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Seed degeneration in potato : the need for an integrated seed health strategy to mitigate the problem in developing countries

Seed degeneration in potato : the need for an integrated seed health strategy to mitigate the problem in developing countries

Seed potato degeneration, the reduction in yield or quality caused by an accumulation of pathogens and pests in planting material due to successive cycles of vegetative propagation, has been a long-standing production challenge for potato growers around the world. In developed countries this problem has been overcome by general access to and frequent use of seed, produced by specialized growers, that has been certified to have pathogen and pest incidence below established thresholds, often referred to as certified seed. The success of certified seed in developed countries has concentrated the research and development agenda on the establishment of similar systems in developing countries. Despite these efforts, certified seed has had little penetration into the informal seed systems currently in place in most developing countries. Small-scale farmers in these countries continue to plant seed tubers acquired through the informal seed system, i.e. produced on-farm or acquired from neighbours or local markets. Informal seed tubers frequently have poor health status, leading to significant reductions in yield and/or market value. This review emphasizes the need to refocus management efforts in developing countries on improving the health status of seed tubers in the informal system by integrating disease resistance and on-farm management tools with strategic seed replacement. This ‘integrated seed health strategy’ can also prolong the good health status of plants derived from certified seed, which would otherwise be diminished due to potential rapid infection from neighbouring fields. Knowledge gaps, development challenges and impacts of this integrated seed health strategy are discussed.

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STUDIES ON UTIILIZATION OF PLANT WASTE BIOMASS (WBM) FOR THE SEED HEALTH OF VEGETABLES

STUDIES ON UTIILIZATION OF PLANT WASTE BIOMASS (WBM) FOR THE SEED HEALTH OF VEGETABLES

During the present studies fresh waste biomass (WBM) in the form of roots, stems and leaves of the selected vegetable plants such as as Carrot (Daucus carota), Radish (Raphanus sativus), Onion (Allium cepa), Methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Palak (Spinacia oleracea), Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Bhendi ( Abelmoschus esculentus) was collected. The collected WBM was surface sterilized, washed and dried in shade. The dried biomass was brought in to fine powder with the help of blender. The powder was collected in polythene bags. Aqueous extracts of different percentage of the WBM of the test vegetables were prepared and screened against mycoflora and seed health (seed germination, root length and shoot length) of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Bhendi ( Abelmoschus esculentus) and the results are recorded.

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Seed Health and Quality Test of Three Rice Varieties for the Detection of Fungi Associated with Seed Sample

Seed Health and Quality Test of Three Rice Varieties for the Detection of Fungi Associated with Seed Sample

diseases, at least 10% loss is incurred due to seed-borne diseases [4]. In our country farmer’s saved seeds are the main source of seeds for rice cultivation, but the farmers do not maintain the seed health properly that resulting heavy infestation by the fungi, particularly during hot and humid seasons and cause deterioration of quality and viability of seeds. These seeds results in reduced germination rate and transmit pathogens from seed to seed bed and ultimately cause field diseases. Reduction in yield and quality loss of grains of rice ranges from a trace to total crop loss depending on the inoculum density, pathogen aggressiveness, environmental conditions, cultivar susceptibility and interaction with other cultural parameters [5].Consedering above situation the present study was under taken to detect the fungi associate with the seed samples of Parshuram upazila of Feni district and record the germination of seed samples.

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STUDIES ON UTILIZATION OF WEED BIOMASS FOR SEED HEALTH OF  JOWAR VAR  LOCAL

STUDIES ON UTILIZATION OF WEED BIOMASS FOR SEED HEALTH OF JOWAR VAR LOCAL

During the present studies, the seeds of Jowar var. local were soaked in 5% aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the test common weed plants for 24 hours at room temperature. The soaked seeds were placed on moist blotter plates, incubated for ten days at room temperature and the incidence of seed mycoflora and seed germination similarly seedling emergence was also studied. For this the soaked seeds were sown in earthen pots filled with garden soil. The pots were incubated at room temperature for ten days. The jowar seeds soaked in aqueous and ethanolic root extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. showed much reduced incidence of seed mycoflora, and maximum seed germination, seedling emergence, root and shoot length as compared to the control. The root, stem and leaf extract of Corchorus olitorius L., Euphorbia heterophylla L., and Cardiospermum helicacabum L., were found to be more stimulatory for seed mycoflora and inhibitory for seed germination and seedling emergence of Jowar var. local.

