Abstract—The increasing globalization of companies forces them to create a planned and integrated approach to sustain successful in global markets, by involving employees and implementing improvement programmes that will maximize productivity and company’s performance. The need for improvement is emphasized together with the need to achieve competitive advantage, to focus on company requirements, measure performance and learn from results. Many researchers considered total quality management (TQM) as the leading management philosophy that improves company’s position and their performance. Accordingly, it cannot be generalize about the extent to which the implementation of TQM along with related business strategies actually impact organizational performance. The research study presents a discussion of issues related to the complementary approach of TQM and strategic process. In that manner, research study was mainly based on quantitative data conducted to obtain empirical results in order to investigate the relationshipbetweentotal quality management and strategic management.
Total cloud lightning detection systems have been in development since the mid–1980s and have been deployed in several areas around the world. Previous studies on total cloud lightning have found intra and inter-cloud lightning (IC) tend to fluctuate significantly during the lifetime of thunderstorms. Prior studies have primarily focused on the electrical characteristics of thunderstorms, thunderstorm development and life cycle theory, but they do not provide much help to the operational meteorological community as they fail to link lightning characteristics to currently used radar interrogation techniques. Studies have indicated lightning jumps tend to be closely linked to changes in the vertical integrated liquid (VIL) reading on the National Weather Service’s Weather Surveillance Radar–1998 Doppler (WSR–88D) systems and lightning holes tend to be associated with a bounded weak echo region (BWER) on the WSR–88D. More recent studies have attempted to mathematically classify a lightning jump but are still years away. This study builds off previous results and takes a more aggressive look at total cloud lightning and its relationship to the WSR–88D derived signatures currently used to determine a thunderstorms severity. Lightning and thunderstorm data from the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas and the Tucson, Arizona areas from 2006–2009, was used to relate lightning to other thunderstorm parameters. A relationshipbetweentotal cloud lightning behavior and currently used radar interrogation techniques was found indicating lightning jumps can be classified into three different types. Two types show preponderance for a specific type of severe weather event and lightning behavior while the third show no preference. These findings are of significant interest to the operational meteorological community and in some case can be put to immediate use.
2-Nafise Ahmadi ,P.G. Student, Department Of Business Management, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol,Iran
The objective of this study is to examine the relationshipbetweentotal quality management and job satisfaction among employees of Saderat bank in Babol branches. This study has been done by descriptive- explorative method. The population of the study includes all employees of Saderat bank branches in Mazandaran. The sample size of this study is 260 employees. SEM use for analyze of data which gathered through questionnaire. Study findings have shown there is meaningful relationshipbetween comprehensive quality management dimensions and employees performance. In this regard, the relation among cooperation and team working and leading to organizational performance is more than other dimensions of total quality management. Also, the relation among employee performance and employees job satisfaction is meaningful.
In the last few decades, retention of employees has become a real issue in public and private organisations because of the openness and liberalisation of global economy. These organisations have implemented various reward oriented schemes to improve employees‟ work effectiveness and efficiencies. The key purpose of these schemes is to retain valuable human capital and make employees more committed at the work place. A number of empirical studies and anecdotal evidences indicated employee retention is becoming a dilemma in private and public organisations particularly in the higher education sector. The study explored the phenomena of employee retention and total rewards by examining the mediating role of organisational commitment and job satisfaction. In addition, the moderating role of work volition betweentotal rewards and job satisfaction was examined. This study employed quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Based on multistage random sampling technique, a survey was conducted among faculty members of higher educational institutions in Pakistan. Approximately 289 completed questionnaires were received from the targeted population. Data checking, preparation, screening, normality, descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS- 21). The key findings indicated that total reward has a significant impact on job satisfaction, organisational commitment and employee retention. These findings also showed that work volition significantly moderated the relationshipbetweentotal reward and faculty member‟s job satisfaction in the higher educational institutions.
