dium thoroughly giving occasional gentle lapping on the ground. The containers were kept on raised platform made up of wired frame to allow self air pruning of roots and encourage fibrous root development. Seeds of Pi- cea smithiana were sown in each container in the month of February with four replications of 100 seeds each. Thus, a total of 400 seeds were evaluated in each treatment. Seed germination was recorded until it was com- pleted, regular weeding and watering was provided to the seedlings. After one year, five seedlings from each replication were uprooted at random and measured for their seedling height (cm) and collar diameter (mm). The root and shoot proportions of each seedling were then cut and weighed (g) for fresh weight determination and placed separately in an oven at 80˚C till a constant weight was achieved. The sum of fresh shoot and root was calculated to determine the total fresh biomass (g). While the shoot and root ratio was worked out on dry weight biases by dividing the weight of dry shoot by the weight of dry root of each plant separately. The addition of root and shoot dry weight gave total seedling dry weight. The data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the critical difference (C.D). The square root transformation of percentage data was car- ried out before putting the data to analysis.
geographically structured genetic populations regardless of the marker system used (Qui et al., 2010). Little is known about the actual genetic diversity of the species despite the publication of castor genome (Chan et al., 2010) and very few studies have been carried out to to access genetic diversity in castor. Shannon and Weaver diversity index was calculated to compare the phenotypic diversity index (H`) for morphological characters. The index is generally used in genetic studies to measure both allelic richness and evenness. However because of log transformation it is not readily interpretable in genetic terms. A low H` indicates an extremely unbalanced frequency class for an individual trait and a lack of genetic diversity. H` estimates for 15 traits showed significant variation (Table 2). H` ranged from 0.446 to 0.586. High values for H’ were observed for traits like CID, root diameter at crown region, Fv/Fm ratio, SCMR, total root length, effective spike length, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. H` values were low for plant height, number of laterals and node number. Plant breeding involves mostly traits that are associated with economic gain. Such of these traits require constant genetic enhancement and in turn appropriate quantitative analysis. Also it is understood that genetic component of variance is trait specific. Hence, to include total genetic information, as many important traits as possible have to be included in any divergence analysis (Arunachalam, 2004). Also very few divergence studies were carried out in castor based on root related characteristics which has direct relevance with the physiological studies for the identification of the water use efficient genotype. Hence, present studies gains importance in understanding the root related traits and their role in quantifying the genotypes in terms of divergence.
Figure 2. Genetic linkage map and significant additive QTL for agronomic traits and yield components of 140 RILs and their parents grown in the green house. Trait abbreviations are leaf area (LA), leaf dry weight (LDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), total dry weight (TDW), total root lengths (TRL), root to shoot ratio (RSR), specific leaf area (SLA), water use efficiency (WUE), panicle initiation (PIN), seed number (NSE), hundred kernel weight (HKW), and yield (YLD) under well-watered conditions (filled boxes) and in a continuously drying soil (open boxes). QTL are claimed at LOD > 2.5. Boxes show LOD peaks ± 2 cM. Whiskers give the LOD > 2 confidence intervals. Marker positions are given according to Mace et al. (2009).
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Grape varieties respond to decrease in soil water status by stomatal closure and reduced shoot growth with simultaneous increase in root growth. Most of the water deficit responses are known to be regulated by endogenous hormonal contents like abscissic acid (ABA) and cytokinins. To determine how these endogenous hormones are related to changes in shoot and root morphology, four grape genotypes were grown in pots and subjected to different levels of soil moisture stress for 14 days. None of the genotypes could survive beyond 4 days under 100 % stress conditions. There was an increased accumulation of ABA and corresponding decrease in cytokinins at 50 % stress compared to control (100 % irrigation). Among the genotypes tested Flame Seedless had highest ABA and lowest cytokinin levels and it also had highest root to shoot length ratio and root to shoot dry weight ratio. It is presumed that the reduction in shoot growth and stomatal conductance observed may be due to their ability to synthesize and accumulate ABA with the onset of soil moisture stress.
Sunflower has great capacity for bridge the edible oil gap in Pakistan. It ranks second to soybean in worldwide vegetable oil production. A greenhouse experiment was performed in the research area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Eleven (11) advanced lines along with Hysun-37 (Check) were evaluated under complete randomized design (CRD) replicated thrice for two water regimes and three harvestings at early developmental stage. Different morphological and physiological plant traits were recorded to find out genetic analysis of water stress tolerance in sunflower. Results for analysis of variance exhibited significantly differences among all sunflower genotypes for all the traits. Genotypes performed different under contrasting water regimes. Genotypes like A-25, A-50 and A-57 performed best under both normal and water stress condition due to increased shoot length, deep rooting pattern, increased number of root branches and possessing enormousmass of fresh and dry shoot and root traits. Presence of these enviable plant traits make them superior among all genotypes in comparison with hybrid variety. Correlation analysis indicated strong genotypic and phenotypic correlation between shoot length and shoot dry weight. Traits that possessed significant positive phenotypic correlation with shoot length were dry root weight and fresh root weight. Stress tolerant genotypes viz. A-25, A-50 and A-57 could be recommended for utilization in future sunflower breeding program and can be grown under water stress conditions for high yield.