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Organic seed propagation: current status and problems in Europe

Organic seed propagation: current status and problems in Europe

Prohibiting chemicals in organic crop production increases the risk of diseases for many crops, especially for biennials, which are exposed to infection during two subsequent seasons. A lot of research has been done to ensure seed health and healthy plant community development. Combination treatments were tried to develop using milder physical treatments with compounds of natural origin (essential oils, organic acids etc.). Groot et al. (2005) when testing 30 essential oils found that thyme oil exhibited the highest in vitro inhibiting activity against two bacterial and two fungal seed-borne pathogens of carrot. A.Borgen (2001) wrote that the most effective preventive method for control of seed borne diseases is to only introduce healthy seed into the system. It is of vital importance that the seeds purchased are free from diseases – this is not automatically the case even though it has been grown on the basis of disinfected plant material. Seed borne diseases occur equally often in conventional non-treated seed as in certified organic seed. The choice of resistant varieties is also an important component in the preventive strategy. No cereal variety is, however, completely resistant to all diseases - this would probably also be contrary to the wish of maintaining biodiversity. All things considered, it will be advantageous to use mixtures of several varieties, but this strategy is difficult to be implemented in the multiplication phase of the propagation, due to practical reasons as well as due to the degree of purity required by the rules for certification of seed. The cultivation conditions influence the occurrence of seed borne diseases, but we only have limited knowledge of this. It has been stated that row cropping may reduce the impact of some diseases, but the importance of this has not been determined (Borgen, 2001). Also early harvesting has an influence on some diseases (Olvång and Poulson, 2002).

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Study on Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seed Collected from Different Sources and Locations of Bangladesh

Study on Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seed Collected from Different Sources and Locations of Bangladesh

Abstract: A study was conducted at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during September 2009 to March 2010 to determine the quality and health status of okra seed collected from different sources and locations of Bangladesh. Different sources were government organization, namely BARI, Gazipur and BADC, Dhaka, eight seed companies and ten farmers of different districts. Seed collection and quality analysis exposed that moisture content of seed samples ranged from 8.37- 14.95% and 9.97-13.71% in terms of source and group of seed collection. Germination percentage of government organization seeds, seed companie’s seeds and farmers saved seeds was 86.52, 82.71 and 53.74%, respectively. Purity percentage varied from 87.86 to 99.70% in different sources. Purity percentage of government organization seeds, seed company’s seeds and farmers saved seeds were 94.57%, 99.41% and 92.45%, respectively. In government organization seeds, both vigor index (2273.0) and 1000-seed weight (59.59g) were found higher than the Seed companies and farmers saved seeds. In seed health study, seven fungi, namely Fusarium spp., Colletotrichum dematium, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Bipolaris spp., and Curvularia spp. were found in the seed samples. The highest mean incidence of fungi in okra seeds was recorded from farmer seeds (16.31%) followed by seed companies (13.33%) and the lowest from government organizations (11.81%).

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Seed Sovereignty   How can organic agriculture contribute to the development and protection of the seed, a case study of Nepal

Seed Sovereignty How can organic agriculture contribute to the development and protection of the seed, a case study of Nepal

4 According to ETC Group (2008) the top three seed companies, Monsanto, DuPont and Syngenta, owned 47 % of the global proprietary seed market in 2007. This development has reduced the competition among plant breeders and according to Howard (2009) the consolidation is associated with a number of impacts that constrain the opportunities for renewable agriculture. Among these he mentions declining rates of saving and replanting seeds, as a result of companies successfully convincing a growing percentage of farmers to purchase their products year after year, since the technology fee on the seeds usually only covers the use of a single harvest. The development has furthermore made a shift in both public and private research toward the most profitable proprietary crops and varieties, but away from the improvement of varieties that farmers can easily replant. This has caused an erosion of the seed diversity, as remaining companies eliminate less profitable lines from newly acquired subsidiaries. Cultural knowledge of how seeds can be saved and replanted may be lost if farmers do not maintain these practices (Howard, 2009). Since the 1900s, approximately 75 % of agricultural plant genetic diversity has been lost as farmers worldwide have left their multiple local varieties for genetically uniform, high-yielding varieties and more than 90 percent of crop varieties have disappeared from farmers’ field (FAO, 2004) .

