing decay thereby reducing hazard with time.
(5) Disposal Authorization. A disposal authorization statement shall be obtained prior to construction of a new low-level waste disposal facility.
Field Elements with existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the Complex-Wide Low-Level WasteManagement Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility’s performance assessment, composite analysis, performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance, preliminary closure plan, and preliminary monitoring plan. The disposal authorization statement shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the radioactivewastemanagement basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement by the implementation date of this Order shall result in shutdown of the disposal facility.
• New York City Department of Health – Regulations City of New York, Chapter 175 (RCNY – Chapter 175).
College of Staten Island administrators, faculty, staff, students, contractors, and other parties who handle or generate radioactive wastes are required to properly handle, store and label radioactive wastes and to comply with applicable federal, state and city regulations. All who use or handle radioactive wastes are responsible to follow the policies and procedures set forth in this RadioactiveWasteManagement Plan. It is the responsibility of all to see that radioactive wastes are managed in a safe, healthy, and environmentally sound manner. The Environmental Health & Safety Officer (EHSO) and campus administration are responsible to ensure that all appropriate parties comply with these requirements.
7. ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NATIONAL POLICY
7.1. CREATING A NATIONAL POLICY STATEMENT
A national policy statement must represent the views of all of the organizations concerned in the management of spent fuel and radioactivewaste. An appropriate representative committee should, therefore, be established to develop the policy or to update existing policy. The committee should contain representatives of the regulatory body, the radioactivewastemanagement organization, the radioactivewaste generators and other organizations with responsibilities in the area of radioactivewastemanagement. The process for developing policy should take account of all the topics listed in Section 6 and of any others which are specific to the country. If a policy is being updated, account should be taken of all relevant national and international changes and events that have occurred since the previous policy was developed. The draft policy document should be reviewed by all relevant national organizations. After this, approval of the policy statement by government should be sought through appropriate channels; it is recognized that these will differ from country to country. The aim is to produce a policy statement which reflects the official position of the government on spent fuel and radioactivewastemanagement.
Storage – the holding of radioactive sources, spent fuel or radioactivewaste in a facility that provides
for their/ its containment with the intention of retrieval. Storage of radioactivewaste may take place at any stage in the radioactivewastemanagement process and aims to isolate the radioactivewaste and protect people and the environment from the hazards presented by the waste, while keeping the waste in a controlled state that will ultimately make it amenable to safe disposal. Storage may be used to make the next step in the management process more straightforward, or to act as a buffer between or within steps. Waste might be stored for many years before it undergoes further processing and disposal. Some storage facilities are located with a nuclear power plant or a licensed disposal facility, others are separate facilities
Abstract— United States Department of Energy Order 435.1, RadioactiveWasteManagement, includes requirements for assessing the long-term performance of radioactivewaste disposal facilities and also for environmental monitoring of the performance of those facilities throughout the time of institutional control. It is also specified that performance assessment and composite analysis modeling should be integrated with environmental monitoring in order to provide a means to assess the adequacy of the assumptions that were made for the modeling. This paper describes the development of action levels, which are expected concentrations at different locations in the subsurface based on modeling conducted for the performance assessment and composite analysis for the low-level waste disposal facility at the RadioactiveWasteManagement Complex at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. First year comparisons of measured concentrations with the action levels have shown that migration appears to be occurring at a much lower rate than predicted by the models. This supports the conclusion that the modeling is conservative and conclusions based on the modeling are likewise conservative.
The Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy for the future beneficence will have to be amended to incorporate several missing key points on wastemanagement, such as definition of radioactivewaste, disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), and classification of waste.
Full involvement of some important stakeholders, especially the State Ministry of Environment, on the radioactivewastemanagement infrastructure is required since some radioactivewaste is generated from non nuclear waste. Assigning full authority to the State Ministry of Environment for regulating radioactivewaste generated by non nuclear facilities may be more effective, whereas BAPETEN is still holding onto control over the waste generated from nuclear facilities. In the near future, several regulations on clearance level, classification of waste, NORM/TENORM, and financial system are expected to be set up for urgent need. By considering the high risk for handling of radioactivity, including for transportation and storage, the liability or assurance of the safety for such activities must be accounted for. Finally, establishment of financial system for long term wastemanagement in Indonesia needs to be implemented to ensure that the radioactivewaste will not be the burden on future generations.
