and neglect, are burning issues in both developed and developing countries, impairing the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Over the past decades, many researchers have documented the higher frequency of health and psychosocial problems among the survivors. The extent of adolescent maltreatment and its impact in most parts of the developing world is unknown or not well documented but there is increasing evidence that problems do exist and are of growing concern to policy makers, health professionals, researchers and general public (D’Antonio, Darwish, & McLean, 1993; Kawewe & Dibie, 1999; Qiao & Chan, 2005). Over the past decade there has been a small but steady increase in the number of articles from less developed countries published Journals such as “Adolescent maltreatment & Neglect” and “Adolescent Maltreatment” (Lachmen et at., 2002). However, there remains a relative dearth of research on maltreatment among school going adolescents in developing countries in general and within Asian cultures in particular. Additionally, a review of literature on adolescent maltreatment in developing world reveals that most research tend to be targeted at the prevalence of only one type of maltreatment and many studies do not examine risk factors in depth, or address the possible outcomes of maltreatment.
chances of exposure and development of dependency. This study has many limitations, some of them are the school going adolescents were hesitant to answer the questions as they had a fear of being judged. The data collected by subjective feeling of the participants, a better method can be developed for objectively collecting data by using mobile phone applications. We did not evaluate the mental health condition of the students as depression, anxiety, stress levels or personality types; which would have a huge impact on the pattern of mobile phone usage. This study had a relatively small study sample and there is a need for multicentre studies to understand the mobile phone dependency among adolescents that is emerging as a public health problem.
However, very few studies on VAD have also included school going adolescents (10-19 years) apart from preschool and school children.  With this background the study was undertaken amongst school going adolescents aged between 10-19 years in rural areas of Bareilly district, to find out the prevalence of VAD by the presence of bitot’s spot and conjunctival xerosis and to identify the associated factors and to suggest the suitable measures to prevent VAD among them.
Overall response rate for this survey was 89.2% involving school going adoles- cent aged 13 to 17 years old. From 27,497 school going adolescents involved in this survey, 13,135 (49.6%) were male and 14,362 (50.4%) were female. In terms of ethnicity, 63.1% were Malays decent, followed by 16.7% Chinese decent, 7.0% Indian decent, 7.0% Bumiputera Sabah decent, 4.5% Bumiputera Sarawak and 1.8% Others. More than half of the schools going adolescent were those of younger age group. (60.7%) (Table 1). A total of 27,497 schools going adolescent responded to the truancy module. Among them, 7985 (29.4%) were found to play truant. High prevalence was found in male, old age, others ethnicity, par- ents living apart, ever drug user, current cigarette smoker and being bullied (Table 2). Univariate analysis showed significant association between truancy and socio demographic characteristic as well as other variables; ever drug user, current cigarette smoker and being bullied. Multivariate analysis showed deter- minants of truancy found to be male, old age, others ethnicity, parents living apart, ever drug user, current cigarette smoker and being bullied after control- ling with other variables. Adjusted odd ratio values of these determinants were tabulate in Table 3.
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21.6 percent of the study participants, 21.3% males and 23.5% females had seriously considered committing sui- cide within the past 12 months. Factors positively associ- ated with a history of suicidal ideation were female gender, being victim of bullying, lack of parental supervi- sion, current cigarette smoking, and alcohol use. All of these factors have been described as being associated with suicidal ideation in other studies [8-12]. Thirty-six percent of the general population has reported history of suicidal ideation Uganda . The estimate from Uganda is much lower than the 39.7% life time prevalence among Vien- nese students . However our study looked at 12 months period and so comparisons between the two set- tings may not be reasonable. Due to the design of our study, we are unable to ascribe causation i.e. it is not pos- sible to say these factors are causes of suicidal ideation. Over half (52.3%) of the study participants in rural Uganda reported being victims of bullying. This preva- lence estimate is much higher than 19.3% found among school going adolescents in Durban and Cape Town in South Africa . In the Uganda study, participants were asked the question: During the past 30 days, on how many days were you bullied? In the South African study, students were asked: During the past 12 months, have you been bullied at school? Even though the Uganda study asked for a much shorter period (30 days compared to 12 months in South Africa), the Uganda survey was associ- ated with a much higher estimate. We are unable to spe- cifically identify the reasons for these differences. A possibility is that indeed adolescents in rural Uganda are more likely to be bullied than in South Africa. The second possibility is the way the questions were asked. In South Africa, the questions aimed to identify bullying occurring at school. In the Uganda study, this was not specified and study participants may have reported bullying occurring in and out of school. Despite these differences, the preva-
The main objective of the present study was to find out the relationship between Punctuality and Home Environment among school going adolescents. To achieve this objective, Punctuality and home environment Scale developed by the investigator were used. The sample consisted of 100 Government Secondary School students of 9 th Class were selected randomly from Sri Muktsar Sahib District of Punjab, India. The sample was equally categorized between Boys- Girls and Rural- Urban students. The results revealed that there exists significant relationship between Punctuality and Home Environment among school going adolescents. It is also found out that urban adolescents are more punctual as compare to rural adolescents. No significant difference was found among rural and urban adolescents as well as boys and girls on the variable of Home environment.
