The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that contribute to gender discrimination in retail shops, focusing on general dealer shops at Murambinda Growth point in Buhera, Zimbabwe. Despite the fact that policy makers continue to grapple with possible strategies to promote and advance progress towards equal opportunities for women, gender discrimination in retail shops still exists. Recent research also shows that workplace discrimination continues to be an impediment to gender equality. Women, who bear the disproportionate burden of the world’s poverty, continue to face systematic discrimination in areas of employment, healthcare and education. This discrimination is quite significant in increasing poverty levels among women as it makes it more difficult for women to sustain livelihoods .It is from that premise that the study sought to find out why, after all the advances that have been made in women’s education and in breaking the corporate glass ceiling ,is the situation of women unchanging? Using the descriptive survey design, the study examined the possible limitations on female labour market participation. The study established that there are a number of factors that contribute to the discrimination of women in working environments, chief among them being patriarchy, religion, culture and socialisation. Over and above all, the study recommends that all efforts targeted at addressing gender discrimination in the workplace must take into consideration the fact that gender roles are socially constructed and they are heavily influenced by the above mentioned factors.
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Various sample types were collected at two processing plants (anonymously designated as plant A and plant B), retail shops, and public health centers in Addis Ababa and Debre Berhan cities. Plant A is located in Addis Ababa and on average it processes about 700 heads of cattle per day. Plant B is located in Debre Berhan and it is relatively smaller compared to plant A, and on average it processes about 30 heads of cattle per day. At plant A samples were collected once per week and at plant B twice per week with 14 and 28 sampling occasions, re- spectively. At each visit to the plants, 10 to 15 animals were randomly selected and sampled. Five different types of samples from each animal (n = 370) and one pooled environmental swab sample (n = 62) were collected dur- ing each visit to the processing plants. Fecal, intestinal mucosal swab, skin swab, and carcass swab samples were collected according to previously described methods [7, 15]. For the collection of fecal and intes- tinal mucosal swab samples, the distal colon was ligated, transected proximal to the rectum and trans- ported on ice to the laboratory. In the laboratory, each colon was aseptically opened and fecal samples were re- covered. Intestinal lumen mucosa was swabbed by using cotton tipped swabs after extra fecal content was removed. The swabs were placed in test tubes contain- ing 10 ml buffered peptone water (BPW; Oxoid Ltd., Hampshire, England).
The stock-out phenomenon is considered as one of the major problems confronting retailers; and retailers that manage it effectively and efficiently stand to gain a competitive advantage. The occurrence of stock-out reflects all the deficiencies in the supply chain which include incorrect demand forecasting, low replenishment rates, in- correct ordering of products and delays on the part of suppliers . Consistent with Battista et al.  the study identifies key determinants of stock-outs. Notably among them are the educational level of the respondents; the ability of the shop owner to use ICT to order stock; age and marital status of the respondents; as well as the gender of the retail shop owner. This finding is consistent with the results of other international studies by Em- melhainz et al. , Schary and Martin , Nielsen , and Corsten and Gruen  which pointed to the retail- ers themselves being responsible for the stock-out problems. This is because it has been observed that personal characteristics of the shop owners significantly influence the probability of them experiencing stock-out. The respondents identified demand underestimation due to poor forecasting, and bad back-of-store practices are the major causes of stock-outs. It can be concluded that, due to lack of warehouses, most of the retailers are not able to adopt appropriate store management practices. Based on the regression result, it can be concluded that using ICT to order goods and keeping of appropriate stock book as well as education on appropriate stock manage- ment practices would help reduce stock-out in retail shops.