The Czech Government defines the radioactivewastemanagement policy and strategy and guarantees safety of radioactivewaste disposal. The state organisation SÚRAO was established by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in 1997 as a fully state controlled organisation. SÚRAO operates the existing low- and intermediate-level waste repositories and is responsible for the development of deep geological repository for disposal of HLW and spent fuel. Activities of SÚRAO are financed from the Nuclear Account, a fund which is created from levies of waste generators for the waste disposal and is managed by the Ministry of Finance. Additionally, SÚRAO has submitted to the Ministry of Environment applications for non-invasive investigation in potentially suitable areas for the deep geological repository in seven municipalities (SÚRAO, 2014).
Sweden is the representative country which tried to solve the conflict on nuclear issues since the initial stage. The radioactivewastemanagement facility of Sweden was built on the trust of citizens. In Sweden, local communities have veto power over decisions affecting local planning in general, and particularly facilities which have the potential to affect the environment. Situations are also foreseen in which the government can overrule the local veto on grounds of national interest. Facilities for radioactivewaste disposal are mentioned in this context, and the circumstances under which the government would use this power have been rigorously debated. On the basis of interaction with various segments of the public in the early feasibility studies for siting, the Swedish implementing organization, SKB, has clearly stated that it will conduct investigations and build a repository only in a community where there is local acceptance or tolerance for it, thereby respecting the spirit of the community’s veto power. Local officials and members of the public have taken an increasingly active role in evaluating program plans and setting conditions. In addition, Sweden has set forth specific plans for a phased implementation procedure, with part of the repository being backfilled, sealed, and monitored for decades before completing the rest.
31. There were several examples of the repatriation of research reactor spent fuel being undertaken. The removal of spent fuel from research reactors is a significant safety benefit and a positive step toward decommissioning of the nuclear facilities.
32. Progress in disposal of radioactivewaste and spent fuel was reported. This comprised of work on national spent fuel and radioactivewastemanagement programmes, including their expansion to accommodate the construction of new or additional nuclear power plants. It is also encouraging that Contracting Parties are planning for the management of radioactivewaste and spent fuel, including funding mechanisms, before new nuclear power plants are being built or operated. Progress was achieved in the construction and operation of new near surface disposal facilities. Continued progress, while slow, was reported for geological disposal facilities, ranging from the site selection process to the opening of geological disposal facilities in the not too far future.
In the radioactivewaste disposal, the regulatory body confirms whether the radioactivewaste disposal facility, the waste packages and the safety measures are in accordance with the technical standards.
At the operation of a nuclear facility, in addition to regulations focusing on the integrity of structural aspects described above, an assessment is also conducted concerning managerial aspects of the operator such as the organization, reporting system, operating procedure, equipment maintenance, surveillance, radiation control for personnel, radioactivewastemanagement, radioactive gaseous and liquid waste discharge, radiation monitoring and safety education for personnel, quality assurance, etc. These aspects are comprehensively documented in the Operational Safety Program, which should be approved by the regulatory body. By the amendment of the Reactor Regulation Law in October 2003, operator’s quality assurance program is included in the Operational Safety Program, the Nuclear Safety Inspection system is established, and the Nuclear Safety Inspectors who confirms compliance with the Operational Safety Program are stationed at each nuclear facility. The allegation system, established by the Reactor Regulation Law, was revised so that personnel can allege violation of safety regulation to the NSC as well as to NISA without any unfavorable treatment. The rules under the law provides that the personal data of alleger be protected. The rule also provides for adequate procedures for investigation and disclosure of alleged case.
12 (i) Safety of facilities
The only existing radioactivewastemanagement facility in the Netherlands is the COVRA waste treatment and storage facility at Borsele. It consists of an operational waste treatment and waste storage facility for low- and intermediate-level radioactivewaste and a treatment and storage facility for HLW and SF (HABOG). On the premises of COVRA a building was also constructed for the storage of NORM waste, in cases where the regulatory exemption limits are exceeded. Another building is present for the storage of depleted uranium oxide from the Urenco enrichment plant in Almelo. The LILW facility is equipped with volume-reducing installations including a 1500 ton super compactor, an incinerator for liquid organic waste and an incinerator for animal carcasses. The LILW facility has now been in operation for more than 18 years. The whole wastemanagement facility got a major regulatory overhaul in the framework of a revision of the licence for the construction and operation of the HABOG.