In the present study, West Bengal’s school going adolescents’ attitudes toward physical education were determined and it was analyzed whether it differs according to gender and geographical location wise. The findings showed that as a whole, the attitude towards physical education of the school going adolescents of our state was positive. Both male and female adolescents had positive attitudes towards physical education. Participation in physical exercises and sports requires strong attitudes toward physical activities. Our research findings show that physical education students have strong attitudes toward physical activities. This is consistent with the following findings. Mea and Hoe  found that Malaysian sports science students had strong positive attitudes toward physical activities and Zeng, et.al.  also found that their study participants had strong attitudes toward physical activities. This result also supports the findings of previous studies (15; 16; 17; 18; 19], which obtained same or similar results. One of these studies, Bibiket.al.suggested that high school students perceived physical education as a positive and valuable experience and high school students believed that physical education is an important part of their academic experience, rated just after Math, English, and Science Furthermore, while Fox and Biddle, and Rice specified that student boredom by the lesson, repetition and pointless activities have an effect on students developing negative attitudes they also emphasized that the most powerful factor for students to develop a negative attitude to the physical education lesson is the teacher. The fact that attitudes to the physical education lesson by students in this study are generally positive may lead to the thought that they are satisfied by the subjects taught in the lesson and with the physical education
Findings from the study showed significant positive correlation between domains of psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress) and bullying victimati- zation among school going adolescents in Ghana which suggest that elevated levels of psychological distress may pose as significant risk factors for bullying victimiza- tion [3, 20, 21]. The findings are not surprising as mental health problems among school going-adolescents predis- pose them to various risky behaviours including unsafe sexual behaviours and substance use [22, 23]. The symp- toms of psychological distress could inhibit students’ ability to resist bullying as perpetrators of bullying vic- timization may target their colleagues who are unable to fight back.
Bullying victimization among school going adolescents is prevalent and has an association with poor mental health. However little is studied on bullying victimization and its effects among adolescents in India. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between bullying victimization, self-esteem and depression among school going adolescents and to study the gender difference with regard to self esteem and depression among the bullied adolescents. The sample consisted of 165 school going adolescents between the ages of 12 to 17 years from 1 Government Hindi medium and 1 Private English medium Co-Ed school in Imphal, Manipur. Two-stage sampling method was adopted; in the first stage convenient sampling was used to select the two schools, in the second stage simple random sampling was used to collect the sample. A semi-structured proforma scale, Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument-Victim Scale (APRI), Rosenberg Self Esteem scale (RSES) and Children Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to collect the relevant information. Result suggests that 138 (83.6%) of the sample are bullied. Bullied adolescents have poorer academic performance and males are bullied more compared to females with 86.1%. Results show significant negative correlation between being bullied and self-esteem level. Also significant positive correlation is found between being bullied and depression. The findings of the present study illustrate the psychological health issues associated with victimization and places emphasis on the importance of implementing anti- bullying awareness and policies in schools.