downturns, the increase in consumer debt often plays a very important role. They conclude that the bigger the increase in debt, the harder the fall in spending. Cecchetti, Mohanty and Zampolli (2011) analysed government debt, corporate debt and household debt and find that each of these three types of debt becomes a drag on growth when it reaches a level above 85-90% of GDP. They conclude that debt improves welfare but can be damaging to the economy when levels are very high. As mentioned, the initial response to the global financial crisis was to focus on excessive government debt. Afterwards, the focus shifted to private credit. Our study aims to further the literature by looking at the overall debt level in an economy. This paper provides empirical evidence on the relationshipbetweentotal debt and economic growth. We explore whether there is a specific debt threshold after which growth plummets. Section 3 describes the data and methodology used in our analysis. In section 4, we provide empirical evidence on the link betweentotal debt levels and growth for our panel of 26 OECD countries from 1961-2012 in. Section 5, analyses changes in total debt-to-GDP and real GDP growth. In the subsequent section, we discuss our main findings. Finally, section 7 presents the conclusions.
total polyphenols, colour, wort boiling, beer
Phenol compounds come into wort and beer from the raw materials used in production (hops, barley malt, and supplement cereals. Their content depends on the conditions of the wort boiling. Depending on the structure and size of molecules, phenol compounds impact: colour, taste, foam and chemical-physical stability of beer. They can be found in cereal chaff and aleuronic layer. In hops polyphenols are located exclusively in surface leaflets and cones. Those are: dimers, trimers and higher polymers of catechins, epicatechins and galocatechins. Polyphenols of hops are, in contrast to polyphenols of cereals, condensed in higher degree and more reactive. In the beer production process, interaction of proteins and polyphenols appear, when the main bond in protein-polyphenol complexes, is of hydrophobic character. Hydrogen bonds only help in the complex strengthening. That way created complexes act negatively on the colloidal stability of the beer. However, these compounds have a positive impact on health. There are indications that polyphenols act: anticancerously, antibacterially, antithrombotically, antioxidatively, immunomodulatorily, antiinflammatorily and as regulators of blood pressure and blood glucose[13, 3,11].
Based on comprehensive review of previous study, a conceptual model has been proposed to model the relationshipbetween TQM practices and organizational performance as presented in Fig. 3.1. This proposed model has adapted the conceptual model proposed by Lin et al. , as their successful model in conducting comparison between two countries. However, some amendments especially on TQM practices constructs have been made.
TAC, total antioxidant capacity; TOS, total oxidative status; OSI, oxidative stress index; LDL cholesterol - low density lipoprotein cholesterol
in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. 16 There are encouraging correlation between DNA oxidation and TAC in smokers, however plasma TAC in smok- ers imprecisely higher than nonsmokers. 17 Oxida- tive stress induces macrophage responses such as increased capacity to oxidize LDL, increased oxi- dized-LDL celluler uptake, as well as macrophage lipid peroxidation and increased intimal accumula- tion of smooth muscle cells. 18 Regnström et al. 19 de- scribed an inverse association between resistance of LDL to oxidation and severity of coronary steno- sis in patients; however, the study of Croft et al. 20 did not reveal a difference in oxidation parameters be- tween coronary atherosclerotic patients and control subjects. On the other hand as a consequence of using lipid-lowering therapy (Atorvastatin 10mg/kg),
Total Quality Management and financial performance belong to a universal subject. To present a nuance induced by addressing this subject, the author suggests two main reflections. First, it refers to Tamimi and Sebastianelli (1996). The latter note that the definition of TQM in an entire way would not exist. It is defined rather differently regarding various contexts and circumstances. In other words, TQM is defined through a description of many ways of quality implementation in various forms of organizations. Here is food for thought concerning the research approach. It suggests evoking the second point of view from the conception of Juran (1994). The author defines TQM as a set of actions undertaken by organizations to achieve a global level of quality. Thus, it informs about the international interest of its use in an organizational environment.
This study investigated Palestinian firms through the implementation of various TQM practices; but failed however, to establish business excellence model with a provision for a continuous assessment of customer satisfaction for both the current and the potential customers with an overall enhancement of total quality service in the general business performance. With a focus on the examination of the relationshipbetween TQM and organizational performance in Palestine, it is evident that the various TQM practices employed by different firms in Palestine experience a slightly improved performance from the financial perspective. From such an observation, it is obvious that business advances their performances based on how they manage their processes and finances. With an improvement in the two aspects, an organization is likely to experience an overall advanced performance improvement.
