Historically, the appeal of CCTV surveillance stems from its comparison to eyewitness testimony, which has been the focus of a substantial amount of forensic and applied research (Ellis, Shepherd, & Davies, 1975; Wells, 1993; Wells & Olson, 2003). Eyewitness accuracy is known to be highly error-prone, and methods used to enhance memory of faces, while sometimes resulting in small improvements, have not delivered a means of overcoming this problem. CCTV footage, however, can eliminate some of these problems as it provides a per- manent record of events and all those involved in them. This apparent benefit has therefore motivated the wide- spread installation of CCTV cameras and has enhanced their use and impact in court in many jurisdictions (Far- rington, Gill, Waples, & Argomaniz, 2007; Welsh & Far- rington, 2009). Nevertheless, there is now substantial evidence that unfamiliar face matching (i.e. deciding whether two, simultaneously presented, different images belong to the same identity or not) is a surprisingly diffi- cult process (Megreya & Burton, 2006, 2008). This is likely to impact on the type of visual search examined here, as it is now clear that face matching is difficult even in optimal conditions (e.g. images taken only mi- nutes apart in good lighting and similar pose, with un- limited time for viewers to examine the images and make their response; Bruce et al., 1999; Burton, White, & McNeill, 2010).
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microblog data . Currently, the most promising ap- proach appears to be those based upon monitoring of internet search behaviour. This approach works on the premise that people will actively seek information on dis- eases they develop and that estimates of disease activity with the community may be developed by monitoring the frequency of related internet searches. Through targeting people earlier in the disease process, internet-based systems are able to access a larger fraction of the com- munity and produce more timely information. Further- more, internet-based surveillance systems are intuitive and adaptable, cheap to run and maintain (once estab- lished), do not require a formal public health network and have the capacity to be automated and operate in near-real time. Despite these advantages, internet-based surveillance systems have a number of significant short- comings and must not be considered an alternative to traditional surveillance approaches . Firstly, as these systems crowd-source data, resolution will be contin- gent on the size of the population serviced and may be further limited by national communications infrastructure availability and distribution . Secondly, as internet- based surveillance systems are limited to people who use the internet to source health information, there is the potential that estimates produced by these systems may not accurately reflect the entire community . Finally, as internet-based surveillance systems essentially rely upon self-reporting, bias may be introduced through differences in internet usage between sectors of the community (the elderly, for example, may not use the internet as a source of health information, despite being a high-risk group for many infectious diseases) and/or through media driven interest in emerging disease events .
Internet search query data has recently shown promise as a passive surveillance method for specific and sensitive monitoring of infectious disease activity, harnessing data that is easily processed, aggregated and visualized in near real-time . Additionally, this information can be used to identify outbreaks earlier than traditional methods and fill gaps in surveillance data by enabling monitoring of early signs of health-seeking behavior, discerning information from individuals who do not seek formal medical attention as well as garnering high-resolution information [6-15]. Google Flu Trends, developed in 2009, is a validated surveillance method for monitoring influenza, currently describing influenza levels in 28 countries. By aggregating information on influenza-related Google searches, investi- gators correlated Google searches with existing case data from the Centers for Disease Control . Noting the existence of other preventable diseases that lack vaccines and also result in high morbidity internationally, Google Dengue Trends was created in 2011. Dengue-related search query surveillance now occurs in nine countries and for some countries, at the state-level across the Americas and Southeast Asia . This work has demonstrated that even countries with relatively low internet penetration  can accumulate sufficient search queries to build surveillance models that mirror the trends of official epidemiological data for infectious diseases. Given these prior validations and the need for improved malaria surveillance, the utility of Google search query volumes for estimating malaria incidence is due for assessment.
This paper is mainly focused on image processing concept which is used in surveillance videos for security purpose. Image processing technique involves dispensation of image using a mixture of mathematical functions in which image or video is given as input and the extent to which the image is matched is given as output. The main problem found in this paper are edge detection and noise removal in images. Initially this research paper is compared with cuckoo search and genetic algorithm. Then these two algorithms are combined together as an hybrid CS - GA Algorithm and finally the result of this hybrid algorithm is compared with enhanced hybrid CS- GA using Haar-like feature for real time surveillance video. The result is compared in terms of Recognition rate accuracy and time complexity.