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reduced both the number and size of nodules. BNF parameters (%N dfa and N fix ) also decreased significantly from R1 to R3. This result was also seen by Khadka and Tatsumi (2006) in Phaseoli vulgaris, Vignia unguiculata, and Glycine max and by Kurdali and Al-Shamma’s (2010) in Lens culinaris Table 2. Growth (leaf surface area (LSA) and root/shoot ratio), productivity (shoot dry weight (SDW) and N content) and nodulation (number of nodules (NN) and nodules dry weight (NDW)) parameters (means and s.d., n = 5) of Biserrula pelecinus seedlings at different water regimes (R1, R2, R3) and treatments (SafPt12, SafPt6, AjuPt16; Mesorhizobium ciceri biovar biserrulae, N-free)
In order to investigate the effect of drought and salinity stress on caper plant (Capparis spinosa), a factorial experiment including two factors consisting of drought and salinity levels based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five blocks were carried out at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. After pretreatment, seeds were germinated in petri dishes and then transported to pots, to grow out of the glasshouse under natural conditions (same as environmental condition). Measuring morphological (Plant height, number of leaves, length of greatest leaf, root length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight, and chlorophyll (pad) and also physiological traits (relative water content (RWC) and water saturated deficit (WSD) for both root and shoot, root water content (RooWC) and leaf water content (LWC) showed that salinity and drought stresses as well as ABA concentration had negative effects on the plant. ABA content was significantly higher in salt-treated plants than in drought treated ones. The injury effect of salt stress was lower than drought. The results also indicated that the changes in response to the two stresses were low and so that this plant could be a suitable candidate for sowing and using in arid and semi-arid regions and also in saline condition.
The results showed that salinity stress significantly affected growth parameter, essential oil percent and proline content of peppermint in P < 0.05 (Table 1). Highest Shoot length, root length, shoot wet weight, root wet weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, internodes length, Essential oil percent were achieved under S 1 treatment and with increasing in salinity from 0 to 200 mmol L .1 NaCl, all of growth
ABSTRACT: In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial strains enhances the plant growth in terms of root and shoot length and dry-biomass. The maximum increase in root length (up to 86.57%), shoot length (up to 56.91%), root dry weight (up to 94.42%), and shoot dry weight (up to 56.09%) was observed in response to dual inoculation of Pseudomonas putida with Trichoderma viride compared to uninoculated control .
The effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on plants growth (shoot and root length), plant dry matter production (shoots and root dry weight) and nutrient uptake level under different levels of moisture stress condition was given in Table-1. The highest value of growth in terms of shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight was reported in the combination of A. brasilense isolate + A. laevis at the first level of moisture (-0.3MPa). The lowest growth was reported from the uninoculated plants. In other water regimes, though, the values decreases with increase in moisture stress, the plants with dual inoculation performed better than single inoculated plants (Table-1).
1.2 mM, 1.8mM and 2.4 mM salt into distilled water. There were four different concentrations (0.6, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.4 mM) of nickel used. Ten seeds of cowpea were placed on the filter paper in petriplates and moistened. Initially with 5 ml of Ni +2 respective treatments. The control was also moistened with equal amount of distilled water. During the experiment, the average range of minimum and maximum temperature and relative humidity were in between 26.5 to 39 ºC and 55 to 74%, respectively. After emergence of seedlings, all the petri plates were kept in light. The solution of petriplates was replaced on alternate days with 3 ml of Ni +2 solution. To assess the effect of nickel on seedling growth the samples of seedling were collected after seven days. The seed germination, root, shoot, seedling length, seedling fresh and dry weight, root / shoot ratio, seedling vigor and metal tolerance index were recorded. The seedlings were dried at 80 ºC for 48 hours in oven and then the dried weight of root and shoot were taken of the corresponding samples.
germinated seeds /total number of seeds x 100. Shoot and root length (cm), the seedlings in each petri dish were used for measuring the shoot and root characteristics. After 20 days, the seedlings were separated into roots and shoots. The distances from the crown to leaf tip and root tip were measured as the shoot length and root length, respectively. Shoot and root fresh weight (g), the shoot and root fresh weights of each seedling were measured. The average fresh weights of shoot and root of each plant seedling were measured by dividing the total weight by the total number of seedlings. Seedling dry weight (g), same seedlings were used for measuring shoot dry weight after drying in oven at 68°C for 72 h. The seedlings were cooled at ambient temperature then weighing on digital top loading balance machine. Root/ shoot ratio, was calculated for weight by dividing root values by shoot values and seedling vigour index, seedling vigour index in each treatment was calculated as a Vigour index = Root length + Shoot length x Seed germination %.