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Although there are a few studies based on the retail sector and supermarket chains in Bangladesh (e.g., Ali & Faroque, 2017; Arif, 2013; Arif, 2016; Farid et al., 2018; Kashem, 2012; Rana, Osman, & Islam, 2014, etc.), none of them, however, has incorporated an ethical retailing perspective. The current study addresses the research gap and analyzes the retailing ethics in Bangladesh. To create a positive image in consumer’s mind, retailers must pay greater attention to and properly manage the ethical aspects and principles (Dabija, Postelnicu, & Dinu, 2018). The involvement of many small retailers and the fragmented nature of the retail sector in developing countries intensifies the need for exploring the ethical practices of traditional retailers. Therefore, the objective of the empirical study is to explore the retailers’ (un)ethical practices in the lens of five key factors, namely, Quantity, Quality, Price, Packaging and Performance (discussed in next section). The research is based on primary data collected from a survey of 438 small retail shops in Dhakacity. The analysis is mostly quantitative. The study is significant in a number of ways. First, the authors believe that this is the first research to investigate retailers’ ethics in the context of Bangladesh. Second, the study aims to offer empirical insights to ethical retailing in the backdrop of a developing nation. It discusses managerial and policy implications which developing economies like Bangladesh might find useful.
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counts for fresh produce from retail shops are presented in Fig- ure 6B. The majority of APC values in cabbage and cucumber were distinguished in the same group using the Tukey test. Car- rot samples had the lowest Listeria spp. load (<1.05 log cfu/g) and lettuce samples had the highest Listeria spp. load (4 log cfu/g). There were no significant differences in the same type of fresh produce among the four retail shops. Other research from Dhaka, which evaluated the prevalence of bacteria in salad veg-
Experiences in using RRPs on anti-malarial drugs have proved to have different effects on consumer prices across settings [47–49]. In Cambodia, since the start of the na- tional programme in 2001, the subsidized ACT always had a printed RRP though retail prices generally exceeded it [24, 47]. Little research has been conducted in Cambodia on the level at which RRP should be set. At the time of our study, the RRP for ACT was US$ 0.61, based on a study on consumers’ willingness to pay conducted some years previously . During qualitative interviews con- ducted in 2009, several private retailers argued that the RRP was set too low and did not provide sufficient profits . Generating evidence on commercial pro- viders’ overhead costs including transport, rent, staff, etc. and their relative importance should be considered when investigating the levels of profit perceived to be “sufficient” by private providers. However, during qualitative inter- views, some retailers in Cambodia reported that when consumers were informed about the RRP, they were con- strained to sell the subsidized ACT at that recommended price , supporting the use of RRP combined with effective communications to consumers. A similar ob- servation can be made from the experiences of coun- tries included in the AMFm pilot. In the three countries in which timely communication campaigns about the AMFm subsidy and RRP were implemented, including Kenya, the Republic of Tanzania (mainland and Zanzibar) and Ghana, median ACT prices were at the RRP levels. By contrast, in countries where promotion activities were delayed or less intense, the median ACT price was above the RRP .
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Results from the background information summarize the characteristics of the participants in this particular sample. Both males and females take into account the 4Ps seriously when they decide to visit a particular retail outlet to do business. However, overall, more females responded to this survey than males (57.02% females and 42.98%% males), which means that the proportion of female shoppers is higher than that of male shoppers in this sample. People in the middle age group are more economically active and they accounted for the largest number of respondents with 50% in the 25-35 years age group. This suggests that generally Zimbabweans shopping behavior is highly influenced by the 4Ps family particularly price and product. The economically active are conservative in nature, they are aware of their money‟s value. When one goes through the rigorous process of working naturally one becomes aware of the value of their sweat and as a result it follows that they are highly inclined towards budgeting. When such people go for shopping they do real shopping. It‟s called real in the sense that they look at the value of what they are going to buy and how much it will cost them. Generally they are concerned with what constitutes their basket as well as how much they have to part with for their basket and at what convenience. This was further supported by the fact that everyone in this study is not loyal to any supermarket but they all buy specific grocery items from different shops because they look at the price and value of the product and then compare the shops before deciding to buy. Respondents were also asked to indicate their shopping frequency; on this part once a month‟s shoppers accounted for 28% of those who do business with the small scale retail shops. This percentage is made up of those customers who will always visit the retail shops in question regardless of the circumstances. Regular twice a month shoppers were the greatest group and weighed in with 40%% of participants while those shoppers with at least more than twice regular shopping trips to these shops accounted for 12%% of respondents. The low level of frequency of shoppers and the irregular nature of customers in question calls for more action from the small scale retail outlets. There is urgent need on the part of retailers to take a proactive role than reactive to try and tilt these statistics highly in favour of their business. In this research place and promotion did not receive much support as a paltry 10.53% and 5.3% of the participants take into account these 2Ps when deciding to do business with any retail outlet.