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III. R OBOT A SSIST ED S EARCH AND R ESCUE S YST EMS Robots designed for search and rescue had been discussed in scientific literature since the early 1980s. However, no natural systems had been developed for fielded until 2011. With the advancement in sensor miniaturizations and exponential increment in the speed and capability of microcontrollers, rescue robot s small enough to thread through rubbles are rolling out of experimental laboratories into the catastrophic areas. The first real research on search and rescue robot began in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. Robots were not used at bombing response, but suggestions as to how robots might have been applied were taken. In 2001, the first documented use of urban search and rescue robots took place during the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. Mobile robots of different sizes and capacities were deployed. These robots range from tethered to wireless operated, and from the size of a lunch box to the size of a lawnmower. Their primary functions are to search for victims and to identify potential hazards of rescuers.
(1) the judge issuing the warrant must find that “normal investigative procedures have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous; (2) the warrant must contain “a particular description of the type of [activity] sought to be [videotaped], and a statement of the particular offense to which it relates; (3) the warrant must not allow the period of [surveillance] to be “longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of authorization, or in any event longer than thirty days” (though extensions are possible); and (4) the warrant must require that the [surveillance] “be conducted in such a way as to minimize the [videotaping] of [activity] not otherwise subject to [surveillance] . . . 135
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In Europe, market access of a medical device based on a CE-mark is granted after a successful so-called “con- formity assessment process”, which includes passing an extensive series of tests, risks analyses and evaluations of clinical data on the medical device’s safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, the behaviour of a medical device over time in broad application can be investigated a priori only in a limited manner. Thus, PMS strategies are set up in order to retrieve and summarize application data of medical devices and to identify residual risks. Expres- sive search queries are needed to precisely define the topic of interest. The problem is that the manual cre- ation of complex queries requires knowledge of the cor- rect query syntax and is time-consuming and error- prone. This paper focusses on developing the Search Ontology Generator (SONG), a framework for ontology- based specification and generation of powerful search queries by domain experts with less effort and without knowing the query syntax.
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requirement for inland border search if circumstances justify belief with reasonable certainty that a vehicle is being used for belief with reasonable certainty that a vehicle is being used for illegal importation of merchandise. United States v. Weil (9th Cir. illegal importation of merchandise. United States v. Weil (9th Cir. 1970)
A literature review was conducted between March and June 2014 in three databases to identify manuscripts de- scribing experiences with NCD surveillance systems glo- bally. MEdical Subject Headings (MESH) terms were applied for searches in PubMed and WHOLIS. The same or similar terms and free text phrases were applied as search items to the Web of Knowledge in combinations separated by Boolean operators. Additionally, the webpage of the World Health Organization (WHO) as key organization was searched for reports on NCD surveil- lance. MESH terms or key words were selected from the following groups of generic terms: disease surveillance (“public health surveillance”, “sentinel surveillance”, “epidemiology”, “population surveillance”, “epidemiological monitoring”), non-communicable diseases (“chronic dis- ease”) with a specific focus on high burden diseases (chronic respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes), health information systems (“information sys- tems”, “hospital information systems”, “health information management”, “health information systems”, “management information systems”, “geographic information systems”, “integrated advanced information management systems”, “ambulatory care information systems”, “information management”, “automatic data processing”, “electronic health records”), urban health (“urban health services”, “hospitals, urban”, “urban health”, “population dynamics”, “urbanization”, “cities”, “demography”, “urban population”), and spatial and socioeconomic disease patterns (“spatio- temporal analysis”, “socioeconomic factors”, “health status disparities”, “population characteristics”). Search algorithms included terms related to disease surveillance with at least one of the other above mentioned groups. Due to the vast difference in the surveillance approaches and the different study design of the papers, it was decided to restrict the re- view to health facility-based approaches in order to increase comparability of the studies. A systematic review approach  was therefore dropped.