COVRA facility were mainly based on considerations of adequate infrastructure and the site had to be situated at an industrialised area. As a matter of fact many sites comply with these rather general criteria. Twelve of these were selected by the commission as being suitable in principle. None of the investigated sites had features that were thought to be prohibitive for the planned activity. For the selection of the preferred sites the co- operation of the local authorities was sought. In order to facilitate the negotiations with the local authorities a site-independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was performed (see below). As expected, this demonstrated essentially the absence of any adverse effect on the environment. However, this conclusion did not lead to an offer from local administrators. Although there are in principle legal procedures for overruling a refusal by a local or regional authority to accept a potentially suitable storage or disposal site, as a rule the consensus model is followed for the allocation of a site. In practice this limits the number of available sites to just a few, since most municipalities consider the presence of a radioactivewastemanagement facility as undesirable. Consequently, the preferred sites are basically selected on the basis of willingness of local authorities to co- operate in the establishment of such a facility. Eventually, only two municipalities were willing to accommodate a facility for storage of spent fuel and radioactivewaste. COVRA expressed a preference for the present location in the Sloe industrial area in the south- west part of the country close to the NPP Borssele.
FPH and TVO have rock cavern-type repositories for operational LILW at their NPP sites. The reposi- tory at the Loviisa site became operational in 1998 and that at the Olkiluoto site in 1992. Both utilities plan to dispose of also decommissioning wastes into extensions of these repositories.
The preferred strategy for disused sealed sources is the return to their manufacturers. Such sources or other small-user waste that cannot be cleared from regulatory control or shipped abroad, can be transferred to STUK upon compensation, which covers the storage and disposal costs. STUK operates a rock cavern interim storage located in the premises of the Olkiluoto LILW repository.
Developments in the legal framework
The Act on Atomic Energy was amended in 2011. Changes relevant to SF/RW management are:
• A national programme for RW and SF management has to be maintained by the national wastemanagement organization (PURAM Ltd.)
< 90 days S‐35, Sc‐46, Ir‐192, Sr‐85, 30 months
< 120 days Sn‐113 40 months
Table RPR54.1 "Minimum Storage Time"
Monthly, the database is used to prepare a list which identifies packages that have been held in storage for at least the minimum time period. When sufficient packages are listed, the packages are retrieved from storage and surveyed. The maximum count or exposure rate from a package must be indistinguishable from background when surveyed with a survey instrument set to the greatest sensitivity. The measured exposure rate is recorded on the waste tag and the package disposed as not radioactivewaste. Prior to disposing of decayed waste, the "Container" copy of the waste tag is dated, initialed, and removed. This copy is kept by the Radiological Health Department. It is very important to keep in mind that radiation may not be the only hazard to be considered. Once the radioactive component is allowed to decay, the waste is treated considering other hazards. For example, waste may be infectious, biohazard, or medical waste and must be treated by the appropriate regulatory authority. Regulated medical waste is disposed of through the infectious waste section of the county landfill. An "Infectious Substance" label is attached to each sharps container. If a University vehicle is used to transport infectious waste to the landfill, the vehicle must be placarded with the "Dangerous" placard.
For wastemanagement purposes the separated Np, Am-Cm could preferably be mixed with a very insoluble matrix of the type Zirconolite, Hollandite and Perowskite known as "Synroc"; up to 30 wt% Pu and MAs can this way be immobilized. Once in the embedded form, retrieval of the nuclides from the matrix is very difficult. Their solubility in geologic fluida is several orders of magnitude lower (10 -6 g/sq.m/d) than conventionally vitrified waste. Since the leach rate and the solubility in groundwaters determine the ultimate radiological risk such procedure would sharply decrease the long-time risk of a repository in comparison with conventional vitrification of HLLW. However the criticality issue involved when locally large amounts of MAs are transferred to a repository remains to be addressed and calls for additional studies. Mixing of conditioned MA fractions with very refractory neutron absorbing materials e.g. B 4 C or RE mixtures is a possible approach.
Wastes from surface contamination areas in the radiologically controlled area are placed in bags or containers and tagged at the point of origin with information on radiation levels, waste type, and destination. The bags or containers are transported to the radwaste building, where they are placed into low-, moderate-, or high-activity storage, segregated by portable shielding as appropriate. The high-activity wastes (greater than 100 mR/hr) are normally expected to be compacted in drums using a mobile compactor system in the same manner as lower-activity filter cartridges. Moderate-activity wastes (5 mR/hr to 100 mR/hr) are expected to be sorted in a mobile system to remove reusable items such as protective clothing articles and tools, hazardous wastes, and larger noncompressible items. The remaining wastes are normally compacted by mobile equipment. The packaged wastes may be loaded directly onto a truck for shipment or may be stored in the packaged waste storage room until a truck load quantity accumulates.