Today, competitive market has rapid changes in providing different kind of productions; it’s because of demands and needs of customers. Total Quality Management, is a continues process of improving quality to get the Customer satisfaction. Therefore, manufacturing and service organizations and companies are trying in markets, in order to provide appropriate response to many varied needs of customers and also success in market, so that they can achieve their goals, using Quality management systems such as TQM. Better quality of goods and services, is the result of the process of true learning, so it has gained an important place for Scholars, scientific and educational institutions. World universities and research centers are seeking to improve their services with innovations. Training is one of most complicated tasks in managing the organizations, especially in “Human Resources Management”, which influences other internal factors, such as Motivation, job satisfaction, creativity, innovation. One of the most important effects of TQM, from the perspective of strategic human resource management, is the high emphasize on training. TQM claims that an error, which reduces the quality of products and services of companies, is a result of having not trained workers. In this paper, we investigate the relationshipbetween human resource management, and Total Quality Management.
In the emerging knowledge economy, universities play a critical role in knowledge transfer and knowledge diffusion of their research findings to the industry. Using the Total Quality Management opens a new horizon in higher education settings in order to facilitate knowledge transfer process and institutionalize its diffusion in the industrial contexts. In doing so, the main purpose of this study is to investigate total quality management practices affecting knowledge transfer and knowledge diffusion in the academic settings. The method used in this study is a correlation method, and structural equation modeling (SEM) are utilized to analyze the data by means of the path analysis. The research instrument is the questionnaire. The study’s participants are a sample of all graduate students, PhD student and Professors of three departments at Shiraz University, Iran; of which 169 persons randomly selected as examples of expertise. The findings of the study indicated a significant relation between learning, Autonomy, as the TQM practices and knowledge transfer, and between knowledge transfer and knowledge diffusion. The study also pointed out that among the TQM practices, learning and Employee Fulfillment, have the significant correlation with knowledge diffusion
Zineldin, M. and Fonsson, P. 2000. An examination of the main factors affecting trust/commitment in supplier dealer relationships:
an empirical study of the Swedish wood industry. The TQM Magazine, Vol.12, No.4, pp. 245-265.
Faisal Talib is an Assistant Professor at Mechanical Engineering Section, University Polytechnic, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, (U.P.), India. He holds Masters in Industrial and Production Engineering and currently pursuing Ph.D. in Total Quality Management in Service Sector from Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, (U.Kh.), India. He has more than 12 years of teaching experience and has more than 30 publications to his credit in national/international journals and conferences. His special interest includes Quality Engineering, TQM, Service Quality, Quality Concepts Taguchi Methods, and Quality Management in Service Industries.
Glomalin is a glycoprotein produced by Arbuscular Mycorrrhizal (AM) fungi, which play an important role in soil aggregation. The presence of total glomalin was studied in different fruit crop orchards viz., Anona (Anona spuamosa), Guava (Psidium guajava), Mango (Mangifera indica) and Sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill) Forsberg) to understand the total glomalin in relation to soil aggregation in perennial fruit crop orchards. Soil samples were collected from inside and outside drip circle of plants and then graded into different aggregates by using various sieves viz., 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm. All the samples were analysed for total glomalin content and AM fungal spores by adopting standard methods. The results indicated that the soils from outside drip circle had significantly higher total glomalin (6.20 - 9.42 mg g -1 soil) compared to the soils from inside drip circle (5.60 - 7.10 mg g -1 soil) in all the fruit crops orchards. This observation clearly indicated that the undisturbed fruit crop orchard soils contain 9.60% - 24.6 % higher total glomalin compared to inside drip circle of guava, mango and anona orchards. Among the different soil aggregates, the 3-4 mm size aggregates had significantly higher total glomalin compared to 2.0 mm soil aggregates, which clearly indicates the role of glomalin in soil aggregation process. The total AM fungal spores were observed to be significantly varies between different aggregates, but not much proportinate variation among different size of aggregates.
The value of F test shows the level of significance simultaneously the relationship of population variable, the number of transactions and inflation with tax revenue BPHTB. Based on the value of Adj R2 and F statistic value indicates that the estimation model is fitted.