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Since the release of GFT, similar NDS-based systems have been developed to extend surveillance to places where resource or other constraints limit the availability of direct clinical or laboratory surveillance data and improve the timeliness of detection and fore- casting of disease incidence. For example, NDS have facilitated expansion of dengue and inﬂuenza surveillance to countries without infrastructure capable of real time surveil- lance [, , , ]. This has also been done in the context of hospitalizations in Texas , mental illness, psychological manifestations of physical morbidities [, ], and search queries from clinical decision support sites, such as UpToDate . In these cases, al- though NDS-based systems are being asked to estimate data that is actually being col- lected, those data are not available quickly enough for use in public health decision mak- ing.
Although a formal literature search was conducted, no evaluation frameworks specific to surveillance in the environmental, aquatic or plant sector could be identified by this scoping review. SurF was built on the assumption that a cross-sector framework can be devel- oped using existing frameworks and attributes while performance indicators can be adapted to meet the needs and realities of the dif- ferent sectors. While approaches within the different disciplines are slightly different (e.g., public health surveillance evaluations tend to be more qualitative than animal health surveillance evaluations), the general concepts are transferable and have informed the develop- ment of a biosecurity surveillance evaluation framework for New Zealand. There is a range of ways evaluation can be conducted, and this is met by the diversity of possible evaluation questions. Specific evaluation design will be highly influenced by the evaluation ques- tion (St € ark, 2012), and each type of surveillance system will require a tailored evaluation effort (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2014). However, recommendations regarding the gen- eric workflow of an evaluation and evaluation best practice have previously been made.
Because of domestic dogs’ abbreviated life-span rela- tive to humans, it is more feasible to collect exposure and outcome data over the entire life-course. This attri- bute makes investigating phenomena such as sensitive period effects and cumulative exposures efficient relative to human studies that are similarly structured. While prospective studies are well-known and regularly employed to study disease etiology and potential risk factors in people , to date, large-scale life course veterinary studies have been scarcely reported. Four prospective studies in dogs are currently underway: The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study (GRLS), the 9/11 Medical Surveillance Study of search dogs deployed to the terrorist attack sites [3, 4], Generation Pup, a study following dogs of all breeds from puppy- to adulthood, and Dogslife, a web-based study, which reported data re- garding about 4300 Labrador Retrievers in the UK [5 – 7] and has currently enrolled more than 7000 dogs. The data presented herein are from the GRLS.
tasis as well as prognosis of cancer; all based on lncRNAs detected by RT-PCR from the cohorts of published studies. To search for an applicably common biomarker for prognosis surveillance, we focused on the effect of PVT1 expression, detected by RT-PCR and RNA-Seq on metastasis and sur- vival as well as the correlation of PVT1 and possible target genes in all common cancer. In the present study, a new way was provided to improve the traditional meta-analysis, by which useful information not published in the literature could be found through published databases to provide more comprehensive evidence. More importantly, the possible mechanism and the common effect of PVT1 on prognosis of all cancers was proved. Furthermore, we provide coefficient references for correlation analysis of gene expression with huge amounts of RNA-Seq data. To our best knowledge, this is the first improved meta-analysis of PVT1 effect on cancer prognosis with the data from the cohorts of TCGA and published studies.
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Despite using a multi-step approach to sentinel site selection, there were some limitations to our process. These included reliance on self-report for checklist items such as the hospital’s motivation to participate in the surveillance system and availability of hospital staff to conduct surveillance activities. Respondents may have sought to appease the assessment team by positively biasing their answers. To address this limitation, hospitals ultimately selected as sentinel sites were asked to write a formal letter to confirm their commitment to become a surveillance site, and to list surveillance staff and their specific role in the surveillance system. For other checklist items, such as the proportion of respiratory disease pa- tients receiving chest x-ray or the socioeconomic level of the population served by the hospital, it was not feasible to verify the answers provided by the hospital team during the assessment visit. However, these issues will be revisited in more detail once the surveillance system stabilizes and disease burden can be enumer- ated. Another limitation is that the sentinel site selec- tion process does not guarantee good surveillance performance. We endeavor to maximize performance through the routine monitoring visits and twice-yearly review meetings.
