As for the RussianFederation, it mainly sided with policy making, placing much of the responsibility on its subjects. At the same time, the powers transmitted for execution should be financed in the form of subventions from the federal budget, calculated on the basis of a special technique. However, when it comes to the distribution of subventions to subjects of the Federation, they are allocated with financial resources calculated not according to the techniques but by the distribution of limits of budgetary obligations, depending on the amount budgeted. This requires improvement of the methods of calculating subsidies, which must contain the basic minimum rates of the cost of the planned activities. A clear lack of funding the execution of delegated powers in the field of environment and natural resources should be noted.
Human dirofilariasis was first registered in Russia in 1915, and recent reports showed that the total number of infected humans increases on average by 1.8 times every three years. Human dirofilariasis was registered in 42 federal subjects. Totally 1162 cases of subcutaneous dirofilariasis were registered in the RussianFederation between 1915-2013, the most frequently type of subcutanious dirofilariasis was ocular dirofilariasis (more than 50% cases). Seven cases of pulmonary dirofilarisis were registered in Russia. The treatment of human dirofilariasis includes surgical removal of worms only; in result preventive measure have major importance for reducing risk of Dirofilaria infection. Control programmes have been implemented by the government at all administrative levels including diagnosis and treatment of patients, identification, isolation, and treatment of infected dogs, monthly chemoprophylactic of dogs during spring-summer periods, and regular vector control.
Innovation Strategy - the definition of the priority areas of innovation work. The strategic value of the state innovation policy are reflected in the concept of socio-economic formation of the RussianFederation in the long term, the program of socio-economic development of the RussianFederation in the medium term, are reported FSRF. In terms of Russian socio-economic development program for the medium term is expected the development of the Russian economy in the direction of the post-industrial way of knowledge economy based on innovation-oriented scenario. Functional state policy is based on a number of policy documents - strategies.
The State Forest Inventory (SFI) in the RussianFederation is a relatively new project that is little known in the English-language scientific literature. Following the stipulations of the Forest Act of 2006, the first SFI sample plots in this vast territory were established in 2007. The 34 Russian forest regions were the basic geographical units for all statistical estimates and served as a first-level stratification, while a second level was based on old inventory data and remotely sensed data. The sampling design was to consist of a simple random sample of 84,700 circular 500 m 2 sample plots over forest land. Each sample plot consists of three nested concentric circular subplots with radii of 12.62, 5.64 and 2.82 m and additional subplots for assessing and describing undergrowth, regeneration and ground vegetation. In total, 117 variables were to be measured or assessed on each plot.
and it was checked whether they were published in the period 1991–2017. Then the abstracts were screened for eligibility and were excluded based on the following criteria: (i) if the study referred to parasites other than T. saginata; (ii) if the study did not apply to the RussianFederation; (iii) if the data presented in the study did not refer to the period 1991–2017; (iv) if the data presented in the study were not connected to the epidemiological characteristics of T. sagi- nata infection but rather focused on clinical features, ther- apy or parasite biology; and (v) if the study was just a general review of the topic, without original data. At the next step, the entire text of the manuscript was evaluated. Selected publications were additionally scrutinized and were excluded if only repeating epidemiological data pub- lished in official reports. Official reports we considered as eligible sources of data.
this connection, medical workers play a basic role in provision of healthcare to citizens, which is their basic inviolable right under the constitution. At the same time, violence against medical work- ers happened rather often during 2016 in Russia. Real incidences of violence against those medical who are there to provide critical healthcare and/ or medical interventions are indeed unfortunate. Thus, violence against medical professionals is indeed rising and leads to trespassing of different kinds and even death; such attacks eventually affect the society as a whole where citizens’ safety becomes a major issue and leads to a social atmo- sphere marred by violence and citizens exposed to violence as a part and parcel of their everyday life. In these conditions medical workers need reliable legal protection while going about their duties. Criminal Code of the RussianFederation stands guard over their interests and security in Russia. 35
1999 to 39.3/100,000 in 2013, ie, more than three times ( Figure 1). In general, the morbidity rate maintained at 39–40/100,000 in the RussianFederation since 2008. Probably meaning that the maximum detection of new CHCV cases is already reached. The dynamic of newly detected CHCV cases in different federal territories var- ied significantly by rates and trends of morbidity. In three federal territories (Far East, Ural, and North-West), the CHCV incidence was higher than the average level in the country. The incidence of CHCV reached 47.2/100,000 (Far East), 48.3/100,000 (Ural), and 67.8/100,000 (North-West; Figure 5). The registration curve in the North-West has manifested ascending type, but in the Ural, the increase was interrupted in 2009 and then the decreasing trend became clear. During the last 2 years (2012–2013), CHCV registra- tion the same as in Ural tendency was also registered in the Far East territory.