In developing regions such as South-East Asia, China and India, there has been a swift change in the organized retail sector due to globalization, high economic growth, and changing lifestyle. India is now the seventh-largest retail market in the world with big companies like Reliance, Tata and Bharti investing huge amounts in the booming Indian retail sector. (Indian Retail Industry: challenges, oppurtunities and outlook)Consumer taste and preferences are changing that have led to a major modification in the lifestyles and spending patterns. These consecutively give rise to new business opportunities in the organized retail sector such as supermarkets that are very proactive and quick in responding to the ever-changing trends in the consumer behavior. The supermarkets 1 are identified as large general stores which sell a variety of consumer durables products from food, vegetables, dairy products, staples, kitchenware products, household cleaning products that are required on daily basis to products such as cosmetics, stationery, chocolates, etc. Supermarket is a self-service shop like Pick & Go that is very different from a small retail store, where the buyers receive the goods they want directly from the seller.The rapid spread of supermarkets in India is very significant. The supermarkets are not only growing in the suburban areas of the big cities, but also in the much smaller towns. The growth of supermarkets in a particular region despite the simultaneous existence of small retail shops, therefore reflects a sign of change in the consumers’ choice. Hence, from the above issue arises my research question: “To what extent has the change in consumers’ preference influenced the growth of supermarkets?”
Out of 1105 samples 278(39.718%) of C. jejuni from chicken meat processing plant, retail shops, and 34.81%, 28.14%, 45.18%, 21.48% of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from faecal, skin swabs, intestinal mucosa, and environmental samples collected from processing plant with an overall prevalence of 32.40%. Whereas samples from retail shops such as carcass (32.406%), hands (45.0%), knife (3.33%), cutting board (13.33%), and health centers (2.35%) with 18.23% of overall prevalence in samples collected from retail shops Table 4. The higher levels of Campylobacter jejuni in the study area suggests that the high concerns for the community health and need to take initiatives to prevent the food poisoning pathogens and the importance of hygiene of food products.
Present investigation was carried out with the aim to investigate the chemical composition, phyico chemical parameters and various adulterants of market milk sold at different intermediaries at the vicinity of chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Total of 100 milk samples were collected randomly from different intermediaries, 25 samples each from the milk producers (MP), milk collectors (MC), milk vendors (MV) and retail shops (RS) and were examined for different adulterants like water, urea, starch, sodium chloride, detergents, neutralizers, cane sugar, hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde and glucose and dextrose. Among the intermediaries, milk obtained from MP was remarkably higher (p<0.05) in fat, solid not fat (SNF), total solids (TS) content and significantly lower (p<0.05) percent added water than that of milk procured from MC, MV and from RS. Based on the results of phyico- chemical characteristics, milk samples procured from milk producers showed significantly higher (P<0.05) Specific gravity, and lower acidity and pH compared to the samples collected from MC, MV and RS. All examined milk samples collected from MP, MC, MV and RS were free from adulterants like Glucose and dextrose, Hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. Samples collected from the MP found completely lower positive percentages for different adulterants like water, urea, starch, sodium chloride, detergents, neutralizers and cane sugar than the samples from other intermediaries.
moves up the ranking scale as a determiner of value. People process numbers diﬀ erently, and they may never know what is in their minds when they consider prices and how this aﬀ ects their behaviour. Traditional economic thinking assumes that markets are always eﬃ cient and participants always rational. However, consumers behave diﬀ erently, sometimes even irrationally when presented with a variety of triggers. When setting prices, it is important to note that perception plays a large role in customers’ purchasing decisions. If the right pricing strategy is used for a product and for the market, and such a strategy is supported with strong promotional and placement or distribution programs, the ﬁ rm can increase sales and experience business growth (Stivings, 1996). But a wrong pricing strategy can be very costly. There are diﬀ erent price strategies that are used by ﬁ rms. One of the most commonly used pricing strategies which is widely applied for consumer goods across diﬀ erent product categories in retail shops and newspaper advertisements is the price ending (odd-even) strategy.