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Abstract This study on traumatized adolescents presents the causes and consequences of psychosocial impacts of war on a select cohort of traumatized adolescents. It initially contextualizes the problem by narrating the physical and psychological impacts of war on people. The sample of school going adolescents was selected from the Southern Educational Zone of Vavuniya in northern Sri Lanka, an area predominantly occupied by Sri Lankan Tamils. The relevant information on those traumatized adolescents was obtained from medical practitioners, school teachers and others who had worked with the said traumatized adolescents. A survey was conducted thereafter to obtain the required qualitative data. In many instances semi-structured interviews were held to elicit additional information. The coping strategies adopted by the said school children were then analyzed using the BASIC-Ph multi-dimensional approach, based on the multi-modal therapy (Lahad, 1992). In this study, the conceptualization of coping is based on a proposal by Lahad and his colleagues in which coping is viewed as a response to perceived stress which was defined as "constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of a person”. Findings of the research revealed that the selected samples of adolescents were least resilient to severe impacts of war and that their coping mechanisms varied due to varying factors such as their personality, social support, and spirituality. Overall, it may be said that nearly all of them showed symptoms of having been traumatized at different levels, with many of them needing psychosocial support.
Several studies (e.g, Vallerand & Bissonnette, 1992; Hardre & Reeve, 2003) [37, 38] have also shown that students with higher intrinsic motivation at the outset of a semester displayed more persistence and were less likely to drop out of school. Grant (2008)  reported that intrinsic motivation is a strong factor in performance, persistence and productivity for adults in the working world. According to Froiland, Smith and Peterson (2012)  intrinsic motivation is a pathway to happiness for adults and children; this also is vital for children’s success and life satisfaction after school. Consequently, now the school psychologists have shifted their focus toward increasing intrinsic motivation to learn in their students.
It was a school –based interventional study conducted in Najafgarh in the year 2016 which is also the field practice area of Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital. Prior permission was taken from Deputy Directorate of Education (DDE), (South-West district of New Delhi) and Institutional Ethical Committee to conduct the study. From 13 schools in Najafgarh, two schools were selected by simple random method of sampling and the Principals of these schools were explained about the objectives and methodology of the study. A total of 120 students were selected from each school using a list of all students enrolled in class 6 th , 7 th and 8 th obtained from both the schools. One section from each standard of both the schools was picked by simple random method. Sample size was calculated based on the data that 34.6% (p 1 ) students had knowledge that by exercising for at
areas of district Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh. Studies indicate that while adolescent’s attitude towards premarital sex are becoming more liberal, their awareness of contraceptives remains poor (Verma, 1995 and Verma et al., 1997). The adolescent’s vulnerability to RTIs and STIs can be attributed to the early onset of sexual activity and failure to use barrier contraceptives. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) survey conducted by IIPS Mumbai, India reported prevalence of teenage pregnancy to be about 16%. The prevalence of RTIs has been observed to be as high as 70% among unmarried adolescent girls in Kolkata (Ram et al., 2006). Studies conducted in different parts of the country shows that sexual behavior among unmarried adolescents is on the rise, especially in the urban areas where an estimated 20-25% of unmarried young males and 6-10% of unmarried young females have experienced premarital sex (Rakesh, 1992; Savara and Shridhar, 1993 and Rangaiyan, 1996). Status of reproductive and sexual behavior and unmet reproductive health needs among adolescents of Rajasthan has been discussed in a study (Nutan et al., 2009).
Educational Implications: Mental health and physical health are correlated with each other. First of all parents should give due attention towards the adolescents. Teacher should also pay healthy role to provide moral values among adolescents. Besides family factor socio-cultural factors also effect mental health. The negative impact of mass media and wrong cultural values affect mental health especially of the adolescent. It needs serious intervention on the part of government and responsible people of the society also. As healthy mind resides in healthy body so emphasis should be laid on to intricate values healthy activities in such school so that the adolescents can never delineate or alienate towards wrong side.
Relationship between adolescent Life event stressors and Emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents analyzed with Pearson correlation. It shows strong positive correlation of all components of emotional and behavioural problems with life event stressors. The statistical values reveals that if increase the life event stressors it lead to increase the emotional and behavioural problems. This proved that the causal relationship between the Life event stressors and Emotional and behavioural Problems. Shilpa agarwal et.al reported that the CBCL scores were concerned, a strong positive correlation was found with the scores on the adolescent stressful life event scale. (Pearson's coefficient= 0.565, P = 0.004).