However, a decade ago, Vasin(2008: 15) predicted that Russia would face a complete the stage of "depopulation with a demographic dividend" in which an increase in the working- age population will follow a decline of the total population. A report published by the World Bank (2015) reinforced the prediction of Vasin (2008) – there has been a decline in the share of the working-age population, and growth of the share of the elderly population and, consequently, the demographic burden in Russia is gradually heading towards causing severe socio-economic problems. Therefore, the decree of the Russian President on the Concept of the State Migration Policy of the RussianFederation for 2019-2025 (dated 31 October 2018 and the Federal Law On Making Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the RussianFederation on the Appointment and Payment of Pensions No. 350 – FA, approved on 03 October 2018 are timely, which will perhaps, make an undoubted positive contribution to the solution of these problems. According to Riazantsev (2016), labour migration from Central Asia to Russia is between 2.7-4.2 million or 10-16% of the economically active population of the region. In 2013, the scope of remittances from labour migrants amounted to the US $13.5 billion. At the same time, the income of the Russian economy amounted to the US $1.6 billion only due to the current consumption of labour migrants. In the external migration processes, mainly in the RF, working- age share of the population of the KR participates most actively.
According to Article 71 of russian Constitution federal taxes and fees are an exclusive power of the federal government. it means that the russianFederation Federal Assembly not only defines the list of federal taxes and fees, but also establishes all compulsory and additional (or optional) components of taxes and fees. with regard to regional taxes and fees, the Court concluded that the “imposition of taxes and fees” have different legal meanings. As the Court pointed out, the constituent unit’s right to impose taxes was derived from the uniform principles of taxation that had been established by the federal legislator. thus, the Court presumed that the understanding of imposition of taxes and fees did not have a uniform scope and differed depending on the governmental level. we consider that this statement does not correspond with the principles of interpretation. the concrete term should have a single meaning, not different meanings. Furthermore, the Court presumed the principle of subsidiary responsibility of governmental units, which does not conform to modern approaches to fiscal federalism in other developed countries. in such a way, Russian Constitutional Court presumed the principle of a uniform and centralized tax system, primary based on the principle of uniform economic area.
Many anti-trafficking projects in the RussianFederation are carried out by local NGOs. However such project-based activities have certain weakness. Typi- cally, the length of such projects is no more than one year. Furthermore, there is little coordination between the different projects, resulting in some overlap of activities as well as existence of serious gaps. Since anti-trafficking activities and support to victims of trafficking of the majority of NGOs are based on interna- tional donor support, the lack of stability, continuity, and sustainability will be a main concern until government agencies and public entities start supporting these projects with financial, information, and other types of assistance.
Current Russian legislation (basic documents include the laws “On Subsoil” and “On Production and Consumption Waste in the RussianFederation”), regulating mining waste handling (“On Production and Consumption Waste” No. 89-FZ, 1998), does not have a single conceptual framework that would allow to consider the resource and environmental waste components in a consistent manner. Such a situation can be considered as the heritage of the centralized economy, where the production problems of the
This study analyses the role and impact of education on economic growth in the two largest economies of the former Soviet Bloc, namely, the RussianFederation and Ukraine. It attempts to estimate the significance of different educational levels, including secondary and tertiary education, for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates the model of endogenous economic growth and the system of linear and log-linear equations that account for different time lags in the possible impact of higher education on economic growth. The model estimation shows that there is no significant impact of educational attainment on economic growth. The results from the system of equations indicate that an increase in access of population to higher education brings positive results for the per capita GDP growth in the long term. Increasing the number of college-educated specialists leads to sustainable economic growth. The suggestion can be made that the ground for the 2000- 2007 rapid economic growth in Ukraine and in the RussianFederation was laid down in early 1990s. This contradicts commonly accepted perception about the crisis decade of 1990s in the former Soviet Bloc.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia was seen as a tabula rasa on which to build a market-based economy. By the late 1990s, however, with firms operating in an institutional vacuum and supervised by a weak state (Gel’man, 2003), it was clear that this experiment had failed. In its place had emerged a “chaotic” (Lane, 2000) form of capitalism, dominated by corruption and the “unrule” of law (Holmes, 1997). This “chaotic capitalism” was accompanied by “over withdrawal” (Sil & Chen, 2004) or fragmentation of the state from areas where it has previously been responsible, led to: the displacement of monetary policy by barter surrogates (Woodruff, 1999); devolution of power from the federal center to regional fiefdoms (Stoner-Weiss, 1999); widespread corruption, non-payment of taxes, and organized crime (Holmes, 2008; Yakovlev, 2001); weak institutions (Puffer & McCarthy, 2011); and the diffusion of “capture” by so-called “oligarchs” over the state (Hellman 1998; Solnick 1999). With the ability to shape regulation to service their own interests and to determine the makeup of regional and federal legislatures (Frye, 2002; Gustafson 2000), these oligarchs were in effect governing the RussianFederation in tandem with ruling elites (Hanson & Teague, 2005).