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56 International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: email@example.com offices and retail shops, clients are not visiting to these malls. The primary reason behind a mall to be announced as dead is the attraction of most recent malls where modem offices, for example, computerized stopping, agreeable elevators, controled temperature, lifts, arrangements for diversion, best in class amusement comforts, and multistoried shopping centers devoted to various segments, for example, hardware, readymade articles of clothing, basic food item, toys, adornments and style are constructed, excepting clients to visit early created malls.
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The productivity of retail shops established by Safaricom company is determined by business service system success, which in turn is attributed to high profits and increased sales. In order to ensure success in sustainable service system, managers adopt several strategies including; training of employees and employee access to right information. However, it has proved in some cases not to be fruitful in achieving high productivity. The company can take their retail traders for training but still the output remains dismal. Further, some agents have been found to have access to the right information but still cannot deliver the services to the satisfaction level of the customers. These scenarios have prompted this research to be carried out to establish the effect of staff training and efficient access to information on the productivity of the retail centre agents in Safaricom PLC.
Through the survey and analysis of retail shops in City S, we find that the sales per unit area of independent re- tailers are very low and that the sales per person and gross margin are significantly higher than that of other chain shops. This shows that independent retailers lack of scientific and efficient utilization of in-shop space and fine management. The development from independent retailers to chain shops will help the standardization and fine management of these shops. As for the higher sales per person of independent retailers than that of the chain shops, we think the main reason may lie in that independent retailers are usually run by families. The incentive effect in such family-run business is very good, and every family member is willing to take more than one post and work for a long time.
elsewhere. However, these arguments can be overruled in the light of the ICRIER study conducted in India in 2008, which showed that although unorganized retail suffered initially with the opening up of organized retail in their vicinity, this effect significantly weakened over time. The rate of closure of unorganized retail shops in gross terms was found to be 4.2 % per annum, which was much lower than the international rate of closure of small businesses. Similarly, the rate of closure on account of competition from organized retail was found to still lower, at 1.7 per cent per annum. This was achieved through competitive response from traditional retailers and through improved business practices and technology up gradation.
Despite the many improvements seen, the low avail- ability of ALu in ADDOs is a major concern. Most ADDO shop keepers reported selling ALu at its recom- mended retail price of TSH 500 (approximately USD 0.40) for children doses and TSH 1500 (approximately USD 1.30) for other doses. The results presented here indicate that this level of subsidy did not result in wide- spread availability of the drug. Discussions with ADDO dispensers highlighted two main reasons for this: 1) the drug can only be procured from one wholesaler in Mor- ogoro, a city approximately 200 km from Ifakara; 2) the drug is too expensive and leads to low profit margins. A typical pre-packaged adult dose of SP was bought for TSH 900 (USD 0.80) and sold for TSH1500 (USD 1.30). Un-packaged SP was bought at the lower price of TSH 180 (USD 0.15) and sold for TSH 300 (USD 0.25). Con- versely, a dose of ALu was bought for TSH 1150 (USD 1), which leaves a much lower profit margin than for other drugs. The experience from two studies which piloted the AMFm in Tanzania and Uganda where retail mark-ups were higher found higher stocking rates [34,35].