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Ihe Role Of Range Improvement Practices On Sustaining Rangeland Management In Semi-Arid Area Of Wad Omer, Centeral Sudan

Ihe Role Of Range Improvement Practices On Sustaining Rangeland Management In Semi-Arid Area Of Wad Omer, Centeral Sudan

According to table (1) the species dominating composition at the site covered with the interventions were Aristida adscensionis (GAW) 13.59%, Tribulus terrestris (Diraisa) 8%. It is obivious that Aristida adscensionis appeared in the area of the project interventions, but not on the other sites. This indicated the success of seed broadcasting activities with species preffered by animals. This was also confirmed by local people during the focused group discussion.

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Pest interaction on sexual reproductive system of forest seed dynamics

Pest interaction on sexual reproductive system of forest seed dynamics

The pest interaction of seed dynamics by giving importance to the temporal effects has been carried over. These parameters namely a ( 1 a denotes the yield coefficient of seed to pest), b (protection to seed offered by the environment), α (seed production), β (seed deposition) and δ (seed establishment rate) has been discussed in detail in reference to the influence of pests on seeds. The ecotone dynamics of forest boundary surfaces under pest interaction on seed dy- namics are elaborately discussed quantitatively, which enables one to demonstrate and illustrate the figures and numerical values successfully.

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Effects of Desiccants on the Quality and Conservation of Seeds of Tree Species in a Ghanaian Forest

Effects of Desiccants on the Quality and Conservation of Seeds of Tree Species in a Ghanaian Forest

Tree planting is undoubtedly known to be an effective measure to protect the climate and mitigate the effects of climate change. This is possible due to the role trees play in greenhouse gas carbon dioxide sequestration, counteracting soil erosion and desertification among others [1]. There is a growing concern about the uncontrolled exploitation and depletion of trees especially indigenous species in the tropics that are threatened with extinction. Studies have shown that many plant species are in danger of extinction, while some have already become extinct [2]. On a global basis, the IUCN has estimated that about 12.5% of the world’s vascular plants, totaling about 34,000 species, are under varying degrees of threat. In Ghana, three indigenous trees of economic importance included Peripcopsis elata “Kokrodua” is classified as endangered species [3], Sterculia rhinopetala “Wawabima” and Guarea cedrata “Kwabohoro” have been described as vulnerable, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [4]. These species provide quality timber for export and other non-timber products which generate high revenue for the country. There is therefore an urgent need to conserve these species in any way practicable. This can be achieved by in situ or by ex-situ conservation technologies. One of the ex situ conservation of plant germplasm that is safe, effective and inexpensive is conventional seed storage. This method does not only maintain its viability but also its vigour without hampering the genetic makeup [2] In storage, the seed longevity is influenced by the seed moisture content, temperature and type of container used. Among these factors, the seed moisture content plays a significant role in determining seed longevity. There are various forms of drying methods that have been used for drying seeds of all kinds to reduce seed moisture content. Methods such as sun drying, forced air drying, modified solar drying [5] and desiccant drying [6,7]. Since seed is a material used for regeneration purposes, it must be dried in a manner that does not affect its

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Comparative health-related fatty acid profiles, atherogenicity and desaturase indices of marula seed cake products from South Africa and Eswatini

Comparative health-related fatty acid profiles, atherogenicity and desaturase indices of marula seed cake products from South Africa and Eswatini

acids were higher (P < 0.01) whilst linoleic (P < 0.001), α-linolenic (P < 0.05), margaric (P < 0.05), palmitoleic (P < 0.05) and eicosatrienoic (P < 0.05) acids were lower in South African in comparison to Eswatini MSC. Consequently, South African MSC had higher ƩMUFA (P < 0.01) but lower ƩPUFA (P < 0.001), Ʃn-6 PUFA (P < 0.001) and Ʃn-3 PUFA (P < 0.05). Also, Eswatini MSC had higher n-6 : n-3 PUFA, PUFA : SFA (P = 0.001) and PUFA : MUFA (P < 0.05) ratios. Further, MSC products from both countries had similarly (P > 0.05) low atherogenicity and high desaturase indices. In conclusion, both country products are rich particularly in oleic acid and their incorporation into farm animal diets would increase content of the MUFA in ADFs and, consequently, improve health benefits to human consumers.