2. In cases provided by the present Code, enforcement of intellectual property rights as concerns filing and processing of applications to grant the patents for inventions, utility models, industrial designs, selection attainments, trademarks, service marks, and appellations of origin, official registration of these results of intellectual activity and means of individualization, the grant of the appropriate right- establishing documents, the contesting of granting legal protection for these results and means, or its termination shall be made under administrative procedure (Paragraph 2 of Article 11) correspondingly by the federal executive authority for intellectual property and by the federal executive authority for selection attainments, and in cases provided for by Articles 1401-1406 of the present Code, by the federal executive authority body authorized by the Government of the RussianFederation (Paragraph 2 of Article 1401). The decisions of these authorities shall enter into force on the date of their adoption. They may be contested in a court following the procedure set forth by the law.
In 1996 in the RussianFederation Federal Law No 86 from 05.07.1996 “On the state regulation in the sphere of genetic engineering activities” was passed, which regulates emerging relations while conducting genetic en- gineering in the field of nature management, environmental protection and environmental security providing. According to article 4 of the Law, one of the main tasks of state registration is the determination of mechanism, which sustains the safety of nationals and environment in the process of genetic engineering and the use of its results. According to article 11 of the Law “… product (service), received with the use of genetic engineering methods, must meet requirements of ecological safety, sanitary norms, Рharmacopoeia’s articles, compulsory requirements of State standards of the RussianFederation”.
The paper is devoted to the problem of pension capital formation in the country’s financial system, which is topical for many countries. Pension provision plays an important role for social sustainability in any country. In the most developed countries, there are problems of reducing pension assets associated with population aging and a decrease in quantity of the working-age population. However, despite this, the developed countries of the world are trying to provide citizens with pensions at the proper level. based on the analysis of the experience of foreign countries, it was concluded that it is necessary to increase pensions in the RussianFederation, taking into account several factors such as increasing in the assets of pension funds, increasing in pensions for current pensioners, fixing the retirement age for men and increasing it for women to ensure social justice at the level of developed countries. The paper also discusses the problems of the pension capital formation in the Russian pension system, which is more based on state pension provision for citizens and for many years has already experienced serious problems with the availability of funds to cover pension liabilities. The authors proposed a scientific and practical substantiation of the directions for increasing the effectiveness of the pension capital formation in the economy of the RussianFederation.
Discussion of the document by a number of member organizations of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the RussianFederation, the expert and scientific community at both the federal and regional levels will allow for a deeper analysis of the characteristics of the country's socio- economic development, its regions, and the implementation of industrial policy. The package of measures under this document is aimed at leveling the competitive conditions of domestic and foreign manufacturers, reducing the overall tax burden, reducing the cost of loans and energy resource, developing exports, stimulating regional development, and ensuring the country's food security.
The Federation Council pays special attention to youth involvement in the legislative process. The upper house of the Federal Assembly is the Youth Parliamentary Assembly. There is enough existing legal base of interactions between youth organizations, youth parliamentary structures with the state. However, in a number of subjects of the RussianFederation, municipalities, youth parliamentary structures do not meet the representativeness of the principles of equality of rights of young citizens, equal access and equal opportunities, which often prevents the effective work of youth parliaments and youth parliamentary structures at the local level. Another problem of realization of the state youth policy in the regions is the lack of interaction of youth parliaments of the RussianFederation, and sometimes-complete lack of such interaction with youth governments. Youth policy contributes to a diverse and timely development of young people, their creativity, self-organization skills, personal fulfillment, and the ability to defend their rights, to participate in the activities of unions. In terms of socio-economic crisis in our country, the level of well-being of the younger generation is often relatively poorer than other population groups.
In response to the G20 strategies on youth employment and quality apprenticeships developed under G2- Mexican presidency Russia developed and implemented the program on Internships of the graduates of educational institutions, including in regions of the RussianFederation/ The internships were organized to help to acquire work experience by graduates of educational institutions. The program coverage was more than 13 thousand young people from 18 to 29 years graduates of professional educational organizations and educational institutions of higher education. The duration of the internship of one person was not more than 6 months. In order to encourage employers to organize training of graduates authorities provided compensation of cost the intern’s payroll, and of the additional cost associated with the use of labor potential of older workers engaged in mentoring young professionals. During the internship graduates were covered by the Labor Code requirements of labor protection and internal regulations in force in the organizations, and were covered by social insurance
opioid antagonism, patients must abstain from opioids for a minimum of seven days prior to starting treatment to avoid the precipitation of opioid withdrawal. The effectiveness of naltrexone treatment depends on the patient’s motivation and social support system. Thus, in environments where there is strong family or social support for the patient in care, oral naltrexone hydrochloride has been shown to be effective in the prevention of relapse to heroin use. Because of a lack of positive reinforcing effects with naltrexone and low motivation on the part of many patients, as well as, poor clinician acceptability, oral naltrexone is not widely prescribed for the treatment of opioid dependence in the United States and thus is not seen as a good maintenance treatment medication for opioid treatment. In the RussianFederation, where family support has been shown to promote effectiveness, a main barrier to use is medication cost. Long-acting naltrexone formulations