The BRFSS questionnaire was developed jointly by CDC’s Behavioral Surveillance Branch (BSB) and the states. Annually at the BRFSS Working Group meeting in February, program representatives from National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and other parts of CDC have the opportunity to propose to BSB additional and emerging BRFSS questions for consideration, and provide inputs and feedback on the proposed content of the core components and optional modules. After the conference, taking into consideration state priorities, potential funding and other practical aspects, BSB designs core components and optional modules, produces data processing layouts and sends them to the states. States add questions that they have designed or acquired (BRFSS Web site). The purpose of the conference is to improve the BRFSS data collection process and help to develop the BRFSS questionnaire. The following statements form the rationale used in the design of the BRFSS questionnaire:
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Objective: The Okinawa prefectural government conducted enhanced surveil- lance for the Sixth Worldwide Uchinanchu Festival, with participation of more than 5300 visitors from abroad, many of whom were Okinawan or of Okinawan descent, for early detection of Zika virus disease and other poten- tial public health threat outbreaks. Method: Enhanced surveillance conducted from 12 October through 13 November involved four surveillance systems, (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance system ((N)SASSy), Prescription Surveillance (PS), and Official Syndromic Surveillance (OSS), each of them operates routinely, in addition to case-based and sentinel surveillance under the Infectious Diseases Control Law as Official National Surveillance of Infec- tious Diseases (ONSID). This enhanced surveillance was conducted for analy- sis and evaluation, with intensive information sharing among concerned par- ties. Result: We performed the enhanced surveillance for 33 days from 12 Oc- tober through 13 November. Information from enhanced surveillance was analyzed and evaluated, and eventually summarized as a daily report. There has been one rubella case at an elementary school in Okinawa City on 20 Oc- tober and a measles case at an elementary school in Uruma City on 2 Novem- ber. Those two cases were registered into (N)SASSy on a timely basis. The public health center investigated them quickly, and the measles case was de- nied later because symptoms did not satisfy with case definition. Discussion: How to cite this paper: Yamakawa, M.,
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UK ferry ports are not considered to be appropriate for mosquito surveillance, given that vehicles exiting ferries or Eurotunnel are not required to stop for any significant period of time. Therefore focus has been given to motorway service stations along the inland routes from the ferry ports in southern England and Eurotunnel terminals. Invasive mosquito surveillance was therefore initiated by PHE at six service stations in the UK from August to October 2014 (Fig. 2; Tables 1 and 2). They were all chosen based on their proximity to cross-channel connections, and because they served traffic having recently arrived through the Eurotunnel and cross- channel ferry ports. A total of 56 ovitraps (Fig. 7) were set out across the six service stations from August to October, in vegetation around the car, caravan, and lorry parking areas. At three services stations, BG Sentinel adult traps were deployed using Sweetscent® lures. The ovitraps and adult traps were checked every two weeks until the second week of October. The substrate used in the ovitraps, cubes of polystyrene (~5 cm 3 ), were visually checked for eggs,
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These nine principles form an ethical framework for surveillance, grounded in a rich philosophical tradition. As we have seen, they encompass the desired ethical principles of Lyon, Sewell and Barker, Allen, and Marx but do so in a more coherent and/or comprehensive manner than any of these authors has so far suggested. It also ensures that ethical concerns are not overlooked. This was noted in the way in which Allen does not consider the possibility that a person under surveillance may be innocent and hence not have waived any privacy rights. Similarly, Lyon, Sewell and Barker only suggest tentative principles, none of which consider intention, declaration, chance of success or discrimination. Neither do they take into account the justification of methodology (jus in speculando) as distinct from the decision to employ surveillance (jus ad speculandum). Marx is different here as his 29 principles are thorough, although they too do not refer to the principle of discrimination. However this list lacks a coherence which can be achieved through appeal to the just war tradition, at the same time tapping into the heritage in moral discourse offered by that tradition. This discourse holds a huge literature of value to this debate, much of which will prove to be directly applicable.
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From figure 1, it is observed, that for the data set 50, both the single bilinear search and the quintuple bilinear search algorithms return as the most efficient algorithm in terms of time complexity. The other bilinear searches also prove to be more efficient than the linear and binary searches. The quick sort based binary search is found to be the least efficient. This is to be expected as the quicksort is known to be inefficient where small data are concerned (Shield, 1983).
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