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Design and Fabrication of Manually Operated Seed Sowing Machine

Design and Fabrication of Manually Operated Seed Sowing Machine

Researchers have presented a better speed of operation and good Seed Sowing capacity for new advanced agriculture process which includes robotic based cultivation. An agriculture robotic system is used. They has used DC motor which has four wheels. An agricultural farm is cultivated by the Plow machine, depending on the crop considering particular rows specific columns. Ultrasonic sensor detects the blocks in the path with measure the distance between both robot and block. Also senses turning position of our vehicle at end of the each column. The seed block can be detected and solved using water pressure. This machine can be controlled on remotely. A sensor guided robot rover for digging, precise seed positioning and sowing has been proposed to reduce the human effort.

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Design and Fabrication of Manually Operated Seed Sowing Machine

Design and Fabrication of Manually Operated Seed Sowing Machine

Researchers have presented a better speed of operation and good Seed Sowing capacity for new advanced agriculture process which includes robotic based cultivation. An agriculture robotic system is used. They has used DC motor which has four wheels. An agricultural farm is cultivated by the Plow machine, depending on the crop considering particular rows specific columns. Ultrasonic sensor detects the blocks in the path with measure the distance between both robot and block. Also senses turning position of our vehicle at end of the each column. The seed block can be detected and solved using water pressure. This machine can be controlled on remotely. A sensor guided robot rover for digging, precise seed positioning and sowing has been proposed to reduce the human effort.

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Variation in Seed Characteristic among Anatolian Black Pine Populations

Variation in Seed Characteristic among Anatolian Black Pine Populations

Large differences were found among populations the characteristics as seen from Table 2 and Figures 1&2. The variation was also supported by results of analysis of variance. The results showed statistically significant difference (0.05>p) for the seed width (SWI), seed length (SL) and germination percentages (GP %) among populations (Table 3). This result was well in accordance with the results on seedling morphology in different forest tree species [4, 9, 10]. The results emphasized importance of selection of population to produce quality seeds.

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Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

increases of up to 3 °C by 2050 will further increase this loss of seed quality? To answer this question accurately will require substantially more research in order to determine the critical periods during seed development when seeds are sensitive to environ- mental stresses, and for temperature, how this interacts with the duration of exposure to elevated temperatures which are deleterious to seed quality. For example, Shinohara et al. (2006b) found that during the rapid seed filling stage in pea, a temperature of 30/25 °C for 2 days (120 °Ch at Tb = 25 °C) did not induce hollow heart, but 4 days induced hollow heart in one cultivar (see Table 2), and 6 days (360 °Ch) induced the condition in both cultivars used (0·43 in cvar Alderman and 0·23 in cvar Early Onward).

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A REVIEW PAPER ON VARIOUS SEED SOWING METERING DEVICES

A REVIEW PAPER ON VARIOUS SEED SOWING METERING DEVICES

Stationary opening type seed meters are simple devices, essentially consisting of a seed box, an agitator and a variable sized outlet orifice. The orifice size is usually adjusted by sliding a plate that increases or decreases the size of an opening or by rotating a plate to expose a different orifice size. The seeding rate is controlled by changing the size of the outlet orifice in the base of the seed box by rotating a plate with various hole sizes around its periphery until the appropriate hole size is positioned over the box outlet. While most stationary opening types of seed meter utilise a shaft-driven agitator, some rely on small diameter flexible spring wire that is attached to the top of the seed box then passes through the outlet orifice far enough to make contact with the ground. As the machine moves forward the spring wire jiggles’ (vibrates) and so provides a degree of agitation to the seed in the box. For uniformity in seeding rate, the outlet orifice has to be above some minimum size (in relation to seed size) and the seed lot must exhibit a high degree of ‘flowability’. If the seeds have a tendency to pack or otherwise cling together in the seed box, flow through the orifice may be irregular ,intermittent or cease completely. While stationary opening type seed meters are still extensively used on many broadcast type planters, they have largely been replaced in drill type planters. Nevertheless, because of their simplicity and low cost they are still used for specific applications. For example, they are still commonly used in vegetable and grain crop production in many small-scale, low- resource agricultural systems.