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where there were significant differences between means were further separated using the Fischer’s LSD at 5% level of significance. The results revealed that there were significant increase in the growth parameters of the vegetables as an effects of phosphorus application compared with the control. TSP elicited the best results in all the tested parameters in 5 WAP, 6 WAP and 7 WAP respectively in both seasons The highest value of root dry weight (11.2 g), leaf area (1905.0 cm 2 ), number of branches (40.67) shoot fresh weight (236.8 g) as influenced by TSP application in the vegetable species. The MRP + sulphur also followed in superiority of increasing the growth parameters which is an indication that sulphur can be used in solubilizing rock phosphate and making it a suit alternative for farmers. Thus, farmers are advised to directly apply rock phosphate and sulphur to soil as a possible alternative to the more expensive soluble phosphate fertilizers in tropical cropping system.
Seedling establishment is one of the most important and crucial stage after seed germination where various histological and morphological activities are established which are associated with changes in physiological and biological processes. During this process, newly developing areas occur where all necessary constituents of cell, cell wall and cell inclusions are synthesized and translocated from cotyledon to site of action. These complicated processes are also controlled by various environmental and/or internal factors. During this period, the seedlings become self established by developing their own shoot and root systems whose growth and development are controlled by various metabolic activities. The impact of different concentration of shoot and root leachate of test rice-stubble on different parameters of seedling growth such as seedling length (shoot and root) and seedling weight ( fresh and dry of both shoot and root) in seedlings of three oil-yielding test cultivars are discussed below.
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The bir1-1 mutant showed a shorter primary root length compared to wild type. The difference between mutant and wild type was not obvious during the first 7 days of growth and became more distinct after 2 weeks. Although primary root length was significantly different between wild type and mutant but root fresh weight, root dry weight and the root to shoot ratio were not significantly different. Apparently, the reduction in primary root length in the mutant is compensated by an increase in the number and the total length of the secondary roots (15 ± 3 in bir1 and 11±2 in wild type plants).
(Table 4). In the experiment 0, 20, 40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl concentration gave statistically similar shoot dry weight. Although not significant but 20, 40, and 80 mM NaCl concentration gave 0.17, 1.31, and 0.52 %, respectively higher shoot dry weight than control treatment. The result further indicates that up to 80 mM NaCl concentration NaCl is required for highest biomass production. In the experiment beyond 40 mM NaCl concentration with the increase of the concentration of solution shoot dry weight was gradually decreased and in 320 mM NaCl concentration highest of 57.3% reduction was observed. Roberta and Paolo (2010) also reported that the severe salt stress reduced seedling growth, and root more affected than shoot growth. Ratnakara and Raib (2013) observed gradual decrease in root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of Triginella foenum-graecum seedlings with increasing concentrations (0mM to 100mM) of NaCl in the growth medium.
Treatments of two varieties of chili pepper with various dose of gamma-ray resulted in the decline of the shoot and root length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and survival percentage by increasing of gamma-ray doses. According to the result, shoot length indicated significant impacts among various dose of gamma-ray. The Bangi5 Variety expressed higher shoot length than Bangi3 variety for all treated doses of radiation at all the seven weeks. The growth performance of seedlings derived from untreated (control) plants and plants derived from treated seeds with low doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy) of gamma-ray obtained highest values in comparison with those exposed with high doses of gamma ray (400, 500 and 600 Gy). This result is in agreement with Omar et al. , they reported that this may be attributed to the effect of mutagenic radiations that can directly cause DNA double-strand breaks, and then prevent plant growth or make it slow. The reduction of growth rate with increase in dose of irradiation may interrupt cell division as a result of DNA mutation that DNA synthesizes at the interphase. In case of root length, there was a significant difference between the varieties, doses of gamma radiation, and the interaction
The soil samples were collected from rare earth environments and analyzed by ICP-MS to know constituents of the rare earth elements. Cerium and Neodymium are abundant in the analyzed samples. The physical parameters of the wheat biomass are evaluated (root and shoot length, wet and dry weight of root and shoot) with and without treatment of REEs and also treated with REEs and a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp.,). From the results it is evident that a significant increase in root and shoot length, dry weight and wet weight of plants treated with REEs. The production stress resistant end product (phenol) is measured and the total content of soluble phenols is calculated. Seeds treated with element alone show two fold increases in the production of phenol. The diverse parts of plant samples (root, shoot and leaves) are digested. REE concentrations in the samples are determined by ICP-OES analysis. It reveals that a maximum
After 20 days of plantation, all of these strains showed significant increase in root and shoot systems than the three controls. R3 strain showed the best result in root length, fresh root weight, number of adventitious roots and dry root weight, whereas R1 strain had the highest shoot height, fresh shoot weight and dry shoot weight. According to this experiment, the best four isolated rhizobacteria were known to exert beneficial effects upon plant growth of maize and they were suitable to use in biofertilizer with IAA producing activities and nitrogen fixation activities.
Raised concentration of P. zeylanica leaf, stem and root aqueous extract negatively influenced seed germination, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh weight and dry weight of A. paniculata propose that the plant has allelopathic effect and assimilate allelochemicals. These allelochemicals could be the vital intention for the restricted development of other plant species near their colony. Isolation and characterization of those allelochemicals from P. zeylanica could be demonstration as manage for the development of biodegradable, environment friendly invention genuine herbicides and substitute it for chemical herbicides for sustainable weed regulate. However, larger investigation is wanted to