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Retailing involves buying merchandise or a service from a manufacturer, wholesaler, agent, importer or other retailer and selling it to consumers for their personal use (Levy and Weitz, 2007). The word “Retail” is derived from the French Word “Retaillier” meaning to ‘cut a piece off’ or ‘to break bulk’ (Levy and Weitz, 2007). In simple terms this means a firsthand transaction with the customer. Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services to the final consumers for personal or non-business use (Levy and Weitz, 2007). Any organization selling to the final consumer, be it a manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer, is doing retailing (Kotler and Keller, 2006). It does not matter how the goods or services are sold (by person, mail, telephone, vending machine, or internet) or where they are sold (in a store, on the street, or in the consumer’s home). Retailing is also defined as a set of business activities that add value to the products and services sold to consumers for their personal and family use (Levy and Weitz, 2007). These value-adding activities include providing assortments, breaking bulk, holding inventory, and providing services. Retailing forms an integral part of the Marketing Mix. In this marketing mix “Place” refers to the distribution and availability of the products at the various locations (Kotler and Keller, 2006). Organizations sell their products and services through these stores and also simultaneously get a feedback on the performance of the product and the customer’s expectations of the product. Retail stores also serve as the communication hub of the customer. At the point of sale or the point of purchase, the customers transmit information to the marketing manager through the retailer. As such retailing is the last link that connects the individual consumer with the manufacturing and distribution chain (Pradhan, 2007). In the complex world of trade today, retail include not only goods but also services that may be provided to the end consumer. In the age where consumer is the king and marketers are focusing on customer delight, retail may be redefined as the first point of customer contact (Tuli et al., 2006).
Private medicine retailers are principal players in promoting access to medicines in low- and middle-income countries . For many years, drug shops and pharmacies have been recognized for their potential to improve health across a wide area of illnesses and health issues [2, 3]. A review of literature looking at the role of drug sellers in child health in Africa reported that caretakers’ use of retail drug outlets for child illnesses ranged from 15 to 82 % with a median around 50 %, and that they used retail outlets even when cheaper alternatives existed, such as village health workers . In addition, drug shops are popular with the poorest populations; in sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, 10.5 % of people in the lowest wealth quintile sought primary care from drug shops, compared to just 2.8 % of people in the highest wealth quintile . Despite their popularity and potential, drug shops are not generally considered part of the larger health system and are mostly missing from coun- tries’ health strategies, policies, and monitoring.
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Uganda. Although the study focused on one segment of the retail health market – the registered retail drug shops – the results presented have indeed revealed inter- esting features of the retail drug shops, which are signifi- cant for policy and programming. The main findings indicate that most surveyed retail drug shop premises met the NDA requirements of setting up premises that deal in medicines. These guidelines were established to assure medicines safety and quality. Drug sellers had health-related qualification with majority being nurses or midwifes. The most commonly reported and managed childhood illness signs and symptoms at drug shops were fever, cough, rapid or difficult breathing, and diar- rhea. It was also found that retail drug shops commonly stocked Paracetamol, Quinine, Cough syrup, ORS/Zinc, Amoxicillin dry syrup, Septrin® syrup, Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies, and multivitamins. Decisions on what medicines to stock were influenced by among others, Ministry of Health recommended medicines, medicines demand, most profitable medicines, and seasonal disease patterns. Relatedly, dispensing decisions were influenced by among others: prescriptions presented by the client, patients’ finances, and patient preferences. In response to clients with insufficient re- sources, drug sellers either offered credit depending on the relationship and trust cultivated overtime, or offered cheaper product alternatives.
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It is identified that the organized retail is a profitable scheme for a competitor who can carry out in the best performance from around the world, leveraging the financial system of the extent and obtain the remuneration through retail process in India. India has a huge middle class society and educated workforce to handle various critical functions like commodities, sales promotion, inventory management, procurement and marketing. A number of drivers are assisting the intensification of the business reminiscent improved levels of income and increasing acquiring buying power, entry of new foreign entrants and transformation of real estate markets. The manufacturers not directly accomplish all the retailers in a particular geographical location. And it’s not possible to maintain the desire relationship with the retailers where the managing these relations are complicated. The actual operation between the retailers and the manufacturers are becoming more powerful as they block the channel of communication and management. Finally the monetary funds are very low in case of the Indian retailers so this makes the retailers dependent on more on other channel members (Amatul Baseer et. al. 2007).
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