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Soil Compaction in Loblolly Pine Seed Orchards and the Impacts on Tree Health and Cone Yields.

Soil Compaction in Loblolly Pine Seed Orchards and the Impacts on Tree Health and Cone Yields.

To understand the impacts soil compaction from heavy equipment on tree health and cone yields in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L) seed orchards, soil strength was measured at five sample positions per tree for 303 trees in five seed orchards. Three samples were taken within the traffic row where heavy equipment use most often occurs, and two samples were taken between trees within tree rows. Soil compaction was characterized into eight soil measurements per tree, four measurements relating to a usable volume of soil calculated using a threshold of 2750 kPa, and four measurements relating to the mean soil strength of usable soil volume. For each tree in the study, cone yield per tree and crown density using UrbanCrowns software were measured to determine the impacts of soil compaction on tree health. Mixed models were used to determine significant soil compaction parameters in explaining variation in cone yields and crown density. When assessing crown density, orchard and crown volume were significant, but no soil compaction variables had a

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Modulations in seed micromorphology reveal signature of adaptive species diversification in Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)

Modulations in seed micromorphology reveal signature of adaptive species diversification in Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)

Previous observations have clarified that seed quantit- ative characters such as seed length, seed width, embryo length, embryo width, testa cell length and testa cell width were important to deduce phylogenetic relation- ship among species of the genus Dendrobium and was comparable to rDNA ITS-2 based phylogeney [10]. Such characters are largely governed by genomic changes or get modulated according to ecological adaptations. To explore the potential of latter, a novel comparative anal- ysis of seed micromorphology and ultrastructure was performed in twenty species of the genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) from well-defined altitude based phyto- geographical realms i.e. temperate, subtropical and trop- ical regions (Figure 2). The studied characters included seed volume, free air space, seed coat ornamentation of the periclinal walls and seed coat sculpturing those could easily be used to distinguish groups of species based on defined climatic regions. However, genetic relatedness derived with these characters among all studied species from different geographical regimes showed non-signi- ficant correlation (R 2 = 0.168) with the phylogeny de- duced earlier based on seed quantitative characters (Figure 4) [10]. Based on these results, therefore, it may be concluded that such traits are the direct signatures of adaptation according to climatic preferences rather than their selection during speciation.

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Effect of barley or rape seed cake as supplement to silage for high yielding organic dairy cows

Effect of barley or rape seed cake as supplement to silage for high yielding organic dairy cows

The efŽ ciency of converting dietary nitrogen (N) into milk nitrogen is, in the present experiment, at a low level of 22–23% compared to the average of 26% found for cows during winter feeding (Nielsen & Kristensen, 2001). According to Van Vuuren & Meijs (1987) the theoretical level of N efŽ ciency may be as high as 40% for rations optimized at amino acid level. The general low level of N efŽ ciency in the present experiment may be assigned to the high share of clover grass silage in the rations (Tamminga, 1996). However, the type of supplementation was also found to affect nitrogen utilization in dairy cows fed grass silage diets (Castillo et al., 2001) and cows fed the barley ration on farm A in the present experiment had a higher utilization of nitrogen (26%) than those in the other treatments. This may be explained by the low level of crude protein in the ration, but high efŽ ciency for converting feed to milk. However, the rape seed cake ration was expected to have a higher N efŽ ciency than the barley ration, as rape seed cake is found to have a much higher score for content of the Ž rst limiting amino acids – histidine, methionine, and lysine – than barley (Schingoethe & Blair, 1996; Vanhatalo et al., 1999).

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The influence of pre sowing seed treatment by biologically active compounds on soybean seed quality and yield
 

The influence of pre sowing seed treatment by biologically active compounds on soybean seed quality and yield  

From Figure 5 it is apparent that the seed harvested from seed stands established using biologically active substances showed higher laboratory germination than seed from untreated control. The obtained re- sults show the highest germination in case of COM and LEX treatments. The seed of these treatments gave favourable (statistically significant) results in terms of vigour, tested via the AA test. During the vegetation, these crop stands coped better with stress in the form of drought or high or low temperatures to ensure the formation of seeds with higher bio- logical value, which corresponds with the results of Procházka et al. (2013). The fact that it is necessary to positively influence the biological value of seeds already during its production was pointed out by Egli and TeKrony (1995).

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