express anger in an extreme or uncontrollable manner, higher in the level of anger, indulge health and develop anger related problems. high level of anger is identified in specific community or who are vulnerable to get anger related physical, psychological and social problems. School aged students during adolescence stage are one among the vulnerable groups found to have high anger and aggressive behavior. Anger is also a predisposed characteristic emotional reaction and also a learnt predisposition producing negative behavior effect. Speilberger classified anger into two i. e. trait and state. State anger may be induced due to situational factors such as interpersonal interaction, classroom atmosphere, stress, frustration, failures and conflicts whereas trait anger can be expressed in terms of biologically predisposed characteristics. Unidentified and untreated anger may cause disruptive consequence in intrapersonal, interpersonal, anger regulation and anger control behaviours of an individual. Anger produces psycho-physiological changes i.e hormonal imbalance, excessive secretion of certain bio chemicals, increased blood pressure, heart rate, pulse rate, galvanic skin response, rapid actions and functions of organs that elicit juices and hormones endanger to physical health. Conditionings to such behavioural changes and repeated exposure to anger inducing situation causes developing aggressive personality characteristics. Counter conditioning or learning new skills to manage or prevent anger consequences will help individual to manage such problem situations effectively. Behavioural trainings are theoretically and experimentally proved techniques frequently employed by behavior therapist to manage anger next to pharmacological therapies. Many behavioural therapeutic techniques have been employed by scholars to treat anger likewise anger reversal technique is utilized in the present study to suppress anger related reactions. Psycho-physiologically conditioned behaviors can be reversed or transferred making client to practice or relearn certain skills like relaxation training, social adjustment skill, anger control and regulation skill to adapt controlling anger and defeat anger inducing factors. The present study revealed that there is a remarkable change was achieved in the level of anger after anger reversal training. The result is consistent with the study conducted by (Ganesan, 1985); (Ganesan & Ganesan, 2004); (Feindler, Marriot, & Iwata, 1984); (Foumany & Slelahi, 2013); (Arefi, 1999; Navidi , 2006; Maleki, 2006); Kellner et al. (1995), Herrmann et al., (2002), and Burns et al. (2003).
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(Table-5) presents association between socio demographic characteristics with prevalence of abuse by Guardian/family, friends, neighbors. The present study found significant association with mother education, socioeconomic status with physical abuse being family as a perpetrator among school going adolescents (p=<0.05),and also found significant association with type of family education status of mother, and number of siblings with physical abuse being friend as perpetrator among adolescents (p=<0.05), the previous studies reported greater prevalence in younger children aged 5–12 years and those belonging to nuclear families. Present study reported that Physical abuse more in 11 to 12 years adolescent girls from families of low socioeconomic status, whereas Deb and Modak 11 reported it more in adolescents from high-income families.
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study conducted in 2014, revealed that girls had become more confident and upfront when initiating sexual engagement.8 Having more girls respondents in this study could have led to similar findings. With these findings, we can suggest that intervention programmes that may prevent the involvement of girls in sexual engagement is important, due to the fact that health morbidities such as adolescent pregnancy and abortion among girls may lead to higher chances of maternal and infant mortalities. Within the Malaysian community, the uprising trend of sexual practices among adolescents in our local setting which result in them getting pregnant at a younger age 24 has led to a situation in
In Kenya a study was conducted on the influence of mass media on youth’s sexual behaviors. It aimed at establishing the influence of mass media on the expression of sexual behavior among high school adolescents in Nairobi Province. The findings were that magazines are poplar media that provide sexual information from the television. Informed accessed through the media by adolescents included pornographic pictures and texts, dressing and fashion, sex styles and contraceptive use. The study found that half of the respondents (50.7%) had experienced sexual intercourse, 63% did not use condom during their first sexual intercourse, 54% of the respondents had had more than one sexual partner in the last one year; 55% of adolescents were influenced into sexual act by pornographic materials from movies. The frequency of material access was found to determine the number of sexual partners among the school going adolescents
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This study indicates that only a small proportion of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka are sexually active, a substantially lower proportion than that reported in a range of other developing countries.  Furthermore, the 2% rate among 16-19 year olds in this study represents a substantially lower prevalence than the 6% rate reported for the 14-19 year olds in the UNICEF study despite the inclusion of younger people in that study. Both rates are much lower than those indicated through indirect questions. [3,15] We cannot dismiss the possibility that the differences reflect substantial under reporting, perhaps because the study was conducted on school premises. Interestingly however, the gender proportions in the two studies are comparable; with boys being far more likely than girls to report being sexually active than girls in all recent studies. Similar differences were reported for
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