The empirical estimation results using the VECM method above show that the estimation of BPHTB tax revenue model in Malang City cannot be explained using exogenous variables of population, number of transactions and regional inflation. In this case the complexity that occurs in BPHTB tax revenue in the City of Malang requires identification and also detailed mapping of potential revenues. The growing development of Malang City in terms of population growth, economic activity, and public infrastructure can basically increase the potential of regional BPHTB tax revenue. However, the speed of regional economic growth cannot be offset by a significant increase in BPHTB tax revenue in the City of Malang. In the short term, existing exogenous variables are unable to contribute positively to BPHTB tax revenue in Malang City.
the perceptions and preferences of the generations regarding reward or remuneration packages. An effort should be made to investigate aspects such as organisational maturity or organisational life cycle. In terms of this study, a few methodological suggestions can be made. The six-point Likert current utilisation scale applied in the Total Reward Questionnaire should be further defined to improve the reliability and validity of responses. Another recommendation is that the age groups could be divided into intervals of 10 years. It is recommended that qualitative approaches and methods such as interviews or focus groups should be applied to complement the questionnaire. Organisations should encourage developing a culture of research and this must be supported by top management in order to encourage employees to participate in research studies.
This paper analyses one particular mechanism, which contributes to a positive rela- tionship between tax financed public employment and total employment. More precisely, it accounts for general equilibrium modifications of the income effect on labour supply:
Increasing tax financed employment in non-profit government sectors reduces capital in- come distributed to workers by crowding out private production, which generates normal returns to capital. Together with the standard income effect of raising labour income tax rates, the reduction in this kind of non-labour income stimulates, cet. par, labour supply. Specifically, the general equilibrium relationshipbetweentotal employment and tax financed government employment may be positive, even if the uncompensated wage elasticity of labour supply is positive. To my knowledge this equilibrium effect is not recognized in the literature which analyses the relative strength of the counteracting substitution and income effects on labour supply induced by a higher labour income tax.
For a study to be included, in this meta-analysis, it was necessary for it to meet all of the following criteria: (1) case-control or cohort study assessing the relationshipbetweentotal fluid intake and bladder cancer risk, (2) exact data in both case and control groups (participants for cohort studies) should be determined and (3) results including adjusted effect estimates with their 95% CIs or sufficient information allowing us to calculate them. Studies with overlapping or insufficient data were excluded. Letters, abstracts, editorials, animal trails, and literature reviews were excluded from this meta-analysis. Throughout the process, any questions or discrepancies were resolved by the consensus of all authors.
levels measure both bioavailable testos- terone and SHBG-bound testosterone. The latter is not bioavailable to all target tissues and is influenced directly by SHBG concentration (28), which correlates strongly and inversely with body fat (29,30), insulin levels, and insulin resis- tance (5,28,31,32). This may underlie the conflicting findings from studies investi- gating the relationshipbetween bioactive testosterone (free or bioavailable testos- terone) and insulin resistance and risks for type 2 diabetes (3,4,7,9 –11,16,33). Interpretation of these studies is made dif- ficult by the use of free testosterone mea- surements, using direct analog methods that, like total testosterone assays, are in- fluenced directly by SHBG concentrations (34,35). In our study, free and bioavail- able testosterone levels were calculated from measurements of total testosterone, SHBG, and albumin, using established as- sociation constants of testosterone with these major binding proteins and the So- dergard equation (19), according to the methods of Vermeulen et al. (20) and Ros- ner (34). In contrast to free testosterone levels measured by direct analog assays, free and bioavailable testosterone calcu- lated by this method correlate extremely well with estimates of free testosterone from equilibrium dialysis and bioavail- able testosterone measured by the ammo- nium sulfate precipitation method (20). Using reliable measurements of free and bioavailable testosterone, independent of SHBG concentrations, we confirmed in- verse relationships between testosterone and body fat and insulin resistance in men. To our knowledge, no other studies have systematically evaluated the differ- ences betweentotal testosterone and the calculated bioactive testosterone fractions in their relationships with body fat and insulin resistance.
This method of prosthesis fixation was used in 88% of the implants recorded in RIPO. A total of 11,529 knees were eligible for the study. Of these knees 1,794 (15.6%) were excluded due to missing information about weight or height, thus leaving 9,735 knees in 8,892 patients for eval- uation. The outcomes of interest were compared between obese and non-obese patients. We used BMI to define obesity; according to the guidelines set by the World Health Organization BMI > 25 and < 30 Kg/m 2 was defined as overweight, BMI >= 30 kg/m 2 as obese, and BMI >= 40 as morbidly obese.